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Full text of "The Old Dartmouth historical sketches"

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REYNOLDS H1STORICAL 
GENEALOGY COLLECTION 



ALLEN COUNTY PUBLIC LIBRARY 



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OLD DARTMOUTH 



HISTORICAL SKETCHES 

No. 31 ' ; / 



Being the proceedings of the Thirty-first Meeting of the Old 
Dartmouth Historical Society, held in their building, Water 
Street, New Bedford, Massachusetts, on December 29, 1910. 



ARTHUR HATHAWAY AND HIS IMMEDIATE 
DESCENDANTS By Caroline W. Hathaway 



[Note.— The "Old Dartmouth Historical Sketches " will be published by the 
Society quarterly and may be purchased for ten cents each on application to the 
Secretary and also at Hutchinson's Book Store.] 



\n 







1796538 



PROCEEDINGS 



OF THE 



THIRTY-FIRST MEETING 



OF THE 



Old Dartmouth Historical Society 



IN THEIR building 

WATER STREET, NEW BEDFORD 

MASSACHUSETTS 



DECEMBER 29, 1910 



President Edmund Wood addressed 
t lie members concerning a recent pub- 
lication by Anna and Walton Ricket- 
son Daniel Ricketson will always be 

"A book has been published this 
month in New Redford which should 
receive honorable mention at the 
meeting of this society, 'Daniel Ric- 
ketson — Autobiographic and Miscel- 
laneous.' This historical work has 
been compiled and edited by two of 
our members, Anna and Walton 
Ricketson, authors of 'Daniel Ricket- 
son and His Friends,' and 'New Bed- 
ford of the Past.' The book is note- 
worthy because it supplies in perma- 
nent form additional material from 
tne pen of Old Dartmouth's chief his- 
torian. 

"Daniel Ricketson will always be 
a name cherished by this historical 
society", because he was perhaps the 
very iirst to realize that his own timo 
was full of unrecorded treasures of 



biographical knowledge, historical 
facts, and family traditions, which 
were in great danger of being lose 
to the future. 

He does not seem to have had in 
mind the writing of a complete his- 
tory of this township, but rather, a» 
he himself states, the assembling or 
this vast treasure of fugitive local 
fact and tradition, — the recording of 
material of inestimable value for the 
use of future historians and anti- 
quarians. 

As a matter of fact he did group 
them into a satisfactory form, and 
published a work which was for a 
generation our only history. 

The greatest services that the es- 
tablishment of this society performed 
in this community was to arouse our 
inhabitants to a realization of the 
value of the relics of the past which 
still surrounded us, and the records 
which, unappreciated and unexamined 



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in many households, were in danger 
of oblivion. Jt formed a nucleus for 
collection, and a devoted working 
force for study and research. 

Hut Incidentally this society per- 
formed a noteworthy service in Its 
earliest existence. It brought Daniel 
Ricketson into his own. It awakened 
many to see for the first time the reai 
value of the material he had gath- 
ered and recorded, and to confess in 
public manner the debt that this gen- 
eration owed to his sagacious fore- 
sight and loving labor 

It bad been the fashion for many 
years to magnify the occasional er- 
rors in statement and to dwell upon 
the desultory and unskilful form In 
which he had left his researches. But 
with the formation of this society 
came a fuller realization of what he 
had really accomplished. It is im- 
possible now to read the earliest pro- 
ceedings of this society as well as the 
earlier exercises connected with the 
Bartholomew Gosnold memorial ai 
Cuttyhunk, without acknowledging 
that our historian, Daniel Ricketson, 
is of blessed memory, and one whom 
tli is society will always delight to 
honor. 

The work Which has just been 
published by his daughter and son, 
Anna and Walton Ricketson. contains 
some historical material but has Its 
chief value in I be glimpses which ir 
reveals to us of the man himself, <>r 
his ambition, of his devoted ness, of 
his lofty ideals, and of his full real- 
ization of his own limitations and 
shortcomings. He associated inti- 
mately with some of the largest 
minds in the land. Pie corresponded 
and exchanged literary efforts witn 
some of our greatest thinkers and 
most successful writers. His conver- 
sation, his fund of close observations 
of nature, and his intellectual hospi- 
tality attracted them and made his 
home quite a centre for high think- 
ing and philosophical speculation. His 
own literary work was placed in an 
almost unfair competition, for here 
it was put exactly alongside of that or 
Emerson and Thoreau and Alcott and 
Curtis and Whittier. 

The perusal of the delightful let- 
ters in this volume emphasizes again 
the extraordinary change which is now 
often commented on in the popular 
education of adults. Now it is large- 
ly accomplished through the eye — the 
reading of the daily newspapers — and 
the play, and in the few and much 
adulterated kernels of information 
which may occasionally be found in 
thu modern vaudeville. 

A generation raid a half ago this 
hall would have been crowded to hear 
the essayist of the evening. It was 
the era of the Lyceum Bureau. Our 
largest halls were filled, without the 



attractions of orchestras and stereopti- 
con slides, to hear the leaders j! 
thought and action in that day, dis- 
course on philosophy and on the prob- 
lems involved in current events. 

It seems to us now, as we look 
back, that 'there were giants in those 
days.' Then was the climax of popu- 
lar oratory when vast audiences sat 
thrilled by the skill of the speaker, 
and were swayed as a mass by a mag- 
netic address. 

Xew Bedford heard the best that 
appeared on the lecture platform, and 
Daniel Ricketson entertained some of 
the best. 

Then were tin- days of one-night 
stands, as the theatre managers would 
now call it. A popular speaker would 
swing around the circle, with a night 
in New Bedford and then a night in 
Boston, with perhaps a night or two 
intervening. 

Emerson and Thoreau and George 
William Curtis were favorites here, 
and year after year they, and many 
others, sojourned before or after the 
lecture with Daniel Ricketson at his 
delightful home at Brooklawn on 
Acushnet avenue. Here during the 
late evening, around the blazing fire 
in the rustic study called 'The Shanty." 
sat our hospitable fellow citizen and 
his distinguished guest, and discoursed 
of nature and poetry and art, and 
brought in with that old-time appro- 
priateness those resounding quotations 
from the poets, both Latin and Eng- 
lish. 

The book reveals a beautiful pic- 
ture of an unusual life." 



President Wood stated that a very 

praiseworthy and popular suggestion 
of our secretary has developed into 
quite a success It was that brass 

tablets lie placed in the panels of our 
doorways, to commemorate the names 
of the earliest settlers and that these 
panels be provided by some one of 
their descendants who is a member of 
the society. 

President Wood read the inscrip- 
tions upon the new tablets, as fol- 
lows: 

ARTHUR HATHAWAY, 

Magistrate. 
DIED— 1711. 
From a Descendant — Thomas S. Hath- 
away. 



JOHN RUSSELL, 

First Deputy 

from Dartmouth. 

1G0S — 1694-5. 

From a Descendant — Harry B. Russell. 

HUGH MOSHER, 

First Pastor 

of the 

First Baptist Church 

in old Dartmouth. 

From a Descendant — Frank A. Mosher. 



President Wood said that it had 
also been suggested that the society 
Should in the same manner record 
the names of citizens distinguished in 
the less remote history of the city, 
and that tablets to their mpmory 
might he placed in the panels of the 
archway in the meeting room. He 
added that one such tablet had al- 
ready been placed. The tablet is in- 
scribed as follows: 



Tn Momorv of 

WILLIAM CUSHING WHITRIDGE, 

"The Beloved i J iiysi<ian. M . 

Born in Tiverton, Rhode Island, 

NOV. 25, 1784. 

Died in New Bedford. Mass., 

DEC. 28, isr.7. 

From His Grand-daughter 

Bertha Whltridge Smith. 



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MISS CAROLINE W. HATHAWAY 



Arthur Hathaway and His Immediate 
Descendants 



BY 



CAROLINE W. HATHAWAY 



In searching for reliable informa- 
tion of the first settlers of Dartmouth, 
nearly three hundred years ago. many 
items of interest and value are 
brought to light, giving an insight into 
their aims and accomplishments. As 
time is counted, it is only a few years 
since the forefathers laid the founda- 
tion for the physical and social life 
of tli is territory. Among the number 
was Arthur Hathaway. 

The name of Hathaway is local in 
Wales, and is derived from Port 
Heathway. It must be local as well 
in Ciloucestershire and Wiltshire, for 
in the latter at one time there were 
eighteen Tlathaways to every ten 
thousand inhabitants. The counties 
of Wales that border on the River 
Severn, are as much English as those 
on the opposite side, in the United 
Kingdom. Although it has not been 
possible to trace the subject of this 
article back to either of the above' lo- 
calities, it is fair to suppose that he 
or his might have emigrated from 
thereabouts. In Hallens London City 
Church Registers, it is recorded that 
'•Richard Hathaway of St. Lawrence, 
Old Jewry, gent, and Anne (Amy) 
Moddox, spinster of the City of Lon- 
don were married at St. Bartholomew 
Exeharfge Nov. 20, 1582 B., and an- 
other reads, London, St. Botolph, 
Bishopsgate, 16 52. Thomas Hatha wax- 
is married to Eliabeth Harper." Ar- 
thur Hathaway named his first son 
John, and his second son Thomas, and 
his son John named one of his sons 
Richard, he, Arthur might or might 
not have come from London. The rec- 
ords reveal a variety of spelling, 
the most common forms are Hatha- 
way, Hatheway, Hathway, Hada- 
way, Hauthaway; they probably 
belong to the same original 
family, and they should be spelled 
one way. The Hathaways of Dart- 
mouth trace their ancestry back to 
Arthur, who married Sarah, daughter 
of John Cooke. The tradition is, that 



the Hathaways in personal appear- 
ance were tall, loosely built, walked 
with a swinging motion and were of 
florid complexion, fair hair and blue 
eyes. This type appears in almost 
every generation. 

There is no detailed documentary 
information before 1652, thereby 
much confusion exists. The .sear of 
1651, one Arthur Hathaway was re- 
ported as owning in lot 26 in Punck- 
a-teest, now Tiverton. In 1643 a resi- 
dent of Marshfield of the same name 
was capable of bearing arms, and was 
at town meeting at Plymouth in 1646 
The Colonial Records state that Ar- 
thur Hathaway had a share in lands 
ii that part of Plymouth called 
Kingston. The records do not settle 
the question of whether these individ- 
uals were one person. Elisha C. Leon- 
ard thought they were, while some in- 
vestigators assert that there were two 
Arthurs, father and son. Then one 
John Hathaway, Jr.. kept an ordinary 
at Freetown, presumably at Assonet. 
John Hathaway at Barnstable, was 
lined in 1663 for breach of peace, and 
in 166S for drunkenness. It was 

thought at one time that all of these 
events related to the same John, but 
this is now doubted; whether either 
John was a relative of Arthur is a 
question. John D. Baldwin, a schol- 
arly gentleman residing in Worcester, 
and the only writer who makes the 
statement, wrote to the Historical and 
Genealogical Register: "I have found 
by investigation that John and Arthur 
Hathaway, (brothers probably) came 
to America in 163 8 from one of the 
Welsh counties of Great Britain. John 
was in Barnstable, but afterward set- 
tled in that part of Taunton now 
Berkley, where he owned land in 
1638. Arthur settled in Plymouth and 
his son married Sarah Cooke." Very 
little weight can be given to this state- 
ment as no authority is given. Gen. 
E. W. Peiree wrote to the same regis- 
ter that he had discovered a record 
whi6h proved that the Taunton John 



Hathaway was not the same Individ- 
ual who was in Barnstable. Owing to 
the absence of documentary informa- 
tion, it will not now be possible to 
state when and where Arthur Hath- 
away was born; who were his parents 
and relatives; and when he came to 
Plymouth colony. This narrative must 
commence with his marriage to the 
daughter of John Cooke. November 
20, 1052. the same year that the col- 
ony granted the territory on Buzzards 
bay to the thirty-six purchasers of 
whom Cooke was one. In the first 
census of New Bedford town in 1790. 
there were thirty-eight male Hatha- 
ways. During the past century there 
may have been a few Hathaway fam- 
ilies that became residents of New 
Bedford who belonged to the Taunton 
or Barnstable branches. But so far 
as known, all who resided within the 
limits of Old Dartmouth before 1800. 
were descendants of Arthur Hatha- 
way. By marriage he was connected 
with important families of Blymouth 
colony. John Cooke at the age of ten 
years came in the Mayflower with his 
father Francis, and he married Sarah 
Warren, daughter of Richard, who al- 
so came in the Mayflower, and were 
always prominent at Plymouth. John 
Cooke held Anabaptist views, and was 
not in accord with the Pilgrim church, 
and it is suggested that they were 
entirely willing he should remove his 
home to Buzzards bay. How soon af- 
ter the grant of Cushena, any of the 
purchasers removed to Buzzards bay 
has not been determined, but not 
more than seven made their home in 
Dartmouth. 

The name was applied to this region 
in a tax levy as early as 1632, al- 
though the town of Dartmouth was 
not constituted until 16(i4. But as 
early as 1660 Arthur Hathaway and 
"Segeant" Shaw were residing here, 
because an order was given to Cap- 
tain Willet to collect their taxes. In 
lOSt; Hathaway was a member of the 
grand jury, but probably not from 
an unincorporated place like Cushena 
He did not leave Plymouth until after 
Feb. 28. 1655. and so must have taken 
up his abode at Dartmouth between 
16 5 5 and 1660. 

Robert Hicks was one of the "old 
comers" to whom Dartmouth was 
granted, but by some mistake his 
name was omitted and the name or 
his son, Samuel, was substituted. 
When Robert died his heirs brought a 
petition to have this error rectified. 
and it was proposed that Samuel 
should consider the Dartmouth lands 
as belonging to his father and take 
only bis share therein, but he re- 
fused, so in 1662 the matter was sub- 
mitted to Samuel Jenny, James Shaw, 
and Arthur Hathaway to decide his 



proportion. The result has not been 
preserved. Samuel it appears retained 
possession of the Dartmouth lands. 
Arthur Hathaway purchased from 
Samuel Cuthbert in 1661, one-half 
share of land which was one-sixty- 
eighth of the entire territory of Dart- 
mouth. This gave him a standing as 
a proprietor independent of his wife's 
father. The lack of records of this 
period seriously impair all investiga- 
tion. There was a book kept by the 
land owners, which was burned in the 
house of Thomas Hathaway in 1725. 
Possibly it contained transactions or 
the town as a separate corporation. 
but the existing records of the town 
do not begin until 1673. After annual 
elections there were sent to Plvmouth 
a list of the officials chosen at town 
meetings. Dartmouth chose a con- 
stable in 1664. but no selectmen are 
reported until 1667 and then Arthur 
Hathaway was one of the board. 

The duties of a constable at that 
time were manifold and must have 
been taxing. In 163 3 it was found 
necessary to appoint a constable, and 
Joshua Pratt was chosen for Ply- 
mouth. Previous to that time Cap- 
tain Miles Standish had performed the 
duties which belonged to that office 
by virtue of his captaincy. Until 163S. 
the constable for Plymouth was mes- 
senger of the court, the prototype of 
the sergeant at arms of the Massa- 
chusetts legislature. His duty was to 
attend general court and court of 
assistants, to act as keeper of the 
jail, to execute punishment, to give 
warnings to such marriages as shall 
be approved by authority, to seal 
weights and measures and to measure 
out such land as shall be ordered by 
the governor or government. During 
the first twenty years after the town 
was established, Arthur Hathaway was 
eight terms "celect"-man. In 1674 
with Henry Tucker and Peleg Tripp 
he was empowered to lay out even 
homestead. In 1671 he was appointed 
a magistrate. 

The official career of Arthur Hatha- 
way ends abruptly in 1684 and with 
the exception of two deeds, and a 
will he disappears from all recorded 
history. Twelve years later in 166 he 
decided to divide his lands. He owned 
on the east side of the Acushnet river, 
north of Dahl's corner. The south 
half he gave to his son, Jonathan, and 
the north to his son Thomas. The 
deeds were executed later and were 
not recorded until several years later, 
which would indicate that he was not 
ready to complete the transfer when 
it was first arranged. This was his 
farm where he lived. It included 

Captain Franklyn Howland's. and the 
Laura Keene farm, and land north 
and south. Some lands also included, 



arc described as being near the tract 
which John Howard sold to James 
Samson, near Obshokqutut, the Indian 
name for Fort Phoenix. These deeds 
are executed by bis written signature. 
Nothing further appears concerning 
Arthur Hathaway until the probate of 
bis will, which was dated February, 
1709-10, and presented to the court 
February, 17,10-11. It was executed 
by bi.s mark-. The witnesses were John 
Cannon, Jr., Isaac llowland and Jona- 
than Delano. Jt states that he "was 
very weak of body but of perfect mind 
and memory." He gave to his wife 
Sarah the income of certain estate 
and a legacy of five shilling to each 
of his children: Thomas, Jonathan, 
Mary Hammond. Lydia Sisson. and 
Hannah Cadman. His real estate con- 
sisting of a half share of land in 
Dartmouth, he devised to his son 
John, whom he selected as executor. 
The sudden termination of his busi- 
ness and official career presents a cu- 
rious problem that defies explanation. 
His name does not appear even as a 
witness to any will or deed during 
that long period; His death probably 
took place within a month before the 
probate of his will. The inventory of 
his estate contained the following- 
One-half share of land. £200. 
Feather beds and bedding, £4 0. 
A Bible and other books, £5. 
Table linen, woolen, yarn and flax, 
:i iron pots, 2 iron kettles. 1 brass 
kettle, 2 brass skillets, a warming pan, 
barel of cider, 30 pounds of tobacco. 
The only debt due from his estate 
was a bill of Dr. James Tallman for 
£4 4s. 

There is no tradition nor record of 
where his house stood or his home- 
stead; it was probably not much, if 
any, east of the main road extending 
to Acushnet. The early settlers lo- 
cated their houses within easy access 
to the rivers where they could escape 
from the Indians. According to the 
will of Arthur Hathaway be left three 
sons and three daughters. 

John — Married (1) Joanna Pope, 
daughter of Thomas and Sarah Jen- 
ney Pope, 1732; (2) Patience. 

Thomas- — Married Hepzibeth, daugh- 
ter of Nathaniel and Mary Starbuck, 
of Nantucket, 1748. 

Jonathan — Married Susannah Pope, 
daughter of Captain Seth Pope. 

Mary — Married Samuel Hammond, 
son of Benjamin Hammond. 

Lydia — Married James Sisson. son 
of Richard Sisson. 

Hannah — Married George Cadman, 
son of William Cadman. 

About 1GS4 the Hammond family 
lived in that section of Rochester now 
Mattapoisett. and they owned expen- 
sive tracts near the Dartmouth line 



and on Mattapoisett Neck. Benjamin 
Hammond was a contemporary and 
associate surveyor with Benjamin 
('rarif in the work' in Dartmouth. The 
Sissons came to Dartmouth from 
Portsmouth. It. J. Richard owned 
iand in Dartmouth, but probably 
never lived there and his interests 
came into the possession of his son 
James. His homestead was at the 
Head of Westport, on the south side 
of the road and west side of the river, 
and comprised the region from the 
river west to the Central Village road, 
and half a mile down the river. His 
house was at the corner near the 
bridge where he kept a public-house, 
and the place was known as 
"Sisson's.'.' Ilerf were held meetings 
of the proprietors, and here for over 
one hundred an 1 fifty years was a 
tavern. 

Hannah Hathaway married George 
Cadman. son of Honorable William 
Cadman. of Portsmouth, R. 1. George 
Cadman was one of the leading men 
of Dartmouth. He was selectman. 

treasurer and overseer of the poor. 
His name appears as a witness to most 
of the wills of his day. and he may 
have written them. Cadman's Neck 
was owned by his brother Richard. 

George ('adman's farm was very 
long, extending from the east branch 
of the Westport river northwest to 
Brownell's corner, ft lay between two 
brooks, one or which is two miles 
south of the Head and is still called 
('adman's brook. 

He died in 1718. leaving only one 
child, a daughter, Elizabeth, who mar- 
ried William White. Some part of his 
farm near the river was owned in re- 
cent years by the White descendants. 
While no information fixes the loca- 
tion of George Cadman's house, there 
is reason to suppose that it was near 
the river, on the south side of Cad- 
man's brook, en the farm recently 
owned by Stephen Kirby, and which 
for over a century was owned by the 
White family. 

The three sons of Arthur were far- 
mers, and do not appear to have 
sought public life. John and Thomas 
served one year each as constable, and 
John was once elected 'Tythingman." 
Thomas Hathaway was selectman 
for two years, and was clerk of the 
proprietors when his house was burn- 
ed down and with it the land records 
This comprised the whole of their offi- 
cial career. In addition to the landed 
interests received from their father. 
they purchased largely from outside 
owners, and each family came into 
possession of several large farms. By 
marriage they became connected with 
several well known families in this 
section of the province. 



John, the oldest son. married Jo- 
hanna Pope, daughter of Thomas 
Pope, and Sarah "Jenne." both well- 
known families in Plymouth. (A well 
preserved Pope eradle of 1648 is ex- 
hibited in this building.) His second 
wife was Patience. 

The first wife had six children, and 
the second ten, and of these, ten were 
sons. 

Thomas Hathaway married Ilepzi- 
beth Starbuek, daughter of Nathaniel. . 
of Nantucket, and Mary Starbuek, 
whose father was Tristram Coffin. 
This was the "Great Mary Starbuek," 
the founder of the Society of Friends 
at Nantucket. They had nine children, 
of whom four were sons. 

1G71 Jonathan Hathaway married 
Susannah Pope, daughter of Captain 
Seth Pope, one of the leading men in 
Dartmouth, who was a brother of 
John Hathaway's wife. Johanna Pope. 
In this family there were ten children. 
of whom six were sons. From these 
three families there were twenty sons 
to perpetuate the name. 

John Hathaway — Married (1st) Jo- 
anna Pope, daughter Thos. and Sarah 
(Carey) Pope. 

Children. 

Sarah — Married John Cadman. 

Joanna — Married Elkanah Black- 
well. 

John — Married Alice Launders. 

Arthur — Married (2) Maria Luce. 

Hannah — Married Boomer. 

Mary — -Married Douglass. 

John Hathaway (married 2nd) Pa- 
tinee. 

Children. 

Jonathan — Married Abagail Nye. 

Richard — Married Deborah Doty. 

Thomas. 

Hunhewell — Married Mary . 

Abialson: — Married Mary Taber. 

Elizabeth. 

Patience — Married Reuben Peck- 
ham. 

Benjamin — Married Elizabeth Rich- 
mond, Mary Hix. 

James — Married Mary . 

Ebenezer — Married Ruth Hatch. 



Thomas Hathaway married Hepzi- 
beth Starbuek, daughter of Nathaniel 
and Mary (Coffin) Starbuek of Nan- 
tucket. 

Children. 

Antipas — Married Patience Church. 
Apphia — Married Adam Mott. 
Elizabeth — Married John Clark. 
Mary — Married Thomas Kempton. 
Thomas — Married Lois Taber. 

Nathaniel — Married . 

Ilepzibeth — Married Samuel Wing. 
Jethro — Married Hannah West. 
lVrnel — Married . 



Jonathan Hathaway married Susan- 
na Pope, daughter of Seth Pope. 

Children. 

Elizabeth. 

Abigail — Married Seth Spooner. 
Gamaliel — Married Hannah Hill- 
man. 

Hannah. 

Seth — Married Hannah Willis 

Deborah — Married Jireh Swift. 

Jonathan — Married Bridget Delano. 

Silas. 

Elnathan — Married Esther Spooner. 

Paul — Married Ann . 

The three brothers above mentioned 
owned large sections of the ancient 
town. 

Jonathan's Hathaway's south line 
was at Dahl's corner, where the line 
between Fairhaven and Acushnet 
crosses the 1 road. It extended north 
about one thousand feet, and from 
the river east over one mile, and 
was hounded on the north by the 
Laura Keene and Franklyn Howland 
farms. Thomas Hathaway had the 
estate next north, in width half a 
mile north and south, and extended 
back from the river over two miles, 
and comprising six hundred acres. 
Both had land on Sconticut Neck. 

Jonathan Hathuway had large 
tracts in the north part of Long Plain 
village, extending from Quaker Lane, 
north over half a nrile, and the same 
distance east of the main road toward 
Rochester, and to the westward, across 
the river nearly to the Keene road. 

John Hathaway's land, chiefly on 
the west side of the Acushnet river, 
was in several tracts, and in area was 
about as extensive as that of his 
brother Thomas. His homestead ex- 
tended from the river out to Mt. 
Pleasant street, and began at a 
point 330 feet south of Davis street at 
the north line of the Coffin farm, and 
extended north as far as Brooklawn 
park. On the water front of this farm 
are located today the Whitman. Man- 
omet, Nontjuitt and Nashawena mills. 
In the northeast corner on the river 
was a landing place as early as 1730, 
and here John McPherson started the 
village of Belleville in 1774. 

John Hathaway had another tract 
of 200 acres on the south side of Hath- 
away road, and extending west from 
Shawniut avenue to the ledge. On 
Shawmut its frontage is over half a 
mile. On the north side of the Tar- 
kiln Hill road were large tracts ex- 
tending down from the hill west be- 
yond the railroad, and east about the 
same distance. The house that he 
gave his son Arthur stands there to- 
day, and is still occupied. Arthur- 
early moved to Rochester, and owned 
a large tract there. John also owned 



10 




THE THOMAS HATHAWAY HOUS1 
Built About 1725. 



11 




THE HATHA WAY-CANNON HOUSE. 
Built about 1720. 
Near Tarkiln I [ill. 



12 



a large tract to the south of Sassa- 
quin pond, the cast part of which be- 
came the farm <>f Jonathan Tobey. 

The location of the houses of Thom- 
as and Jonathan Hathaway can be de- 
termined, but not in the ease, of John. 
The location of the Belleville cemetery 
may indicate that John Hathaway's 
house was on the river front, and not 
far distant. In 1704 Acushnet avenue 
was laid out in its present location, 
and likely since then the farm house 
was on the road. There is neither 
record or tradition where it stood, m 
1730 lie had a lane running east from 
Acushnet avenue about 300 yards to- 
ward Belleville. Mis house may have 
been at its end. 

When the road from Dahl's corner 
on the line between Acushnet and 
Fairhaven was laid out southerly to 
Oxford, it began at the corner of Su- 
sannah Hathaway's orchard. This 
was on the east side of the road at 
the north side of the Fork. If the 
house of Jonathan, her husband, stood 
nearby, as might reasonably be sup- 
posed, its location is then approxi- 
mately fixed. The Jonathan Hathaway 
farm was narrow and very long. Ile- 
becca Hathaway, one of his descend- 
ants who died in 1S88, owned and oc- 
cupied a part of this farm. 

Xext north of the Captain Franklyn 
1 lowland place is a solid two-story 
house, centre chimney, end to the 
road, and fronting south. It is known 
as the Stephen Hathaway house, from 
tlic fart that he was owner, and occu- 
pant for forty-six years from 17'J2 to 
1838. The house was built in 1725 
by Thomas Hathaway, whose former 
dwelling burned in 1725, and in it all 
the records of the land-owners of 
whom he was clerk. There he built 
the present house. It is one of the 
finest colonial houses in Old Dart- 
mouth. The inhabitants at Acushnet 
in 1711 concluded to avail themselves 
of local water-power instead of de- 
pending on tiie first enterprise estab- 
lished at Smith's Mills; so that an as- 
soeiation was formed composed of the 
three Hathaway brothers, together 
with Seth Pope and Thomas Taber. 
and they obtained from the proprie- 
tors a grant of land on the north side 
of the road at the Head of the Acush- 
net. and on each side of the river. 
Here they built after 1711 a grist mill, 
and a saw mill. The Hathaways, 
Thomas and John, after 15 years, con- 
veyed their share to Nathaniel Shep- 
ard (in 1726). These mills were op- 
erated on both sides of the river un- 
til within a half a century, when those 
on the east side were demolished. The 
saw mill on the west side is still 
standing. 

Titles were often added to names in 
deeds to identify the social standing 



of the individual. In 1728 John and 
Jonathan were known as yeomen. 
John signed with his mark, while 
Thomas and Jonathan wrote their 
names. Thomas was described first 
as a yeoman, and latterly as "gen- 
tleman." 

There is no tradition that either 

was entitled to adopt a coat of 

a r ms. From works on heraldry it ap- 
peals that there was a Hathaway fam- 
ily in Devonshire and in Gloucester- 
shire that received grants of arms 
widely different in design. Stated in 
popular language, one comprised 
three silver birds on a black back- 
ground, and the other a silver bugle 
horn on a black ground, while the 
crest is a demi-lion rampant with a 
tleur-de-lys, in the dexter (right) paw- 
in red. on a black ground. "The lion 
as an armorial device was used almost 
exclusively before the 13th century, 
intended to be emblematical of their 
bearer, and signified, to an eminant 
degree, strength, courage and gener- 
osity." 

The church affiliations of these peo- 
ple are difficult to state as there was 
no religious organization in Dartmoutn 
until 1699. Arthur Hathaway must 
have been a member cf the Colonial 
church at Plymouth or Duxbury. Ac- 
cording to the tradition concerning 
John Cooke, it might be inferred that 
he was disposed toward a liberal 
adaptation of the Plymouth theology 
to changed conditions at Dartmoutn 
where numerous families from Ports- 
mouth were inclined toward the Bap- 
tists and Quakers. Both of these sects 
had religious gatherings in Dartmouth 
as early as 1680, and quite likely tin- 
Plymouth emigrants on the east side 
of the Acushnet river, including the 
families of Samson, Spooner, Jenny, 
Pope. Cooke, Hathaway, Shaw and 
Palmer, may also have had some small 
house congregation. The meeting of 
Quakers was organized in 1699. and 
the First Congregational church at 
Acushnet was formed in 1708. Arthur 
Hathaway left nothing to show IP = 
choice. His name does not appear in 
relation to any Quaker activities, <=o 
probably he remained connected with 
the first church. Without question the 
Hammonds of Rochester were stauncii 
members of the Pilgrim church. The 
Cadmans and Sissons probably were 
associated with the Quakers. 

In 1708 came the first clash be- 
tween the Presbyterians and thf> 
Quakers, which resulted in the great 
struggle in 1723 when the English 
king, George I. overruled the general 
ccurt of Massachusetts and declared 
the Quakers entitled to freedom from 
contributing toward the maintenance 
of Congregational churches and min- 



13 



Isters. At the opening of the contest, 
which was urged chiefly in Dart- 
mouth* a petition signed by eighty-siv 
men who were Quakers and Baptists, 
was sent to the general court protest- 
ing against the church tax.' This was 
signed by John and Thomas Hatha- 
way. The position of Thomas can be 
easily understood, because his wife be- 
longed to the leading Quaker family 
of Nantucket. John's first wife was 
a sister of Captain Seth Pope, who 
was a vigorous Puritan. The second 
wife hasn't yet been identified, but 
the second marriage may have led to 
his favor lor the Quakers. 

In 173G the men connected with the 
Congregational church at Acushnet 
agreed to contribute one hundred and 
three pounds for the minister. It in- 
cluded the names of Jonathan Hatha- 
way, senior, and junior. As the father 
had married Captain Seth Pope's 
daughter this church relation is ex- 
plained. According to the usage of 
that day, women seldom owned real 
estate. In their wills the daughters 
were given money or personal chat- 
tels, but the houses and lands were 
given to the sons. Without attempting 
to describe in detail the descent of 
the extensive landed interests of the 
three Hathaway brothers, a brief 
statement will be given indicating the 
location of the homesteads of the 
nineteen grandsons of Arthur Hatha- 
way. Thomas had three sons; to Anti- 
pas he gave the north third of his 
homestead, part of which was recent- 
ly owned by George F. Lewis, and the 
house which he built was burned 
down last spring. The middle section 
he gave to Jethro, and this was the 
Stephen Hathaway farm in later 
years; while Thomas received the 
south third, which included the Laura 
Keene and Captain Franklin How land 
farms. 

Jonathan Hathaway had six sons. 
In the division of his estate Gamaliel 
received the narrow farm north of 
Dahl's corner; Paul received a house 
lot in Fairhaven village between 
Middle and Water streets, and the 
others, Seth, Jonathan, Silas, and El- 
nathan, received tracts in the north 
part of Long Plain. John Hathaway 
hail ten sons. In 1730 he conveyed 
to each a small lot of one acre at 
Belleville, which was the first attempt 
to establish a village on the west side 
of the Acushnet, south of its head. 
They each had a farm. Jonathan re- 
ceived the north two-thirds of the 
homestead, including the Belleville 
and Nash farm. The south third of 
his homestead he gave to his son 
John, and this included the Peter 
Butler, Tucker and Nye farms. Arthui 
received the farm on the north side 



Of the road, and on the east side of 
Tarklin Hill, while the farm on the 
west side- of the hill, extending wesc 
beyond the railroad, was given to 
Ebenezer. 

Abiah had the north and south 
quarters of the farm on the south side 
of the Hathaway road, and west of 
Shawmut avenue, and Richard re- 
ceived the central part, comprising 
one-half. The latter is now owned 
by C. T. W. Gilford. 

The farm on the south side of Sasa- 
cowan pond, now* called Sassaquin. 
went to Benjamin and James, and in 
the division James received the last 
hall, which later was sold to Jonathan 
Tobey, and in recent years owned by 
Morton and others. 

The burial places in Dartmouth be- 
fore 1 7 (J have been obliterated be- 
yond identification. The Quakers 
started at Apponegansett that year, 
and had their yard near the meet- 
ing-house. The Presbyterians built 
their church at the Head of Acushnet. 
1712, and since that date the church- 
yard has been a cemetery. Except in 
this burial place very few gravestones 
before 1800 are known to exist. The 
Quakers excluded them from all 1 :r- 
ial places before 1 S ;"j U. 

Tradition states that John Cooke 
was buried near the shore at Ox- 
lord In his will he gave the "land 
near the burial place to Arthur Hatn- 
away." The line of demarcation be- 
tween different religious sects in 
Dartmouth appears to have been rec- 
ognized even to the grave. In the 
churchyard at Acushnet which John 
Jenney gave, "to the people of God 
called Presbyterians," none but mem- 
bers of the church were admitted — 
Jonathan Hathaway was loyal to this 
organization, was buried here, and 
near the stone that marks his grave 
are those- of hi relatives and friends 
who stood steadfast to the Pilgrim 
church, but no gravestone appears at 
this place referring to Thomas or 
John Hathaway. The feeling had run 
too deep in the great controversy be- 
tween the Quakers, and Presbyterians, 
and these two brothers had allied 
themselves with the Society of 
Friends. Although a family of abun- 
dant means, there is no information 
as to the location of the burial lot 
of Thomas Hathaway. Having adopt- 
ed the stern rule of the Quakers, they 
rest in unknown graves. 

On a hill overlooking the Acushnet 
river at Belleville is an ancient bury- 
ing ground. All that marks the 
graves are rows of rough stones 
taken from neighboring fields. Not 
a name or a date designates what 
person ; found here a last resting place, 
suggesting the influence of the Qua!;- 



14 

er dominion that hold control of Dart- of Jethro Hathaway, u was called 

mouth for nearly two centuries. Here in the deed "Ye old Buring Point/' 

was the spot selected by John Hath- and is located on th<- river northwest 

away for the burial place of his fam- of the Laura Keerie farm' This may 

ily. have been the family burying ground 

In 1732 Antipas Hathaway con- of Arthur and Thomas Hathaway. 
veyed to Jethro Hathaway, a tract of The limits of this work will not il- 

eight acres on the Acushnet river, the low tracing further the career of this 

most westerly part of the homestead Hathaway family. Including those of 

of Thomas Hathaway, hounded on the other names, the descendants of Ar- 

east by the creek up to Howards thur Hathaway are legion, from th»> 

brook, on the south by the property Atlantic to the Pacific. 



15 



IIKKAIiDKY. 



"One of the first steps of civilization 
is distinction of ranks. Heraldry has 
been found serviceable as a means of 
marking that distinction. Symbols or 
devices of honor by all nations, 
from the earliest ages, to dis- 
tinguish the noble from the in- 
ferior. Heraldry as an art nourished 
chiefly under the feudal system. It is 
agreed by most antiquaries that the 
hereditary use of arms to distinguish 
families did not commence until the 
year 1230. The introduction of 
Heraldry in England is referred to 



the Crusades. Coats of arms are 
thought to be clearly referrable to the 
tournaments. A. 1). fl90, the arms 
were on small escutcheons, worn at 
the belt. Every one engaged in the 
Holy Wars bad the form of the cross 
sewed or embroidered on the right 
sleeve of his surcoat, whence the ex- 
peditions received the appellation of 
Crusades. After the Norman conquest, 
heraldry made rapid progress in 
England, and the high esteem in 
which it was held is attested by its 
union with other arts, especially 
painting and sculpture. Heraldry is 
thus connected with the lasting monu- 
ments of architecture." 







OLD DARTMOUTH 

HISTORICAL SKETCHES 

No. 32 



Being the proceedings of the Eighth Annual Meeting of the 
Old Dartmouth Historical Society, held in their building, 
Water Street, New Bedford, Massachusetts, on March 31, 1911. 



REPORT OF THE DIRECTORS William A. Wing 

REPORT OF THE TREASURER William A. Mack.e 

REPORT OF THE MUSEUM SECTION Annie Seabury Wood 

REPORT OF THE HISTORICAL RESEARCH 

SECTION Henry B. Worth 

REPORT OF THE EDUCATION SECTION Elizabeth Watson 

REPORT OF THE PUBLICATION SECTION 

William A. Wing 

REPORT OF THE PHOTOGRAPH SECTION 

William A. Wing 



[Note. — The "Old Dartmouth Historical Sketches " will be published by the 
Society quarterly and may be purchased for ten cents each on application to the 
Secretary and also at Hutchinson's Book Store.] 



I 



PROCEEDINGS 



OF THE 



EIGHTH ANNUAL MEETING 



OF THE 



Old Dartmouth Historical Society 



IN THEIR BUILDING 

WATER STREET, NEW BEDFORD 
MASSACHUSETTS 



MARCH 31, 191 



The following officers were elected: President Wood addressed the meet- 

t> -i r , -> n ,-rr t ins as follows: 
President — Edmund Wood. 

Vice Presidents— George II. Tripp. !t wi]1 ue sufficient lor me to say 

Henry B. Worth. that t h e year has been a good one; 

Treasurer — William A. Mackie. there have been some very interesting 

Secretary— William A. Wing. meetings, and the museum and re- 

Directors (for three years)— Julia search sections have done good work. 

W. Rodman, Oliver F. Brown and Job The publications of the society have 

(1 - Tripp. bcen kept up- 

Director (for one year, unexpired ,. c ^ .. , _ 

term)— Cara L, Broughton. , In reading of the terrible lire in 

,,.,.. ., .' , , the New York state Capitol at Al- 

An addition to the society s col- b with the destr uction of many 
lection ol treasurer was on view valual)le records. I felt that there was. 
at the meeting, a set of carvings of a mora] for socie ties like ours, re- 
he several varieties of whales, made Ulti to the impor tance of the pres- 
by* rank Wood for the whaling room. ervation of u i d documents and rec- 
I lie whales, sperm, right, bowhead, G rds 
sulphur, bottom, linback and hump- ' 

Lack, are carved in silhouette on There is a newer idea— the safe 

wooden panels about 1G inches preservation ot records— and a good 

in length, which are stained in dt ' al ls b ?ing done c toward having 

green, affording an effective contrast them put m fireproof receptacles, 

to the black bodies of the animals There is also another method, and 

represented. The carvings are abso- that is that the meat of these kernels 

lutely accurate in detail, being copied of the past is being extracted by anti- 

directly from the illustrations in epiarians and by various historical so - 

Seammons's "Mammalia." cieties. The papers read before this 

The following tablet has recently society are full of facts taken from 

been placed in the memorial arch: these valuable records, and the fact- 

•"In Memory of Jireh Swift 3rd. so taken are safe beyond peradven- 

Bom 174 0. Died 1817. Served in ture. As we get out these import- 

the Revolution in the Trenches at ant facts, they receive the best pos- 

Oambridge. From a great grandson, sible preservation in the publications 

Jireh Swift 6th." that follow. 



Report of the Directors 



BY 



William A. Wing 



Tab 


er, 


Berth 


a 


\\ 


Tis( 


ale, 


Sari 


h 


G. 


Wr 


ght. 









The Old Dartmouth Historical So- Charles H. Gifford, Henry F. Ham 

ciety greets Its members at its mond, Herbert E. Hicks, Jonathan 

eighth annual meeting. We are 1 low hind, Jr., Walter S. [lowland 
still a society in its youth with many George Kempton, Elizabeth F. Nieker- 
problems to face. Like in the older s<m, William V. Nye, Sarah S. Kan- 
historical societies, some of these are dall, Mary H. Stowe, Helen R. II 
dillieult in their best solution. But Stickney, Lloyd Swain. *C. A. M. 
there is at least one in which the co- Taber, Bertha W. Swift, Lucy K. 
operation of our members can servo Tisdale, Sarah G. Tompkins, Sarah 
perhaps to make us unique among 
such organizations — prompt payment 
oi dues! * L if e member. 

The various activities of the past r .. „ ,. T . . 

twelve months are described more in a In . the passing away of Mr. Lloyd 

detail in tiie various reports of the di- Swam this society loses a friend win, 

t served as treasurer from its organiza- 

tion to 1906. His interest and co-op- 

We have, as usual the sad duty e ration in our needs make a kindly 

to announce the deaths ot the aI1(1 I)lc . ayallt mem0 ry. 
following members: Joshua G. Bak- Thus jn brief has , mssed lht . veur of 

er. Lucretia G. Chace, William L. 1910-11 of this society. 
Chadwick. Harriet A. Church, Lydia ,, " ,, , . iX , 

II. Church, Charles II. L. Delano, Respectfully submitted, 

Susan U. Fletcher, W. Trap Frees, Wm. A. Wing, Secretary. 



Report of the Treasurer 



BY 

William A. Mackie 



William A. Mackie, treasurer, in ac- Payments*. 

count with .Old Dartmouth Historical N 1{ institution for Savings. . . $50.00 

Society, from March 30, 1010 to March Museum 38.06 

31, 1911: Salaries 150.00 



Labor 279.67 

Current expenses 251.12 

Repairs and improvements 131.30 



Receipts. 

Balance March 30, 1910 $17G.95 

Due 602.4)0 

Life members 75.00 

Admissions 62.00 

Publications 21.00 

Mechanics National hank, 120.00 

Merchants National hank 27.00 

Commonwealth of Mass. rebate 

of tax. 51.23 Respectfully submitted, 



$900.15 
Balance March 31, 1911 235.03 

$1135.18 



$1135.1! 



Win. A. Mackie. Treas. 



Report of the Museum Section 

BY 

Annie Seabury Wood 

The Museum Section, in presenting We have also acquired an Import- 
its eighth annual report, congratu- ant addition to our whaling collcc- 

lates the society and thanks the pub- tion in a set of 'heaving down' blocks. 
lie on account of the steady growth So far as we know, this is the only 
of its collections. set in existence, and their use is en- 
Certain notable acquisitions among tirely a thing of tin- past. They play- 
many acceptable ones deserve especial ed a very important part in old times 
mention: First, a silver watch, the in the coppering of tin- bottoms of 
Kilt id' Miss Elizabeth Bailey, which vessels, ami are as interesting in their 
came down to her from an "English way to us as the historic 'camels' of 
greaL - great -grandmother. William Xantucket are to the inhabitants of 
Sawyer Wall was in England in 1798, that famous island. The blocks were 
and was paying a visit to his grand- last used about 1 ~> years ago to 'heave 
mother, Mary Moreton. When lie down' the hark Josephine. 
was about to return home, she took , n Januarv the entertainment com- 
the watch from her side and sent miU ee, which is drawn from the 
it to his daughter. Mary Moreton mem bers of the Museum Section, pre- 
vail, her namesake. Miss Bailey is sente(1 Roy Andrews of tin- Ameri- 
the daughter ot Cornelius Bailey and ( . an Museum of Natural History, in an 
Mary Will. _ _ illustrated lecture on Hunting Whales 
On exhibition ,„ QU r Oriental room with a camera, and during the win- 
is a beautifully carved frame made, t( . r lW() \ ve il-attended and successful 
specially to order, in China about teas have been given 
I860, and presented to the society _ ' . T \ •> ,, t 
bv Mrs. Clement X. Swift. On Patriots Day, April 19th the 
In our Colonial room is an in- c T ommi " e * pr °P" Se . S to l^esem Mrs. 
tercsting ol„ cneese press from the J t ohn <" ll,v Abbott m a talk on 
Morton House at Lakeville. Riven by tn « W ?men ■ ot Versailles, illus- 
Abbott 1* Smith trating the life and dress of the 
Prom Mrs. Bertha Whitridge Smith, French Court The entertainment will 
we have received some interest- be held in the rooms of the society 
ing embroideries belonging to the an(1 w > ] \ n ' to\\o\:ed by an informal 
Whitridge family, and from Miss Mary tea. We hope for a generous patron- 
Rodman some homespuns and other ;l ^°- 

ancient household relics of the Wil- „ L , ,, , ._ . 

bur and I lowland families, her an- Respectfully submitted, 

U A large oil painting of the Roman Annie Seabury Wood, 

forum by William Wall was present- Secretary Museum Section. 
ed by Charles W. Clifford. 



Report of the Historical Research Section 

BY 

Henry B. Worth 

The work of the Historical Re- fraud or deceit but to the frailty of 

search Section is not only to preserve the recollection. It is observed in 

ami perpetuate facts that might be court trials where witnesses of un- 

forgotten and lost, but to restore doubted veracity, flatly contradict 

events to their original setting and each other in relation to recent 

combination. One of the tendencies events. Some details that are ob- 

of tradition is the rearrangement of scored or forgotten are supplied from 

details into varying and erroneous different situations, and honest and 

combinations. This is not due to intelligent people present seriously 



conflicting accounts of the same con- 
currence. Hence divergent traditions 
may be discovered concerning any 
historical fact. Giles Russell estab- 
lished an iron forge ac Russell's Mills 
in 1787. in a few years the story 
was current that this enterprise was 
conducted by a different person one 
hundred and thirty-live years earlier. 
It is astonishing how unwilling some 
art- to reject the traditions that are 
full of mistakes. No amount of evi- 
dence to the contrary is sufficient to 
substitute fact for fiction. After ac- 
cepting the story without scrutiny and 
investigation, they continue loyal to 
the error. Some exhibit irritability 
at the suggestion of a doubt as 
their integrity was questioned. The 
trouble is that their informant was 
mistaken. 

Every tradition should be tested 
by comparison with contemporary 
records. If the two are not in con- 
flict, the oral statement may be ac- 
cepted. But if there is discord, the 
tradition must yield. 

It is now proposed to call atten- 
tloin to a certain incident, the tradi- 
tion on which it is based and some 
records of contemporary history that 
have not heretofore been given due 
weight. 

In Oxford village in Fairhaven, a 
few yards east of Cherry street, and 
extending from Lafayette street to 
Pilgrim avenue, is a lot which was 
conveyed in 18 8 3 by Thomas Bennett, 
to Benjamin D. Coombs. In the 
south portion was an enclosure in 
which were "kept hens and swine. In 
the center was a hillock on which 
were spaces marked by rough stones 
after the manner of old burial places. 
This was purchased in 1S95 by the 
Fairhaven Improvement association 
and was renovated and graded. A 
boulder drawn from the river was lo- 
cated on the knoll and on a bronze 
tablet is the inscription, "Sacred to 
the memory of John Cook who was 
buried here in 101)5." 

The authority for the statement 
depends upon a tradition and it is 
thus repeated, as he received it, by 
one of Fairhaven's best informed cit- 
izens: 'John Cook was one of the first 
white settlers in Fairhaven. They 
had only one cemetery and that was 
at Oxford. There was once a slate 
slab lying flat on the knoll, having 
the names of forty or fifty persons 
who were buried there. This was 
completely obliterated over sixty 
years ago, so that no vestige of it 
remains; nor is there in existence a 
copy of the inscription nor any rec- 
ord who was buried there. 

To this is added from another 
source, that John Cook owned all 
this territory and it passed from him 



to the Taber family of which the lute 
George it. Taber was a descendant. 

Oxford was part of the farm of 

Capt. Thomas Taber which he re- 
ceived from the proprietors of Dart- 
mouth 1072 and 16S3. At his death 

in 1732, it passed to his son Philip. 
whoc onveyed it ten years later to 
William Wood, glazier. In the 
of 1700 from Wood to Blnathan Kl- 
dridge, transferring the part of Ox- 
ford west of Cherry Street is a state- 
ment that the southeast corner was 
west of "ye Burial Place.' So while 

this proves that the Oxford lot was 

used tor burial purposes as early as 
1700, it should also be kept in mind 
that Taber, although a son-in-law of 
Cook, derived his title directly from 
the Dartmouth proprietors ami that 
this burial place was never owned by 
John Cook. It never contained 
marked stones at any grave. 

It was a universal custom in Dart- 
mouth before 17 00 that on each 
homestead farm was a plot devoted 
to burial purposes. Many of these 
spots have been forgotten and are 
unknown while some art- still in 
existence. John Cook's homestead 
included the farm that is crossed by 
Coggeshall street leading from Main 
street to the bridge. According to 
the usual custom it would be ex- 
pected that his last resting place was 
on his homestead, if there were not 
some deeply significant records re- 
lating to another locality. 

In the south edge of Aeushnet, 
half a mile south of the parting ways. 
the road to Fairhaven is crossed by 
a brook, that flows into the Aeushnet 
river and at its junction forms a 
neck of land that is situated north- 
west of the Laura Keene farm. This 
may be designated for convenience 
Howard's Point. 

In Cook's will, probated in April. 
1G9G, he provides: "In the first 
place I give to my son-in-law, Arthur 
Hathaway, and his wile. Sarah, my 
daughter, all my land in the point at 
or near the burying place in Dart- 
mouth, which I bought of John Bus- 
sell." This has been assumed by 
many to be at Oxford, but the Bus- 
sell deed in IOCS describes 'the point 
of land which I bought of Samuel 
Cuthbert adjoining to the house lot of 
John Howard, on the one side and 
the" creek on the other.' Russell's 
deed from Cuthbert in 1001 conveyed 
a small point of land of 4 or 5 
acres lying against the land of Cuth- 
bert. 

Beside the devise in his will. Cook 
had in H>86 given to Arthur Hatha- 
way all that neck of land near the 
land of John Howard, bounded by 
the Aeushnet river and on one side 
by Howard's land.' The farm con- 
taining the Brook was the Howard 



homestead and the farm south was Riverside cem< tery. Somewhere on 
owned l>y Cuthbert and 1661 con- this farm according to the usage of 
veyed to Arthur Hathaway. So it is that day would be his grave. But a 
clear that the burial point in which milt; farther north was a neck on 
Cook- hud such an interest, which he the river which was a burial place 
had purchased nearly thirty years be- as early as 1686; was owned by Cook 
lore ins death, was the neck north- and held by his descendants until 
west of the: Laura Keen farm. He was modern times. Jn the light of this 
solieitious to have it stand in the record there is strong reason to sup- 
name of his daughter and son-in-law pose that Cook was laid in the point 
who lived in the immediate vicinity. purchased by him and transmitted to 
This Howard's point passed from Ar- his descendants. Opposed to this is 
thnr Hathaway to his son Thomas the tradition that he was buried at 
who also acquired the Howard farm Oxford on a lot which he never own- 
in 1715 and then conveyed both to ed and in which he is not known to 
his son Antipas. The latter in 1747, have had any interest, and where- 
then living in Newport, transferred there was never an inscribed stone 
the farm to James Weeden -hut re- marking any grave. 

tained the neck. Jn 1751 Weeden Without some record there can be 
sold the farm to Hezekiah Winslow. no certainty where John Cook's 
The land next south was then owned grave is located, but judgment can- 
by Jethro Hathaway and was later not he rendered in favor of the Ox- 
known as the Stephen Hathaway ford tradition. The foregoing repre- 
place. sents the stage of present informa- 

The last record relating to the tion. If further facts are discovered 

subject is a deed given in 1752 by and authenticated, a conclusion can 

Antipas Hathaway to his brother be reached that will settle the in- 

Jethro "a certain Point of land called epiiry. 

ye (Jd Burying Point in Acushnet This paper is presented to preserve 

Village, being ye most northwesterly in useful form some interesting his- 

part of ye Homestead of Thomas torical data, hut especially to illus- 

Hathaway deceased, bounded east on trate Hie method of testing tradition 

ye Creek* running up to Howard's by comparison with contemporary 

Brook by Homestead of Hezekiah records There is no sound reason 

Winslow and by land of Jethro Hath- to condemn the method, because 

away." It remained for nearly a while it may result in discrediting 

century part of the Stephen Hatha- popular reports and stories, it might 

way farm. frequently support and sustain the 

The Homestead of John Cook was oral legend. Whichever consequence 

on the hill north of Oxford where follows, truth should he the object 

the new brick school house has been sought without regard to the effect 

built and extended north to the on accepted traditions. 
Woodside cemetery and south to the 



Report of Education Section 

BY 

Elizabeth Watson 

The education section cannot re- Students from the textile school 

port definitely what has been accom- have shown an interest in the old 

plished during the past year, inas- loom and other devices for primitive 

much as the school children and the textile work, while inspiration has 

various organizations that have been been added to the industrial school 

invited to ' the rooms have come in- by some of our exhibits, from which 

dividually, as opportunity offered, in- the pupils have taken measurements 

st*ad of collectively at stated times. or made drawings. 

Owing to the severe winter it has The work of this section is far- 

not been practicable to try to ar- reaching, and the committee, appreci- 

range for the public school classes ating its opportunities, regrets that no 

to visit the -rooms with their teachers. more has been done, 
hut alter the Easter Recess it is ex- Elizabeth Watson, 

peeted that the plan will be carried ( 

out as formerly. Chairman. 



Report of the Publication Section 



BY 



William A. Wing 



We who arc so fortunate as to possessed "Two Bibles, one Testament 

dwell in a community graced by such and one Concordance." 

Institutions as the Old Dartmouth John Russell — old Dartmouth's First 

Historical Society and our new Public Deputy— in 1695 left "one Bible and 

Library and who enjoy the many several other Bookes" valued ;it £ 1 *i . 

privileges so offered, may find it of .John Cook, Pilgrim. Pioneer and 

some passing interest to know what Preacher, in 169G died possessed of 

facilities for the "great joy of road- "Two Bibles and 6 other books" worth 

ing" were afforded those who dwelt £2 in all. 

In Old Dartmouth some 200 years ago Arthur Hathaway, the "Magis- 

or more. t.rate," who died in 1711. had "a 

The meagre lists of hooks owned by Bible and other books" at 10s. 
the most "bookish" folk in the old Hugh Mosher, Kirst Pastor of the 
township— at least in that particular First Baptist Church in 1 7 1 'A hit 
keep us from regret of the "- Pibles and other books all at f:i." 
"good old days." The Puritan 'tis said Th - most scholarly man in town 
was a man of "one Book — the Bible." very properly was tin- Reverend Mr. 
In old Dartmouth's early days several Samuel Hunt of tin- Church Presby- 
were more liberally supplied, though is terian who in 1730 was inventoried 
(here scarce an instance of anyone; to "his bookes £32, 1 Is. 6d." Tin de- 
possessing "Twenty Bookes at his tails unfortunately of this interest- 
Beddes heade" as did he of Chaucer's ing library are omitted. Peleg Slo- 
"Pilgrimage." cum, that "honest publick Friend" 

The Rev. Stephen Bachcllor— one ha(1 - we knmv - at least il Sreat P ible - 

of the first Oxford graduates in this leathern hound and brass clasped, 

country and ancestor of many an old Joh " Ak, h. Captain, Town Clerk and 

Dartmouth inhabitant and of many 'gentleman' as he was styled, hud at 

members of this society had really h'\s death in 1746: : a large Bible. Lin 

for his time and place a very great antl likewise "Hells rorments, and 

library which in the year 1G44 was other small books at 8s. — let us hope 

burned with his home. In a letter to some o1 the others were more chcer- 

his staunch friend. Gov. Winthrop, ful at 1(ast m tltle - 

he much bemoans the loss of his Th,ls would our Publication Section 

"goodly store of bookes." preserve the results of research oi 

r „, * ,., . c ,, , , even more humble minutiae in the 

J he libraries of those early days t f , d Dartmouth . s days and 

were composed of very large and very wavs 
small books. There was scarcely any 

"happy medium." That ancient worthy Respectfully submitted 

— Henry Tucker — who died in 1694, Wm. A. Wing, chairman. 



Report of the Photograph Section 



BY 



William A. Wing 



It was in the year 1747 that Wil- the westward across the Seaconnet 

ham Almy of "Punkatest" (Tiverton. river and see in the distance the 

R. I.,) wrote his will. There was ancient homestead of his grandfather, 

much of worldly goods to be be- William Almy of Portsmouth, II. [..the 

(pieathed (for that day) — nearly £8000 "first comer." and of his father, Gover- 

in money, about 500 cattle, nor Christopher Almy. In fact, one 

seven slaves, lands and such treas- could almost locate their burial places. 

arcs as sliver spoons and "great sil- And mar his own dooryard (as was 

\er tankard." Kroni his mansion the custom) was the spot to be his 

Squire William Almy might hade to own last resting place. Wherein was 



already laid his wife (horn Deborah accumulations and there they stand 

Cooke). Though as at .such a time today still in the possession of de 

his mind was not only upon death scendants. 

and the dead, but upon the living j,, our photograph room may 

For there were children to he hand- , u . S(1( . n p | c . ture8 u , William Al- 

somely provided for. my . 8 »p U nkatest" mansion, the burial 

Mis daughter, Rebecca, the' wife „,.,<.,. of his parents, the Governor and 

of Holder Slocum, of old Dartmouth, hjs Lad and the three gambrel roofed 

and a lady of much •quality, was to houses at Quansett the homes of his 

receive 1500, a negro woman 'Hagar, son> Job Almy> s0 that our , mo . 

silver spoons and chairs, his son tograph section at least preserves 

Job Almy, who had married into the -presentments' of what meant so 

wealthy riMiijghast family of New- mucn to Mr< William Almy as he 

port, was to have, "lands and hous- w r „ u . his will in lllt . VL . ar ]74T 
ing at Quanset, Dartmouth, where ha 

dwelt and where he built him three Respectfully submitted, 

houses, each with a gambrel roof as 
his fortunes Increased by legacies and Wm. A. Wing, Chairman. 



(> ' 




OLD DARTMOUTH 



HISTORICAL SKETCHES 



No. 33 



Being the proceedings of the Thirty -third Quarterly Meeting of the 
Old Dartmouth Historical Society, held in their building, Water Street, 
New Bedford, Massachusetts, on 29 September, 191 1 



ADDRESS-BENJAMIN RUSSELL 



Edmund Wood 



THE EARLY POETRY OF OLD DARTMOUTH 

William A. Wing 



[Note. — The "Old Dartmouth Historical Sketches" will be published by the 
Society quarterly and may be purchased for ten cents each on application to the 
Secretary and also at Hutchinson's Book Store.] 



PROCEEDINGS 



OF THE 



THIRTY-THIRD QUARTERLY 
MEETING 



OF THE 



Old Dartmouth Historical Society 



IN THEIR BUILDING 

WATER STREET, NEW BEDFORD 

MASSACHUSETTS 



29 SEPTEMBER, 191 



5 



Address — Benjamin Russell 



BY 

Edmund Wood 



One of the. most reliable sources of 
historical material to the student of 
our earliest Colonial Days has always 
been the land records. Old Dartmouth 
is notably rich in the possession of a 
perfect treasure-house of this inval- 
uable, material. 

It is most remarkable that. the or- 
iginal field notes of the surveys of 
Benjamin Crane, first surveyor to the 
hart mouth Proprietors, have been 
preserved in good condition for two 
hundred years. Not a map or a platt- 
ing of a survey made by him has 
ever been found although innumerable 
Ones must have been made. Hut the 
note books containing courses, dis- 
tances and areas and generally the lo- 
cation have come down to us in good 
condition. 

These books are eleven in num- 
ber and date from 1710 to 1721. Sup- 
plementing these are two similar 
books by Benjamin Hammond, 
Crane's successoi as surveyor to the 
proprietors from 17 2 3 to 1741, and 
one book by Samuel Smith who fol- 
lowed at a later date, from 1768 to 
1793. 

All these records of the original 
surveys came into the possession of 
the New Bedford Free Public Library 
a few years ago. 

In one of the early meeting of this 
society, one of our members, A. McL.- 
Goodspeed, read an erudite paper on 
the subject of these books, their inter- 
est and their value. 

In it he expressed the hope that 
tome way would be found to more 
surely preserve these treasures, either 
by printing or photographically re- 
producing them. 

It is noteworthy and commendable 
that the trustees of our city library 
have done both and with rare good 
taste. The largo volume recently 
published shows half tone 
of every page and opposite, 
in printed form. 

We acknowledge with 
the receipt of a copy of this book 
from the library trustees and it has 
been added to our growing collection. 



pictures 
the text 

pleasure 



Since our last meeting a life mem- 
ber of this society has died — Charles 
Austin Mendall Taber. 

He was born in Acushnet and 
married a Miss Lund of that town. 

In his will he bequeathed to this 
Society the sum of $150 — and this be- 
quest has already been paid. 



Although his later life- was spent 
in Wakefield in this state he always 
showed a sincere attachment for this 
society and the past life and achieve* 

ments of the locality which this so- 
ciety seeks to commemorate. 

In 1873 he published a volume of 
verse entitled 'Rhymes from a Sailors' 
Journal' and we have found a copy 
in the Millicent library. 

This shows a facility at rhyming 
and many of the subjects have a de- 
cidedly local flavor — 'The Whaleman's 
Return, ' 'Written Soon After Watch- 
ing Whales in a Storm.' 

The author was at one time dur- 
ing his life the captain of the whale- 
ship Millinocket. 

One of the longer poems entitled 
'The Old Puritanic Burial Ground,' 
describes the historic cemetery at 
Acushnet, and contains one or two 
bits of description which revive de- 
tails which have been almost forgot- 
ten. 'The old horseblocks that 
flanked its sides unused and mossed 
for many a year. 

In his later years he wrote and 
published several books on scientific 
subjects: 'The Ice Age, Past and 
Coming,' 'Our Periodical World,' 'Our 
Periodic Earth,' "Cause of Geologic 
Periods.' 

The bequest from an appreciative 
Son of Old Dartmouth, for which we 
are very grateful, nourishes the hope 
that there are many patriotic mem- 
bers of this society who plan to be- 
stow upon it some generous memo- 
rials of their affectionate regard. 



"The society has received from Wil- 
liam W. Orapo, its first president, a 
valuable gift. Four of the original 
cartoons of Arctic Whaling Scenes, 
drawn by Benjamin Russell. These 
drawings delineate with faithfulness 
the catastrophe to our whaling fleet in 
the Arctic Ocean in 1871. These are the 
originals from which the lithographs 
were made, which were published and 
had quite a sale at the time. Many 
New lied ford homes had these pic- 
tures framed hanging on the wall 
This disaster was the greatest which 
had ever befallen our chief industry. 
The loss of property involved, direct- 
ly or indirectly, nearly every inhab- 
itant of Old Dartmouth, and in those 
days of .fewer works of fiction and no 
theatres with thrilling moving pictures 
the exciting tales of miraculous escape 
and heroic struggles, brought real ro- 



manees intimately into hundreds of 
households. Mr. Crapo a fow years 

MK.il |MI|('llll.SI(l It 11(1 presented to this 

Hoelet.V IUH) of the original drawings 

ul' ihis artist, ;iii(l with the four new 
iiiMH Jus! received, wo arc Indebted to 
him i'or no extremely valuable col- 
lection, which wlili the decline of 
whaling has an ever Increasing his- 
torical value. 

BENJAMIN RUSSELL. 

The historian of any epoch, in his 
researches for new material is always 
attracted hy what seems to be notes 
taken on the spot. These are consid- 
ered more valuable, because of their 
crispness and .frankness. They are 
generally written for a very limited 
number of eyes to see, and they record 
the honest first impressions. There 
has been no time to calculate on the 
possihle results of saying what one 
really thinks, and trimming the real 
belief to please other peoples, or to 
agree with the view of other observ- 
ers. 

It is this which makes the diary one 
of the best corroborative records. 

The publication of Pepys' diary 
gave a truer insight and a more inti- 
mate view of the interesting details 
of English life at the time of the 
Restoration than any state paper or 
contemporaneous history. 

This observation is also true Of 
sketches made on the spot. These 
bring back to us the past as it really 
appeared at the time to the artist. 
It is unfortunate that when we go 
hack beyond the discovery of pho- 
tography we lind so little o.f this valu- 
able historical material. 

Stop and think a little of how 
different the future historian is go- 
ing to view the period in which we 
now live. Not only are we Hooded 
with the printed word on every phase 
of thought and action, but we are sur- 
rounded by cameras to perpetuate 
every view. 

Nor are these laborious sketches 
of scenes drawn slovenly, and omitting 
more or less of the detail — but pho- 
tography is instantaneous and greed- 
ily grasps every detail. And now we 
have the moving picture, which gives 
us action as well as position. 

It is evident the future will know 
us to the life, as we lived, and moved 
and had our being. 

()ld Dartmouth has been fortunate 
in that it possessed artists as well 
as historians to jot down impressions 
and mirror for us the past. 

At previous meetings I have taken 
up the work of William Bradford and 
also of William A. Wall. Tonight we 
are being reminded of another of our 
last century artists because we have 
received from Mr. Crapo live valuable 
original drawings of Benjamin Russell. 



In 18 3 we had in New lied ford 
two commercial bouses which at the 
time overshadowed all others, on the 
one hand were the Rot< h's carrying 
on both foreign commerce and whal- 
ing with long continued success, on 
the other hand were Seth and Charlas 
Russell, w ho had recently increased 
the prestige of that family and were 
rich and powerful. Borne of their 
foreign ventures in commerce were 
brilliant, they carried a large bank bal- 
ance in London, they owned many 
merchant ships and whaleships, and 
they had also acquired a large amount 
of rial estate within the town. The 
two brothers were- the sons of Seth 
Russell senior, who was grandson of 
Joseph Russell 2nd. and the nephew 
of Joseph Russell 3rd and of Caleb 
Russell 1st. 

Tin-re was some rivalry between 
some of the older merchants and 
these two brothers, Seth and Charles 
Russell. The later were called pro- 
gressive, they took long chances and 
with uniform success. But soon there 
came reverses, then the tide seemed to 
turn against them and finally came 
the crash when the brothers failed, 
and much property and real estate ill 
the city changed hands. 

Benjamin Russell, the artist was 
the son of Seth, the older of these 
two merchants. He was brought up 
while the fortunes of the house were 
booming. lie loved sketching, gen- 
erally in black and white, most often 
in lead pencil, but later washed in. 
with india ink and finished with a 
fine brush point and with a pen. He 
sketched much about the wharves and 
on the ships, and must have been 
an industrious draughtsman. It was 
here that he lirst gained his intimate 
knowledge of the sails and ropes and 
ships tackle. His drawings are noted 
for their exhibitions of an exact 
knowledge of the rigging of a ship. 
He knew the ropes, in this respect 
many of his pictures are more acu- 
rate than they are artistic. lie has 
drawn finely pencilled lines of running 
rigging which never could have been 
seem by the naked eye from the point 
of view of the observer. Although 
he couldn't really see them at that 
distance he knew they were there 
and so he drew them in and ran 
them along where they should be. 

1 have not been able to learn how- 
much teaching he had in art. He cer- 
tainly had considerable talent for 
drawing and some skill in composi- 
tion, but he had ability with color. 

The great disaster in the Arctic 
in 1871 when so many of our ships 
were lost gave him his greatest sub- 
jects and on these pictures his repu- 
tation will chiefly rest. 

1 will not attempt to enumerate 
the different works of this artist 



7-f 

Which are now known to exist. It ed applicants for discount, who had 

will be sufficient to say that this so- been chilled by the presidential at- 

ciety now owns six of his originals ntosphere. 
and live of the reproductions by ,, . ., ,., , 

lithography. Benjamin Russe I s largest and 

most ambitious work' was the exeeu- 

Benjamin Russell was at one time tion of a panoramic series of pic- 

in the ship chandlery business, but he tures of a whaling voyage done on -i 

does not seem to have been promi- i arge scale Some of these pictures 

nent as a business man. He was, I had exceeding merit and much spirit. 

believe, at one time a director of the This panorama was exhibited several 

Old Marine Bank. time in [ oca i ha i la ., I|(1 at an eX hibi- 

There is a story that he drew an tion of this society and also in many 

interesting caricature of one of the other cities, and now belongs to one 

directors' meetings, which was re- of our members, Benjamin Cummings. 

markably true- to the life. In it the Jt will always have great historic in- 

almost life-long president of that in- terest, and it is to be hoped that the 

stitution was represented' as seated at present owner of it will decide that 

I he head of the table on a cake of ice. the only fitting repository for it is the 

This picture was said to be exceed- treasure house of this historical so- 

ingly popular with certain disappoint- ciety. 



The Earlv Poetrv of Old Dartmouth 



-." 



Old I>a runout a had early sonu 
pontic affiliations even if a Lit Car- 
ry Holder, the wife of PeJef 
a kinswoman of Edmum 
nd 'tis said some of he 



home ""Canons Ash by" in 




known to this day as 


- .- - 


- 




: . - - 


Z -- I r - 


— 1 . r : : : _ 


: 


•rohable that Goo< 


I wi*- - 


cum any of ] 


' -. 


. - - . - - 




«een 


_ 


I : s'r.-r r 


- 


frowned on "Rhym - 


- ■- — _ 


F . - 


; 


... ;.. r . :r. - :~ " 


- 



~i ky 

. . - . - - 

• a <«ut&, a mart 

- 
- 

■ 

E ! ■ 

- - 

. -and Pr: 

: -- _ . - - - 

- - - . - 

--------- -~ - _ - 

- 

the s 

r the likewi — ~:>nal 

in tl r*salm and Hvmn Tune- _ 

ministers of yn»s same old rn - E - ae^hbor and 

-^e-bree 

' "•":■. " . -r7 1 r'r. T : . " "' ~ 

- 

_ - - . - - 

- ppeared. 
com. 5 nt cons:d«rra.U'*n. - 

conditio r Muse earing as 

:' : : : . 

: : . . : _^:- - - ~ r 

she made s - - 

s upon the place from without. Raid in mmand of a 



William Chandler of Connecticut, a folio* 5— 
(father of the famous Co- 
Dr. Thomas 
jry Ctnu - 

brought oat a poetic effusion in ir 

f«.rm of a broadside, er. 1 l~ he Council i*et aa«i all 

Journal - rvey by 7 &f bat re. 

It -Ace. pray oan w< 

~ - ^ t : v ; , ^ . r . - _ : _ . 



10 



Quick, quick your light horse then 

prepare. 
Kmbark you men with utmost care, 
To Dartmouth quickly then set sail 
And bum and plunder without fail. 
Then men embark without delay 
And soon they pass the mighty Hay 
Forthwith they land on Dartmouth 

shore, 
With soldiers, tories, many score. 
They soon advance without a fright, 
For Friends and Quakers will not fight. 
Bolder they grow and nothing tear, 
Then men advance from front to rear. 
No opposition do they meet 
Till they approach the second street, 
And now begins the mighty fray, 
A Cushion there obstructs the way. 
They all draw up the battle line 
With caution, prudence vast design. 
With vigor too the attacks they make 
To kill or wound or prisoners take. 
Push on brave hoys, your pointed steel 
Will make the mighty tyrant reel. 
We'll bring the haughty tyrant down 
That dares usurp a lady's crown. 
The action's warm; the battle strong; 
The Cushion could not stand it long. 
No re-inforcement coming in 
The Cushion's number being thin, 
The battle's won by gallant Gray 
Who now pursues without delay 
His grand design to burn and steal 
Fat sheep and oxen, lamb and veal. 
These are the wondrous feats they do. 
With nil their grand parade and shew. 
Go sneaking home and tell your king 
I lis folly doth through 10 u rope ring. 



Silas Delano of that part of Old 
Dartmouth (now known as Fair- 
haven,) just after the Revolution tells 
of his runaway servant thus — 

THE RUNAWAY. 

A handsome premium can be had 

Hy him who will convey 
To me a light-haired, slim-shanked lad 

Who lately run away. 
Whose name is Dudley Williams called. 

lie's major, sir, and squire, 
And won the title he's held 

Of swindler, knave and liar. 
And coward for it is a fact 

He will not fight a feather 
For which a cowhide strip'd his back 

And tanned the rascals leather. 
He left his creditors behind 

Their losses to bewail. 
Being determined in his mind 

To give them all Leg Bail. 
He stole two horses from the reels 

As he run from Dartmouth' town 
Mounted them quick took to heels 

And has not since been found. 
Two hundred dollers I'll give quick 

To any clever fellers 
That will the scoundrel convict 

And bring him to the gallows. 
Whether any "clever fellers" re- 
ceived the $200 reward research does 
not show. 



harbor in an open boat to the eastern 
Shore, was overset hy a whirlwind and 
drowned, aet. 53." 

This elegy appeared, "Written in 
the Evening" by "Philander," in faint 
imitation of the poet Gray. 

ELEGY TO Mil. CHARLES CHURCH, 
SENIOR. 

What time pale Cynthia holds her 
feeble sway, 

And waning cheers the solitary plain. 
Say Misery, feels't thou one reviving 

ray ? 
Or does the silence but augment thy 
pain? 

The weeping muse has heard the 
mournful tale; 
His soul is summoned to eternity! 
O'er life's gay scene Death spreads his 
shadowy veil 
And Church, that cypress is entwin'd 
for thee! 

Tranquil the deep soft zephyrs fan'd 
the wave. 
But fatal prov'd that inauspicious 
hour, 
High Heaven ordained for thee a Wa- 
tery Grave; 
Nor could'st thou fly the unrelenting 
Power. 



To add to the general gloom of the 
little community three days later, the 
"amiable and truly virtuous" Miss 
Betsey Tripp deceased of a "consump- 
tive disorder," aet. 2 5. 

"With a comely person were such 
graces as endeared her to all." 

The following elegiac lines written 
hy "A Friend" were spoken of as "apt 
on the sad occasion." 

O! Betsey, how transient is the dream 
Of life 
And every care-felt comfort we en- 
joy, 
And frot with care, solicitude and 
strife, 
Each hour attempts our blessings to 
destroy. 
All human scenes are subject to decay, 
And time asserts an all prevailing 
power 
Expanding beauties to the morning's 
ray 
We bloom to wither as this tender 
(lower. A Friend. 



At least one "sighing swain" in old 
Dartmouth invoked the Muse general- 
ly to "Pella" and signed "L". His 
identity if ever disclosed, is today un- 
known. 

The following written in 1793 is 
perhaps as worthy a "taste of his 
quality" as any: 

THE RURAL WALK. 



On May 13, 1793, "Mr. Charles 
Church, senior, of (what is now 
Fairhaven), attempting to cross the 



With Pella at eve thro the grove 

I'll innocently walk; 
And allr the way of kindest love 

In friendly converse talk. 



11 



Wlille towns are chok'd with dust and 
noise, 

Here I and Pella stray; 
No rattling chariots harm our Joys, 

Hut round us lamkins play. 

Or td.se by Quishnett's peaceful stream 

We wander hand in hand; 
See, oe'r his fact- the zephyrs skim 

And drive the waves aland. 

Look! Pella cries, Boat following- boat 
They blacken all the flood! 

One all acreen! The oars afloat 
Alas! that e'er l viewed. 

Some luckless squall not felt ashore 

May cause a tear at sea; 
How soon the joyful scene is oe'r, 

How frail our pleasures he. 



One sigh when generous pity calls 
Shall in my breast have room. 

1 weep when e'er a good man falls 
She said. We wander'd home. 



These early poetic- efforts, humble 
ude and even absurd, have in- 
rest and value for us today, in that 
ey cast a glimmering light on cer- 

in phases of their time, as does 

► thing else. 

The Muse in Old Dartmouth strove 
»t all in vain. Surely she has a 
Efhtt'ul place in the History of Early 
meriean Poetry. 




OLD DARTMOUTH 



HISTORICAL SKETCHES 



No. 34 



The Proceedings of the Thirty-fourth Quarterly Meeting held 
in their building, on January 12, 1912. 



COURTSHIP AND MARRIAGE 

OF YE OLD TIME QUAKERS 



By Mary E. Austin 



[Note — " The Old Dartmouth Historical Sketches " will be published by the 
Society quarterly and may be purchased for ten cents each, on application to the 
Secretary and also at Hutchinson's Book Store.] 



PROCEEDINGS 



OF THE 



Thirty -fourth Quarterly Meeting 



President Wood addressed the 
meeting. Perhaps the most im- 
portant mission of a society like 
this is a study of the habits and cus- 
toms of our ancestors. The sources 
of our information are public, private 
and religious records. Many of the 
records were perishable, and when- 
ever anything- of importance happened 
our ancestors were pretty sure to jot 
it down. We have to go largely to 
the records for our information but 
it is known that records of our local 
history are perishable, but the re- 
search members of our society 
are given publicity and whatever we 
do now is embalmed forever for fu- 
ture generations. Our records of our 
own research and the modern publi- 
city make the records practically im- 
perishable. What we rescue becomes 
so disseminated as to be indestructi- 
ble and immortal. Our research com- 
mittee should be encouraged to pre- 
serve any and all records of local his- 
tory and more of our members should 
be interested and stimulated in the 
gradual study of some phase of the 
past A great many of our members 
are interested in studying back into 
the past of their own families and 
other subjects as a recreation and 
pastime. If only the members would 
jot down their research the material 
will gradually accumulate until a val- 
uable paper is the result. 

The life our ancestors lived here 
was simple compared to the present 
day, yet a life full of passion and 
love, full of complex bearing, full of 
jealousies and loyalty, gaiety and sor- 
row, yearning and striving. The rec- 
ords that come down from the old 
'time were only fair. The records were 
often only the barest facts, records of 
births, marriages and deaths, the ac- 
quirement and sales of land — that is 
all. 



And still those lives were full, not 
just like ours of the present day. 
Living then was more even, and per- 
haps monotonous at times. There was 
no telephone and no quick transport- 
ation. Later in our colonial history 
life became more complex with the 
thicker settlements along the Acush- 
net river and the growth of commerce 
and the relations of a larger world. 
The returning mariner brought the 
element of romance, and the suspi- 
cion of other views of life which 
seemed heretical. 

The public vital records contain 
little to help us in the realization of 
this intimate social life. We get more 
from private papers, letters and dia- 
ries of the old time. Here we have 
vivid pictures, sketched upon the spot, 
opinions from a contemporaneous 
point of view. Then in many 
localities we have the religious 
records. Wherever the Quakers 
abounded there we find their 
help more abundant than else- 
where. Their records are the more 
valuable from the fact that the Qua- 
kers have been particular, more so 
than almost any other sect. We find 
records of very frequent meetings and 
the doings faithfully recorded. The 
presiding officer was always the clerk. 
The Quakers didn't believe that a 
chairman was essential as the spirit 
was the guiding matter. The record 
was made by some designated per- 
son. Importance was given to the wo- 
men Friends and in no other society 
will you find a dual record. It is well 
known that the most important rec- 
ords are those of the Friends of this 
locality. It is interesting to know- 
when a member of our society con- 
fesses she has been interested for 
years in research, and has prepared a 
paper from such research. 



Courtship and Marriage 
of Ye Old Time Quakers 

By MARY E. AUSTIN 






Courtship and Marriage of Ye Old Time 

Quakers 

by 1796538 

MARY E. AUSTIN 



George Fox had just reached his 
majority, when the great battle of 
Naseby was fought. 

Green writes in his History of Eng- 
lish people: "The shock of war had 
broken the bands of custom and giv- 
en a violent impulse to the freest 
thought. 

Into this age of swift changes, step 
men who were resolved to seek God 
after their own fashion, and who 
were as hostile to the despotism of 
the national church as to the despot- 
ism of the king. 

Among these men stands the Qua- 
ker founder. This was the age when 
Roundhead and Cavalier stand with 
drawn swords, and fill England with 
throes of war. Accepting a captain's 
commission would have released Fox 
from Derby prison. But he believes 
war is unlawful, and he will not ac- 
cept his release through any method 
that will compromise conscience. 

He who followed in the footsteps 
of Fox must abjure theatre, card 
playing, races, bull-baiting, cock- 
fighting, dancing, Christmas decora- 
tions and festivities. Quakerism was 
a protest against the times, against 
manners, and customs, speech and 
literature, societies and religion. 

The girls of the seventeenth cen- 
tury enjoyed but a brief childhood. 
Then even in the nursery, worldly 
parents were selecting for them hus- 
bands, and were sometimes in so 
much of a hurry to secure great ad- 
vantages of family and fortune, that 
little girls found themselves saddled 
with the responsibilities of marriage 
before they had hardly time to put 
away their dolls. 

Such marriages often productive of 
the greatest unhappiness, gave seri- 
ous offence to the Quaker leader, and 
very early, in his journal, he treats 
upon marriage. 

Within ten years of Fox's first ap- 
pearance as a preacher, meetings of 
the Friends were established in most 
parts of England. From the first, 
they had repudiated the marriage 
ceremonies of the church, and mar- 
ried in their own fashion, without 



priest, altar or ring. Very early, the 
legality of these marriages was called 
in question, and the children sneered 
at as bastards. 

A suit was begun, by a kinsman of 
a Quaker, who had died, to prove that 
his child was illegitimate and could 
not heir the property. "The Quakers 
go together like brute beasts," said 
the plaintiff's counsel. But the judge 
held that marriage was constituted 
by mutual consent, and remarked: 
"That was a true marriage when 
Adam took Eve and Eve took Adam." 
Thus the Quakers were saved from 
the curse that threatened to blight 
their hearthstones. 

In view of the public and private 
charges made against the Quaker 
home, the monthly meetings were 
charged to attend very carefully, to 
keeping a record of marriages and 
births, and to see that all persons 
"walked orderly according to their 
professions." 

"Walked orderly according to pro- 
fession" was an "elastic clause," that 
developed finally intV) hard and fast 
customs, hardly compatible with the 
doctrine that life, conscience and 
worship must be guided by the spirit 
and not by man. 

Birthright membership made a vast 
amount of trouble. At first one had 
to be a believer before he could be 
a member of a Quaker meeting. But 
when the children of accepted Friends 
were counted as members of *he 
"Faith," the meetings had to deal with 
numbers of young people, who had no 
real interest in the Quaker doctrines, 
who wanted to follow worldly fash- 
ions in dress, which they did in spite 
of the meeting, and who insisted in 
marrying outside of the society, if 
they pleased. 

Hence the ruling of the Discipline, 
"Children must be disowned if they 
marry not Friends — unless they make 
an acknowledgment that they have 
done wrong." 

Items o.f the records of the Nan- 
tucket, and Dartmouth Monthly Meet- 
ings bear full evidence that the 



Friends In our vicinity were not lax 
in enforcing the rules. 

"Nantucket. 

"1708 — Our visitors inform this 
meeting that they have treated with 
S D respecting tier marry- 
ing with a man of different per- 
suasion, but do not lind in her any 
disposition to condemn her fault. It 
is the judgment of the meeting that 
she be set aside as one with whom 
Friends had no unity." 

"1724 — A N signed an ac- 
knowledgment that among other 
things 'she had gone out from and 
against the mind, will and allowance 
of my tender parents in performing 
her marriage." 

"17(52 — N R acknowledged 

that for want of keeping close to the 
divine light, having married contraiy 
to the advice of Friends, I am sin- 
cerely sorry and hope for the time 
to come to be more careful." 

"1800 — L S disowned for 

keeping company with a man not a 
member and for attending a mar- 
riage out of the order of Friends." 

"1804 — B C had married a 

member of our society sooner afier 
the decease of his former wife than 
the Discipline advises and contrary 
to our order notwithstanding he was 
precautioned against it." 

I will read a copy of a certificate 
dated August 9, 17G4, furnished by 
]\lrs. Clement Nye Swift, a certificate 
of her ancestors. 

"Whereas, Stephen Hathaway, son 
of Jethro Hathaway and Hannah, his 
wife, of Dartmouth, in the county of 
Bristol, in the province o,f the Mas- 
sachusetts Bay, in New England; and 
Abigail Smith, a daughter of Hum- 
phry Smith and Alary, his deceased 
wife, of Dartmouth, in the County and 
Province aforesaid, Having Declared 
their 'ntentions of taking each other 
in Marriage, before Several Monthly 
Meetings, of the people called Quak- 
ers, in Dartmouth, According to the 
Good Order Used among them, 
Whose Proceedings Therein, after a 
Deliberate Consideration thereof, with 
Regard to the Righteous Law of God 
and Example of His People Recorded 
in the Scriptures of Truth; in thac 
case were allowed by the said meei- 
tnga. 

They appearing clear of all others 
and having the Consent of Parents 
and others concerned. Now these are 
to certify all whom it may Consern?. 
that for the full accomplishing of 
their said intentions this Ninth day 
of the Eighth month, called August, 
and in the year of our Lord, One 
Thousand Seven Hundred and Sixty- 
four, then the said Stephen Hatha- 
way and Abigail Smith appeared in 



a Publick Assembly of the aforesaid 
People met together in the Publick 
Meeting House in Dartmouth, and in 
solemn manner, he the said Stephen 

Hathaway taking the said Abigail 
Smith by the hand did openly declare 
as folio weth: 

Friends, i desire you to be my 

witnesses, that I take this my friend 
Abigail Smith to be my wife. Prom- 
ising with the Lord's assistance to 
be her losing husband till death sh.-l 
separate us': Or words to that ef- 
fect: and then in the said Assemb'y 
the said Abigail Smith did in Like 
manner Declare as follows this: 
Friends, 1 desire you to be my wit- 
nesses, that 1 take this my friend 
Stephen Hathaway to be my husband, 
Promising .with the Lord's assistance 
to be- to him a loving wife until 
Death shall separate us. Or words 
to that effect. 

Then the said Stephen Hathaway 
and Abigail Smith, as a further con- , 
formation thereof then and there in 
these Presents set their Hands, she 
according to the custom of marriage 
Assuming her Husband' name. 

Stephen Hathaway. 

Abigail Hathaway. 

and we whose names are hereunto 
subscribed, being present at the sol- 
emnizing of the said Marriage and 
Subscriptions as Witnesses, have here- 
unto Subseribed our names this day 
and year above Written. 

John Russell Humphry Smith 

Thomas Smith Peleg Smith 

Robert Willis Henry Smith 

Joseph Tucker Benjamin Smith 

Deborah Russell Samuel Smith 
Elizabeth Gidley William Anthony 
Prince Allen Phebe Tucker 

Benjamin Rowland Deborah Wilbur 
Christopher Slocurn .Alice Smith 
Antiphas Hathaway Mary Howland 
Daniel Russell Rebeckah Slocum 

Thomas Briggs Alice Anthony 

Joseph Russell Penellope Howland 

Jim Davis Rebecah Smith 

Hephzibah Davis Susanne West 
Clark Hathaway Hephzibah Hussey 
George Smith Ann Coffin 

Mary Tucker 

Unlike the rest of the world, the 
Friends long held tenaciously to the 
old custom of keeping the bride and 
bridegroom throughout the whole day, 
which is oae of great social enjoy- 
ment. 

The chief feature of the entertain- 
ment was a fine repast, which was 
prolonged with many a sober jest 
and quaint rejoinder. 

One of the "jests" has come down 
to us. A prim old Quaker spinster 
one day attended the marriage of her 
grand-nephew, a young person who 
had in the course of his twenty-one 
years received much needed disci- 



pline at her hands. The old lady was 
at her best on this festive occasion, 
and at a pause in the breakfast her 
young relative looked over at her 
with a beguiling smile. 

Tell us why thee never married, 
Aunt Patience, he said teasingly? 

That is isoon told, William, said 
the old Quakeress, calmly.' It was 
because I was not so easily pleased 
as thy wife. 

After the marriage feast, a walk on 
a sideway may be the programme of 
the day. Wherever the party goes, 
the overseers must follow and note 
well that all present '"do take care at 
the houses or places where they go — 
that all behave with becoming sobrie- 
ty." 

At the next monthly meeting, the 
committee must give report and if 
unfavorable the first duty of the meet- 
ing will be to instruct the overseers 
to secure an expression of "sincere 
repentance of such transgressions, 
manifested by a conduct circumspect 
and consistent with out religious pro- 
fession." 

If. the trangressors are refractory, 
their cases are again reported to the 
monthly meeting, which may then 
disown them. 

To one outside the fellowship of 
Quakerisms, it is the most simple 
and natural thing in the world, that 
two people mutually pleased with one 
another should enter into the closest 
and tenderest relations of life. 

Only those within the fellowship 
could comprehend the opposition 
with which the step would be regard- 
ed by family, friend and meeting, if 
a Quaker youth should desire to mar- 
ry out of the meeting, or the consulta- 
tions, concern, the absolute distress 
that had to be gone through with. 

When it becomes known that such 
a marriage is contemplated, it is re- 
ported to the monthly meeting, and 
in accordance with the rules, mem- 
bers of the ministry and oversight 
are appointed to visit the parents and 
make an inquiry "If an infirmity of 
purpose has led them to sanction 
such a disgraceful departure of the 
rules, as to permit a birthright mem- 
ber to make an unholy alliance — a 
disorderly marriage? 

A long sitting follows this question 
— composed of long silence and fre- 
quent quotations from the Scriptures, 
which deal with the prophetical de- 
nunciations of the chosen people for 
making alliances with the heathen 
tribes. 

If the purpose of the visit of the 
overseers was not accomplished, the 
meeting after hearing the report, ap- 
points two or more persons to visit 
and deal with the "delinquent." 



This grave and official visitation 
was conducted with much gentleness 
and love, but was none the less dread- 
ed and formidable. 

After the usual silence, and per- 
haps a prayer, a motherly voice 
might commence her pleading with: 
"Beloved, I have not hitherto found 
thee charged with levity, nor setting 
up thy own will in opposition to the 
witness within. I hope thou hast in- 
quired there." 

If after all the prayers and persu- 
asions, the youth persisted in the 
worldly companionship, the case 
would be again duly reported and 
recorded at the next Monthly Meet- 
ing with all the details of the visit. 

If marriage follows with a "world- 
ling" and no repentant word is se- 
cured by a second appointed visit, 
the youth is disowned. 

The Acoaxet Monthly Meeting 
records furnish this account of a dis- 
ownment: 
"1800, 7mo. 19th. 

We are informed by Acoaxet Pre- 
parative Meeting that N — S — has 
much neglected the attendance of 
Religious Meetings and gone into 
many of the vain modes and fashions 
of the times in his apparel, for which 
he has been repeatedly labored with 
by the Overseers. He also has kept 
company on account of marriage 
with a woman not a member of our 
society and has married the same out 
of the unity of Friends notwithstand- 
ing his being precautioned before 
marriage. 

After considering thereon, and 
thinking there has been sufficient 
labor bestowed, we therefore deny 
unity with him as a Member of our 
Religious Society until he condemns 
his misconduct to the satisfaction of 
Friends. 

The Women's Meeting concurs 
with us herein. 

We appoint Lovel Tripp and Wm. 
Gifford, son of William, to inform him 
of his being disowned and draft a 
testimony of his denial and bring to 
next Monthly Meeting." 

The same records furnish a copy of 
a Denial: 

"Whereas, J — F — , who had a 
birthright and his education among 
Friends, hath so far disregarded our 
advice as to Neglect the due atten- 
dance of Religious Meetings and gone 
into some of the vain fashions of the 
world and also kept company with an 
married a woman out of the unity of 
Friends; altho he was labored with 
an precautioned, but our advice hath 
not had its desired effect: Therefore, 
for the clearing of the truth, we do 
disown the said J — F — from being 
any longer a member of our society, 



10 



until he shall condemn the above 
transgressions to Friends' satisfaction. 
Given forth at our Monthly Meeting, 
held at Acoaxet the 13th of the 3rd 
mo., 1802. 

Signed in and on behalf of our 
above said meeting, 

by John Mosher, Clerk." 

One alternative remained to the 
"delinquents." They might of their 
own free will resign their member- 
ship, in which case there would be 
the same appointments, visits, con- 
demnations, records and publicity. 

Some Monthly Meetings at one time 
were so rigorous that parents were 
required to disinherit their children 
who had made worldly or "disorderly 
marriages," and not receive them in- 
to their homes, nor be -familiar with 
them. 

In the enforcement of the Disci- 
pline, the Nantucket Quakers ex- 
ceeded in severity all meetings in 
New England. Although the island 
settlers had sought to escape from 
the restrictive interference of the 
Winthrops and Endicott, yet they re- 
tained many of the characteristics of 
the people of Massachusetts Bay. 

In Dartmouth, the situation was 
not homogeneous. It was composed 
of persons who were liberal at the 
start. The Tucker family came from 
Milton; the Kirbys, Aliens, Cliffords, 
Wings, came from Cape Cod; while the 
great majority that constituted the 
Dartmouth Meeting, had been resi- 
dents of Rhode Island, the refuge for 
every form of liberal and eccentric 
theology. 

From this it naturally followed that 
the Discipline among the Dartmouth 



Quakers was much b-ss rigorous than 
at Nantucket. While lhrn in essen- 
tials, they overlooked trivial short- 
comings, and hence their records dis- 
close a much smaller number of dis- 
OWnments for minor offences. 

When the crisis of 184J5 came, and 
the Jfearly Meeting stood at the part- 
ing of the ways, one s.-ction under 
the lead of the Nantucket Meeting 
urging the acceptance of the Puritan 
views and methods, it was the power 
and influence of the New Bedford 
Quarterly and Rhode Island meetings 
that swung the New England Yearly 
Meeting toward the more liberal di- 
rection. 

In spite of the liberal tendencies of 
the New England Yearly Meeting, the 
regulations concerning marriage re- 
mained nearly the same down to 
1872. 

A committee of the Five Year 
Meeting of 1897 prepared a new Dis- 
cipline, which has been accepted by 
eleven out of the thirteen Yearly 
Meetings. 

In the last edition of the Discipline, 
the rules concerning marriage are 
very simple. 

The public bethrothal is omitted; 
also disownment for marriage with a 
non-member. 

The Overseers still listen to rea- 
sonable objections concerning a pro- 
posed marriage, and the committee of 
four reports to the Monthly Meeting 
concerning the ceremony. 

The Discipline advises carefully to 
observe the Laws of the State. 

In these days of home-making and, 
alas! home-breaking, the wise super- 
vision of marriage by a Quaker 
Monthly Meeting would be an Im- 
portant public benefaction. 




OLD DARTMOUTH 



HISTORICAL SKETCHES 



No. 35 



The Proceedings of the Ninth Annual Meeting held in the 
lecture hall of the New Bedford Public Library, on June 12, 
1912. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE 

NINTH ANNUAL MEETING 



[Note — " The Old Dartmouth Historical Sketches " will be published by the 
Society quarterly and may be purchased for ten cents each, on application to the 
Secretary and also at Hutchinson's Book Store.] 



PROCEEDINGS 



OF THE 



Ninth Annual Meeting 



The ninth annual meeting of the 
Old Dartmouth Historical Society was 
held in the lecture room of the Free 
Public Library. 

Officers elected: 

The officers elected are as follows: 

President — Edmund Wood. 

Vice Presidents — George H. Tripp, 
Henry B. Worth. 

Treasurer — William A. Mackie. 

Secretary — William A. Wing. 

Directors for Three Years — Mrs. 
Annie A. Swift, Mrs. Clara L. Brough- 
ton, Abbott P. Smith. 

President Wood addressed the meet- 
ing. 

Tonight occurs the ninth annual 
meeting of the old Dartmouth His- 
torical society, and we greet our 
members in a new place. It 
is a fitting place to hold a 
meeting of a society dedicated among 
other tilings to the preservation of 
tlie monuments of tint past. This 
building has much local history 
woven Into its structure;. It was built 
with money which the city or town 
received. And it was a worthy struc- 
ture of a dignitied architecture — and 
deserving to be called the City hall. 

How much of New Bedford's note- 
worthy history has centred about this 
building! To a historian the golden 
age of any community seems to be 
found in the early times when all the 
citizens could gather together yearly 
in one place and counsel together for 
the public good, and appropriate 
money prudently and judiciously. 

Here too have been held the in- 
numerable mass meetings of our 
citizens when they responded to some 
sudden call, and together determined 
on the proper action for the common 
good. 

When the time came when thi,s 
old City hall was no longer sufficient 
for municipal purposes it was de- 
stroyed. In all the criticism of the 
recent exploits of our city fathers in 
the time of public buildings we have 
none of this one act — the handling of 
this historic monument. It has been 
treated reverently, and much good 
taste it has been allowed to suit the 



requirements of the new service which 
it is to bestow on the community. It 
is a dignified and worthy home for 
our Free Public Library, and building 
and library stands among the fore- 
most of such institutions in the state 
and the nation. 

This room has been wisely given 
to the varied movements for the edu- 
cation of the people, and there is 
commendable liberality in the way in 
which tlie trustees are handling it. 

The Old Dartmouth Historical so- 
ciety is glad to meet in it as one of 
the movements of this comunity con- 
nected with education and research 
and profitable public discussion. 

When the Old Dartmouth Histori- 
cal society first thought of "locating 
at its present quarters on Water 
street, there were many who thought 
there were drawbacks in its inaccessi- 
bility for meetings. They called it 
pretty far down town. Still some 
of us are not willing to admit that it 
is not, all things considered an Ideal 
place for tin,- rooms and the- historical 
collection. The place is still redolent 
of the odor of the past; the view from 
the windows is in sympathy with the 
relics inside; the ships and the 
wharves and the oil casks are visible 
and the old buildings have witnessed 
the doings of those early times. How 
curious it would seem to tho?e 
workers of 7 5 years ago to hear that 
for mere convenience we had re- 
solved to hold a meeting way back 
on what was beinning to be known 
as Cheapside. This place would cer- 
tainly not be any handier to the ma- 
jority of our citizens. There is an- 
other point to be considered in rela- 
tion to our present location on Water 
street. It will never be so inacces- 
sible as it is just at present. As the 
city grows all the members will be 
further and further removed, and it 
will be necessary to take the trolley 
cars or other newer means of con- 
veyance to get into the centre of th>* 
city and then Water street may be 
about as convenient as Cheapside. 
No, I for one, do not think we have 
made any mistake in our permanent 
location. 



Report of the Directors 



BY 



WILLIAM A. WING 



Another twelfth month has passed 
in the history of this society. A year 
older and, we trust, wiser — l>nt we 
are still very young, comparatively, 
beside .some of the other historical 
societies of Massachusetts; such birth- 
years as 1700, 1797, 1811, 1822, 1S24, 
make our own 1003 seem rather in- 
fantile. So we may take hope that 
when wo have reached their advanced 
years we may have like honors, dig- 
nity and wealth, surely according to 
our deserts. 

This society will ever hold 
In Memoriaii] 

Surah C. Anthony. 
Standish Bourne. 
Lydia L. Bryant. 
Emma C. Cornell. 
Mary S. Cummings. 
William B. Fisher. 
Rebecca M. Frothingham. 
John L. Gibbs. 
Frances B. Greene. 
Isake 11. Gilford. 



Albert \V. Holmes. 

L icy J aiucs. 
Sarah \). OttlwelL 

Anna C. Phinney. 
Gardner T. Sanford. 
Mars B. Sanford. 
Charles P. Shaw. 
Susan S. Snow. 
Humphrey P. Swift. 
William X. Swift. 
Edmund Taber. 
Elizabeth R. Wing. 
Walter P. Winsor. 
Adelaide P. Wood. 

The death of Edmund Taber, our 
senior member, removes from our 
midst a charming gentleman of the 
old school. Old unly in years, the re- 
lation of his valued reminiscence and 
his interest in the aims of this or- 
ganization are pleasant memories. 

Respectfully submitted, 

Wm. A. Wing, Secretary. 



Report of the Treasurer 



BY 



WILLIAM A. MACKIE 



Annual report of William A. 
Mackie, treasurer of the Old Dart- 
mouth Historical society, from March 
31, 1911 to June 12, 1012. 

Ileceiplg. 

Balance, March 31, 1 911 $235.03 

Membership and Dues, 550.00 

Lyeeum Fund (Merchants Nat'l 

Rank), 27.00 

Lyceum Fund (Mechanics Nat'l 

Hank), 180.00 

Lyceum Fund (N. B 5c Sav- 
ing's Bank), 255.51 
Lyceum l'und (N. B. Inst, for 

Savings), $89.12 

Life Membership Fund (N. B. 

Inst, for Savings), 100.03 

Legacy Est. C. A. M. Taber, 150.00 

Rebate of Tax, 4S.30 



Payments. 



Sup.pl! 
Labor 



Bah 



$1350 
24S 
35 



194S.97 

52. 02 



Respectfully subm 
Wm. A. Mackie, 



$20uu. 
itted, 

Treasurer. 



$2000. 'J'.) 



Report of the Museum Section 

BY 

ANNIE SEABURY WOOD 



In presenting the 8th annual report 
of the museum section we have to 
confess to a year of inactivity on the 
part Of the committee. In November 
Roy C. Andrews gave a lecture un- 
der our auspices describing his wan- 
derings ill the South Seas and the 
Orient, but other than this nothing 
in this line has been attempted. 

The friends of the society, how- 
ever, have not been idle, and it is 
gratifying to be able to report that 
many important additions to the mu- 
seum have been made, some as gifts, 
others as loans. The annual meeting 
is the time when the society makes 
public acknowledgment of these ac- 
quisitions and we take this opportu- 
nity to extend our thanks to all con- 
tributors. While it is impossible to 
enumerate all of them we desire 
to make mention of the more Import- 
ant gifts received during the year. 

Historical lly, one of the must in- 
teresting is a kneeling stool used at 
the first Methodist meetings in New 
Bedford. At the foot of Mill street, 
which took its name from a windmill 
standing at the top of the hill 
there still stands a plain, old, two- 
storied house. The house was built 
by George East during the Revolu- 
tion and was afterwards known as 
East's Tavern. It became a great cen- 
tre for ministers, and as there were 
at that time no churches, religious 
services were often held there. On the 
eastern slope of the roof of the house 
is a scuttle and here, it is said, Mrs. 
East, a woman noted for her piety, 
used to screech and shout to the good 
people across the river to announce 
a meeting. In 17 95 Jesse Lee preach- 
ed in this house, the first Methodist, 
sermon ever listened to in New Bed- 
ford. The landing on the old stair- 
way where he stood remained un- 
changed within, but the praying 
stone upon which he knelt has found 
a home in the rooms of the society. 
It is a plain old piece of work, guilt- 
less of paint and absolutely without 
ornamentation, made apparently by 
rather unskiled hands with rather 
crude tools, and it is now somewhat 
shaky from age. A brass tablet, suit- 
ably inscribed, has been aflixed to it 
by its donor, Mary East Coggeshall, a 
great grand-daughter of George East. 

Mrs. Clement Nye Swift, whose inter- 
est in the society never flags, and 
who has always been untiring in her 
devotion to the work, has given, 
among many other things, the Men's 
High Seat from the old Friends' 
Meeting House built at Acushnet 
about 1740. This, too, is a very val- 



uable acquisition from a historical 
standpoint. 

Abbot P. Smith is greatly interested 
in the ancient household furnishings 
of the homes of old Dartmouth, and 
one of his many valued donations is 
a folding bed of unusual pattern 
from the Handy house at Hix's 
Bridge. This house which has lately 
come into the possession of Mr. 
Smith was built in 1714 (almost 200 
years ago) by George Cardrnan. From 
him it descended to his daughter, the 
wife of William White. About 100 
years ago it became the property of 
the Handy family and it is still known 
as the old Dr. Handy house, it is a 
most interesting place with big low 
rooms, fine old woodwork', a huge 
fireplace, a brick oven, and a smoke 
chamber for smoking hams 

The old packet ship New York of 
the Black l!;ill t.ine running between 
New York and Liverpool was com- 
manded by Captain Thomas Bennett, 
and a earved mast-sheath of beautiful 
design and workmanship from thac 
ship has been presented by Captain 
Bennett's grand-daughter, Miss Clara 
Bennett. 

An ancient try-pot used about 
1750 on the Fairhaven shore for try- 
ing out blubber from whales brought 
in from shore cruises, is the gift of 
Miss Anna Robinson at the request 
of her mother, Mrs. James Robinson. 

From William W. Crapo we have 
received a set of Benjamin Russell's 
drawings, which have ben previously 
acknowledged; from Charles W. Clif- 
ford, an artistic and interesting medal 
in bronze, and from Frank 11. Gifford, 
old account books and log books. 

The following bequests have also 
been received and are gratefully ac- 
knowledged: A pair of brass whale- 
oil lamps bequest of Lydia H. Church; 
a grand Chickering piano, the first in 
Fairhaven, brought by Captain Ar- 
thur Cox for his daughter; a por- 
trait of Captain Arthur Cox, both 
bequest of Sarah Cox Anthony; portraits 
of Mr. and Mrs. Hoag, bequest of their 
daughter, Abby Hoag; portrait of 
Captain Caleb Kempton, from his 
son, George Kempton. 

One word in closing. Many in- 
teresting articles have been placed 
in the rooms of the society during 
the year as loans, and although they 
are not mentioned in detail in this 
report, they have ben gladly receiv- 
ed and are fully appreciated." 
Respeet fully submitted, 

Annie Seabury Wood, 
Secretary Museum section. 



Report of the Publication Section 



BY 



WILLIAM A. WING 



[n Old Dartmouth's early days, the 
comparatively few who could write 
rarely took their "pen in hand," save 
on some occasion of import. The 
daily struggle for existence left little 
time for letters — paper was valuable 
and conveyance of news seldom and 
dangerous. Of the few letters that 
the vicissitudes of time have pre- 
served for us, there are three of more 
than passing interest. 

The first was written in Dartmouth 
in 17 27 by Jabez Delano (son of 
Jonathan) to his brother, Jonathan, 
who had moved to Tolland, Conn., and 
became an ancestor of President U. 
S. Grant: 

Loving Brother — I was moved to 
write to you before now, both within 
myself and from mother, but I put 
her off because of the sickness that 
was in my family. 

Our eldest has had a long linger- 
ing illness. I am but poorly, but the 
sickness has been very general in our 
town. Four grown persons died in 
our village, viz.: Jonathan Hathaway, 
Rose Spooner, Jemima Babcock and 
Amos Taber's wife. 

We have indifferent good crops. 
We have had a great drought, which 
lasted from English morning till about 
ye middle of Sept. (The usual farm- 
ers' complaint of the weather!). 

Of an earthquake — A week yes- 
terday, about ten at night, which 
shook both ye land and water, the 
islands and seas at that degree that 
several doors were shook of ye latch 
in our village, and 'tis said that at 
Nantucket ye harthstones grated one 
against another and that Car, ye boat 
builder, run out of his house, got in 
a boat for fear ye island should sink. 

My love to all our friends, fare- 
well, 

Your Brother, 



1727. 



Jabez Delano. 



Whaling correspondence is shown 
as early as 1745-6, in the following 
letter by Philip Taber to his son, 
Tucker Taber, at Dartmouth: 



Sandy Hook, ye G of 12 mo., 1745-6. 
Loving Sons — Having this oppor- 
tunity thot proper to rite to you to 
inform you that we are well and that 
George Sisson arrived here last sec- 
ond day and thay are very desirus to 
go oft a whaling as soon as possible 
and want you to come as soon as pos- 
sible and to bring a good boat and if 
the, can bring som good hands it 
would not be amis. Thomas Akins 
will not haul his boat very soon for 
his sloop is gon to Cape Britton (the 
Louisburg expedition). Our love to 
you and all friends is what offers at 
present from your 

Ever loving father, 

Philip Taber. 



The servant problem was vexatious 
even then, for Thomas Hazard — 
known as "Bedford Tom," the presi- 
dent of the Bedford Bank on the very 
site of our Historical Society— writes 
from New Bedford, July s, 1S03, to 
his brother, Lowland Hazard, Esq., of 
Kingston, R. I.: 

Patience that our father and 
mother brought up has been here about 
10 days. She is so much demented and 
so troublesome in our house that I 
was obliged to apply to the authori- 
ties and have her sent to the work- 
house, where she now is, as we do 
not know in what town in the state 
of Rhode Island she belongs. I shall 
be much obliged by they informing 
me immediately on receipt of this, 
what town has to maintain her so 
that our selectmen may take the right 
steps to get her where she belongs 
and to be clear of the expense and 
trouble of her. 

We are as well as usual, with 
much love to dear mother, thy wife 
and children, in which we all join. 

Thy affectionate brother, 

Thomas Hazard, Jr. 

Respectfully submitted, 

Wm. A. Wing, Chairman. 



Report of the Photograph Section 



BY 



WILLIAM A. WING 



In the year of our Lord 1555, 
there was born near Bedford, Eng- 
land, one Lewis Latham. He was 
gently bred and trained in the art of 
falconry, becoming sergeant falconier 
to King Charles I. In those days an 
office of importance and distinction. 
It was his brother, Seymour Latham, 
who wrote the authority on that art, 
'Latham's Falconry.' 

In 1G55 at the ripe age of 100 
years 'Lewis Lathame Gent was 
buried,' according to the parish reg- 
ister. 

His daughter, Frances married 
respectively Lord Weston William 
Dungan, Jeremiah Clarke, William 
Vaughan, and came eventually to live 
in Newport, in Rhode Island, bring- 
ing among her household goods a por- 
trait of her father painted in his ad- 
vanced years. This portrait bears in 
one corner the Latham arms and i3 
today the property of descendants, the 
heirs of Mr. Elkins, whose daughter 
it was said might become allied with 
the Royal House of Italy. 



Walter Clarke, the grandson of 
Lewis Latham, inherited his mother's 
propensity for marrying frequently. 
His wives were: Content Greenman, 
Hannah Scott (an aunt of Mary 
(Holder) Slocum, Freeborn Williams 
(a daughter of Roger Williams,) and 
Sarah Prior. Descendants came 
eventually to Old Dartmouth and one 
married an early owner of the How- 
land farm at Round Hills, and so 
Lewis Latham became an ancestor 
of many old Dartmouth folk. 

We have lately acquired an inter- 
esting photograph from this ancient 
portrait for our photograph room. 
So bringing us of the present here in 
New Bedford in New England back 
into the past to that Court Fal- 
coner, who saw in his one hundred 
years of life so many historic happen- 
ings, Lewis Latham, Esq., of old Bed- 
ford in old England.' 

Respectfully submitted, 

Wm. A. Wing, Chairman. 



George H. Tripp paid a tribute to 
what the Old Dartmouth society had 
accomplished. "Either of its three 
objects," he declared, "would be an 
excuse for its existence. There is the 
collection, which is on exhibition at 
the rooms of the society. Then 
there is the publication of the so- 
ciety, the thirty odd numbers of which 
now contain an immense amount of 
valuable material. We use them a 
great deal in the library, and the so- 



ciety ought to take a great deal of 
pride in them. 

Another work that is hardly rec- 
ognized is the monumental work done 
by Mr. Worth, in preparing an index 
of the local papers, which involved" 
looking over the tiles of nearly a 
hundred years, and gives almost a 
complete chronological history of New 
Bedford. It was a labor of love by 
one man, and is worthy of a great 
deal of honor." 




OLD DARTMOUTH 



HISTORICAL SKETCHES 



No. 36 



The Proceedings of the Thirty-sixth Quarterly Meeting of the 
Old Dartmouth Historical Society; being their annual outing, 
and held in Westport, Massachusetts, 12 September, 1912. 



HIX'S BRIDGE AND THE HANDY HOUSE 



By Henry B. Worth 



[Note. — The " Old Dartmouth Historical Society Sketches" will he published 
by the Society quarterly and may be purchased for ten cents each, on application 
to the Secretary and also at Hutchinson's Book Store. 1 



PROCEEDINGS 



OF THE 



Thirty -sixth Quarterly Meeting 



The Old Dartmouth Historical so- 
ciety held its annual outing - and 3Gth 
quarterly meeting yesterday at the old 
Handy house at Hix Bridge. The trip 
was made in automobiles, about 3U 
machines leaving the public li- 
brary building at 11 a. m., and 
passing through Smith Mills, Westport 
Factory, and down to the old Potter 
house, which was built in 1077, a 
short distance north of Central Vil- 
lage. From the Potter house the trip 
continued south to the road leading 
to Hix's Bridge and then to the Handy 
house, arriving there by 12 30 o'clock. 
This old house was built in 1714 and 
has been recently restored to its origi- 
nal condition by the present owner, 
Abbott P. Smith. Here the party had 
lunch. 

William W. Crapo, Henry IT. Crapo, 
Edmund Wood, Mary E. Bradford, Mrs. 
Thomas A. Tripp, Anna B Tripp, Clara 
Bennett, Henry B. Worth, Sarah E. 
Worth, George It. Stetson. Mrs. George 
R. Stetson, Willard N. Bane, Mrs. M. J. 
Leary, George S. Taber, Mary B. Deon- 
ard, Roland A. Leonard, Clara a. Head, 
Mrs. William II. Wood, William II. 
Wood, Calista H. Parker, Elizabeth 
Watson, Caroline H. Hiler, Ella H. 
Read, Sarah II. Taber, Susan G. W. 
Jones, Carolyne S. Jones, Eraneis T. 
Hammond, Edward B. Smith, Mrs. Ed- 
ward B. Smith, Mrs. Clifford Baylies, 
Mary W. Taber, Mrs. Sarah Kelley, 
Caroline S. Akin, Mrs. Mayhew It. 
Hitch, Mayhew R. Hitch, Alice How- 
land Tripp, Gertie E. Bridgham, George 
L. Hahiteh, Mrs. George B Habitch, 
George It. Phillips, George R. Wood, 
Mrs. William C. Phillips, William C. 
Hawes, Mrs. William C. Hawes, Josiah 
Hunt, Mrs. J. Hunt, Natalie Hunt, Mrs. 
J. B. Martin, Bertha A. C. Mosher, Wil- 
liam E. Hatch, Arthur R. Brown, Eliza- 
beth P. Swift, Elmore P. Haskins, Wil- 
liam A. Wing, Arthur A. Jones, David 

B. Parker, William II. Reynard, George 
H. Tripp, Mrs. Susan H. Kempton, Anna 

C. Ricketson, Cornelia G. Winslovv, Cyn- 



thia D. Jenney, Margaret Earle Wood, 
Priscilla Howland, Francis Rodman, 
Arthur G. Grinnell, Mr. and Mrs. 
Llewellyn Howland, Carline Stone. 
Thomas S. Hathaway, Sarah Tappan 
Coe, William Stevenson, Gertrude S. 
Perry, Mrs. Abby L. Priehard, Mrs. Mae 
A. Braley, Thomas E. Braley, Bred d. 
Stetson, Caroline W. Hathaway, Marian 
Parker, Mrs. H. B. Worth, Caroline E. 
Hicks, Dr. Wm. J. Nickerson, Charles 
A. Tuell, Elvira M. Tuell, Carrie E. 
Davis (Mrs. B. B.), Helen H. Davis, 
Margaret E. Gibbs, Frank Denhy, Mrs. 
Andrew G. Paine, Mary B. Paine, Eliza- 
beth N. Swift, Gertrude W. Baxter, 
Mary Kempton Taber, Sallv Gordon 
Taber, Mrs. William N. Church, Ka- 
therine B. Swift, Mrs. C. A. Cook. Mr. 
and Mrs. William Huston, Mrs. Fred S. 
Potter, George E. Briggs, l-'rancis J. 
Denhy, Mr. and xMrs. Frank W. Wildes, 
Thomas B. Wildes, Caroline B Aid- 
rich, Gertrude W. Mann, Hilda P. 
Tripp, Benjamin C. Tripp, Cortez Allen, 
Elizabeth S. Macomber, Edward B 
Macomber, Herbert S. Peirce, Grace B. 
Peirce, Jennie C. Peirce, Mrs. H C. 
Washburn, Albert A. Ruddock, H. C. 
Washburn, Mrs. S. J. Tripp, Benj. W. 
Allen, George E. Tripp, Edna M. Tripp, 
Etta J. Allen, George J. Allen, Charles 
T. Heron, George E. Handy, Milton E. 
Borden, Roland Cornell, George Hart, A. 
F. Brownell, John Mosher, A. P. Smith 
A. Westby, D. W. Baker. 

President Wood addressed the meet- 
ing. 

Members and friends of the Old 
Dartmouth Historical Society and 
Citizens of Westport: 

Today we celebrate our society's 
outing within the limits of that por- 
tion of Did Dartmouth which was 
set off as the town of Westport. It is 
Fitting that we should do this for we 
have already held similar meetings 
in Acushnet and Fairhaven and North 
Dartmouth and South Dartmouth, 
and several meetings in New Bed- 
lord. 



Itight here the interrupting small 
boy might cry out: 'What's the mat- 
ter with Westport? 1 We can all say 
that Westport is all right. Then- is 
absolutely nothing the matter with 
her — unless we might say that she 
Buffers from being too far away from 
New Bedford and too near to Fall 
River. That is too great a strain to 
put upon the virtue of any town. 
Rut Westport had within her that 
which always was against provincial- 
ism and village narrowness — and that 
?8 a sea port and commercial relations 
with a wider world — and they began 
very early to develop it. 

"Before the neighboring towns on 
the north and west had really learned 
that the earth was round, the inhabi- 
tants of Westport had followed Nt-w 
Bedford down to the sea in ships and 
had begun at Westport Point to regu- 
larly fit out some good sized whalers. 
Here began John Avery Parker in a 
moderate way which developed stead- 
ily after he had moved to New Bed- 
ford until he became one of the mer- 
chant princes of his time; and 
Henry Wilcox laid by a fortune which 
the land would never have yielded. 

"The town of Westport has always 
prospered. It has been a place of 
beautiful farms of a thrifty, prosper- 
ous people. It has furnished from 
its hardy seamen some of the most 
adventerous and successful whaling 
captains that that fearless industry 
has ever known. In its earlier days 
it had a social life, centering in 
Adamsville of some aristocratic pre- 
tensions; it had an unusually prosper- 
ous settlement of Quakers at Central 
"Village, and in the industrious, ex- 
emplary and successful life of Paul 
Cuffe, it had the earliest exhibition of 
the capacity and executive ability of 
the American Negro which waited 
long for an equal exponent in Fred- 
erick Douglass and Booker T. Wash- 
ington. 



"We are glad to meet in Westport 
today. We are interested in its wel- 
fare and many of its inhabitants are 
interested in our society. We have 
several members from Westport, and 
one, Edward L. Macomber, is a di- 
rector. 

We have come oxer today for two 
purposes; to see the historic houses 
which have survived 200 years, and 
secondly to learn something about 
them and of the Old Dartmoutn 
mothers who dwelt in them, and of 
the life which went on -!00 years ago 
and dignified this same picture of 
house and landscape and beautiful 
expanse of river. 

W T e have several full Hedged, well 
developed historians in New Bedford, 
who are attached to our society, and 
we generally carry them with us 
when we wander forth into the more 
remote parts of our old township. 

Tiie dean of our faculty of history 
is Hon. William W. Crapo,. who 
through a long life of studious re- 
search and by many published essays 
and public addresses has illuminated 
the part of his native town. 

We have Henry H. Crapo, who has 
within a week stirred us with a rush- 
ing mighty wind the dry leaves and 
vegetable mould of the genealogical 
camps of eastern New England. I 
shall hope at some future meeting to 
say more of this interesting publica- 
tion which means so much to our 
own society. 

And we have Henry B. Worth, 
who more than any other man has 
shed a steady light upon the ancient 
land proprietors and the house of our 
ancestors. Fortified by these threa 
experts our society is safe to travel, 
and no citizen of Westport will dare 
to mislead us or take us in by spin- 
ning any visionary yarns for our con- 
sumption. 



Hix's Bridge and the Handy House 



BY 



HENRY BARNARD WORTH 



It is of great advantage that this 
meeting should be held in such an his- 
toric centre where are clustered so 
many features of interest, and where 
two centuries ago resided some of the 
leading families of Old Dartmouth, be- 
cause here it is possible to observe the 
landmarks face to face. 

At this point in its course the 
Acoakset river is contracted within 
narrow limits by the hills on either 
side, and here is the most picturesque 
spot in the Indian line of travel be- 
tween the Acushnet and Saconet. 

As early as 1(586 there must have 
been transportation across the river, 
because at that date the Handy farm 
was bounded on the south "by a high- 
way," and this would be a meaningless 
public utility unless there were some- 
arrangement at the river to reach the 
other side. The highway at the east 
side of the river extended to Appone- 
ganseit, and on the north side front- 
ing this fiver was the homestead of 
Valentine Huddlestone, and across the 
road was the homestead of Samuel 
Cornell, which ho obtained from his 
mother, Rebecca. On the west side oC 
the river the highway in lGSti extend- 
ed up the steei) hill to the road "lead- 
ing to Paquaehuck." now known as 
Westport Point; on the south side of 
this read was a great tract owned by 
Joseph Coleman of Scituate, and on 
the north side the farm owned by 
Peleg Slocum, which at that date he 
conveyed to William Ricketson, and 
shortly after was purchased by George 
Cadman. and in recent years known 
as the Handy fram. How much before 
that date a ferry was operated, the 
records fail to disclose, but the pres- 
ence of public roads leading to the 
river from each side indicates the ex- 
istence of some method of crossing 
previous to that time. By whom the 
ferry was first conducted cannot be 
determined except by inference. When 



the road was laid out on the east side 
in 1707 it began "where the ferry- 
boat now usually lands"; this was be- 
fore Mary Hix engaged in the busi- 
ness, and while it might have been 
operated by either of the farm owners 
there is nothing to suggest that Hud- 
dlestone. Cornell or Coleman was 
concerned in the undertaking. From 
1686 to 171b the Handy farm was 
owned by George Cadman, the most 
prominent man in the locality; and in 
1710 he conveyed to Mary Hix the 
land on the river front which she used 
as the ferry landing, and where she 
lived. This is some indication that 
when she made the purchase and en- 
gaged in the ferry she continued what 
George Cadman had previously estab- 
lished. 

For over two centuries the central 
feature of this region was at first the 
ferry, and then the bridge. Joseph 
Hix came from Westport in 170 J and 
purchased a farm at the end of West- 
port Point, where he died in 17o'J. 
He left a widow, Mary, who was the 
daughter of William Earle. and she at 
once displayed considerable business 
activity. She purchased the lot on the 
west side of the river from George 
Cadman. built a house, and continued 
the ferry across the river. A short 
time later she secured land at the 
Head of Westport, probably with the 
purpose of finally choosing which- 
ever locality provided the best busi- 
ness results. The court records of 
Bristol county indicate that she was 
not unmindful of the requirements of 
Colonial travelers, and so in 1710 and 
subsequent years she obtained a 
license to sell strong drink. She sold 
the land and house at the ferry in 
173 5 to her son, William, and he at 
once took steps to build a bridge, but 
it was not until 173 S that he had com- 
pleted the structure. Then the voters 
of the Head of the River, under the 



load of George Lawton, William SIsson 
and othors, protested to the general 
court that William Hix. who had the 
privilege of a ferry, had built a bridge 
which was a common nuisance be- 
cause it obstructed the passage of 
boats up and down the river, and they 
asked that the nuisance be removed. 
Notice was issued to Hix to show why 
the petition should not be granted. It 
cannot be discovered how far this sub- 
ject became an issue in the town, but 
in 1739 William Hix was elected rep- 
resentative to the general court, and 
again in 1740, a remarkable fact con- 
sidering the lack of interest which the 
members of the Hix family have taken 
in political life. This election gave 
him such an advantage in the bridge 
controversy that the conclusion is 
sound that the townspeople united 
with him against the protesting voters 
at the head of the river. In 1739, in 
response to the notice from the gen- 
eral court. William Hix represented 
that he had built a commodious 
bridge at his own expense, at the most 
convenient place, and that the same 
was of great benefit to the public, and 
asked that the general court would 
confirm and establish the same as a 
toll-bridge. They voted to allow him 
to maintain the bridge and to charge 
as toll the same amount as he had 
previously charged for ferriage. In 
1743 he was allowed to double the 
toll rates, because of the cost of the 
building and maintaining the bridge. 
The construction of the bridge was 
probably an important factor in lead- 
ing the Dartmouth voters to remove 
the town house in 17 50 to the Head 
of Apponegansett. And it is significant 
that the objection to this removal 
came from the same men who ob- 
jected to the maintenance of Hix 
bridge. Their self-interest and con- 
venience were apparent in both pro- 
ceedings. 

The Hix Bridge farm, including the 
bridge and approaches, and the farm 
on the south side of the road, west 
of the river, had been acquired by 
William Hix, and at his death passed 
to his widow, Anna, and his children, 
and was finally owned by Joseph Gif- 
ford, who had married a daughter. 
The property was purchased in 1804 
by John Avery Parker, Devi Standish 
and Josiah Brownell; and owned by 
them until 1814, the property was 
offered for sale, and it was then ar- 
ranged that it should be purchased by 
Dr. James H. Handy and Frederick 
Brownell, that the doctor should take 
the deed in his own name; then con- 
vey the bridge and all land east of the 
driftway to Brownell, who should pav 
the sum of $2,800. Brownell took 
charge and repaired the bridge as his 
own, collected toll, paid the taxes, 
built a building on the north side, 



where he conducted a country store, 
and finally in cash and groceries paid 
the doctor the entire price of the 

property; but the latter neglected and 
refused to give any deed. The town 
took the bridge in 1871, abolished the 
toil feature, and made an award of 
$1,800 to whoever might be the owner. 
This led to legal proceedings between 
Brownell and Dr. Handy's estate, but 
Brownell succeeded in getting the 
money. In 187G Giles Brownell hold 
to Albert M. Allen the remaining land 
at both ends of the bridge, and it was 
later acquired by Mrs. Betsey F. 
Allen. On the second fioor of the store 
building, where Frederick Browne]] 
conducted his business for over fifty 
years, was the lodge room of the 
Noquochoke Free Masons, and when 
they erected their own building <-ast 
of the river Mrs. Allen sold the store 
to Daniel J. Sullivan. Adjoining this 
building is the landing laid out by the 
selectmen in 1717. 

The farm on the north side of the 
road, extending from the river- to the 
main highway at Central Village, was 
purchased in 1G87 by George Cadman, 
who had removed from Portsmouth, 
Rhode Island. His later homestead, 
comprising over five hundred acres, 
lay along Cadman's Brook, two miles 
north of Hix bridge. He was selected 
to fill many town offices and was a 
wealthy man for that period, and 
owned a Negro slave that he disposed 
of in his will. His only descendant 
was one daughter, Elizabeth, who 
married a William White, whose an- 
cestry has defied all historical re- 
search. Cadman conveyed the north- 
west corner of this farm "where Wil- 
liam White lives" to the Dartmouth 
Monthly Meeting of Friends in 1717, 
and here is the Quaker meeting- 
house. The rest of the farm he de- 
vised to his daughter and her hus- 
band, and after them to their chil- 
dren. In 1794 it was owned by 
Jonathan White, and the east hundred 
acres was that year purchased by Dr. 
Eli Handy of Rochester. At the death 
of the doctor, in 1812, the farm passed 
to his son, James H. Handy, who was 
also a physician of considerable 
celebrity. Industrious in his profes- 
sion, he was nevertheless negligent of 
his own business interests. It is said 
that he never collected any bills and 
never paid any; and his estate was 
insolvent. This carelessness involved 
the bridge in the complications already 
described. Yet he was a famous 
country doctor. 

The great house occupied by the 
Handy family reveals the fact that it 
was built at three different periods. 
William White married Elizabeth 
Cadman about 1714. and went there 
to live, and their house, a pretentious 
mansion for those days, was the east 




1-TIIE CADMAN - WHITE HOUSE 2— THE RICKETSON - SHERMAN HOUSE 

3— THE WAITE- POTTER HOUSE 



flection of the present structure. The 
framework which has not been con- 
cealed by plastering or wall paper, 
gives unmistakeable evidence . of it.-j 
ace. When the central portion Is ex- 
amined, where the corner posts 
project into the room only a feu- 
inches, there is conclusive evidence of 
a construction not far from 1800. This 
portion was probably built by Dr. Eli 
Handy. The west section, in which 
the corner posts are entirely concealed, 
was erected many years later. A gen- 
tleman is now living who states that 
this was built by Dr. James If. Handy, 
that he borrowed the money to pay 
for the same from a sister of George 
Kirby, and failing to repay the 
amount, the farm was attached and 
bought by Kirby, and was later pur- 
chased by a friend of the Handy 
family, who, in 1876, conveyed it to 
Miss Hannah Handy, a sister of the 
doctor, who had paid for it by work 
as a seamstress. She devised the 
property to a son of the doctor, and 
last \ear his descendants sold the 
farm, the part west of the driftway, 
with the mansion, to Abbott P. Smith, 
and the east part to Herbert S. Pierce. 
The house that Mary Hix erected at 
the west end of the bridge about 1710, 
stood on the south side of the road, 
and after the'' Revolutionary war was 
considerably rebuilt. One room of the 
old structure was retained, but this 
was considerably obscured by the ad- 
ditional structure. The house is now 
painted red . Here was the residence 
of the bridge owners until it was pur- 
chased by Albert M. Allen, and here 
for years bicyele tourists and the Ma- 
sonic brethren appreciated the enter- 
tainment that could be obtained at 
Aunt Betsey's. 

At the conclusion of the meeting at 
the Handy house, a visit was made 
to the old Ricketson house, which 
was built in 1684, then back through 
Russells Mills to New Bedford. 

HISTORIC NOTES ON 
THESE OLD HOUSES 



Ricketson-Sherman House, Westport. 

This house is located on the west 
Fide of the road leading from South 
Westport to Horse Neck, about two 
miles south of the South Westport 
Corner and 300 yards east of the 
read. 

Tne iand was originally owned by 
Hannah Gaunt, a descendant of the 
Southworth family of Duxbury. In 
t684 she conveyed the same to Wil- 
liam Ricketson, before that time a 



resident of Portsmouth, R. I. in 
1 G S Z Mr. Ricketson petitioned the. 
town of Portsmouth for leave to 

build a water-mill, and in 1683 he pe- 
titioned to be admitted as a freeman. 

The town records disclose no action 
on either petition. His next appear- 
ance seems to have been, in Dart- 
mouth. When all the land to which 
he was entitled had been set off to 
Lim he owned nearly 500 acres, 
bounded west by the Noquochoke riv- 
er. He died in 1691, leaving three 
sons, Timothy, William and Jonathan, 
and widow Elizabeth, who later mar- 
ried Mathew Wing; and from these 
two marriages are descended the 
Ricketsons, and most of the Wings jf 
this section. 

This farm remained in the Ricket- 
son family until 1796. The por- 
tion containing this house was sold 
to Thomas Sherman of Rhode Island, 
and in 100 4 was owned by Charles 
and Albert C. Shermaii of New Bed- 
ford, two of his descendants. 

This house is located on a hill 
which commands a view embracing 
Adamsvills, South Westport, West- 
port Point to the Elizabeth Islands. 
It faces south and end to the ad- 
joining road. The chimney is made 
of stone, and according to the princi- 
ples governing the latest Rhode Is- 
land stone chimney. The chimney 
extends nearly across the house and 
furnished the four rooms each with a 
lire-place. The house throughout has 
heavy summers, bracketed corner- 
posts. The timbers are all of sawed 
pine and handsomely though plainly 
finished. Such a construction clearly 
antedates 1700. 

In the east chamber the mantel- 
piece and frame about the fire-place 
indicate the finest degree of hand 
workmanship, in a day when sand- 
paper was unknown. When Isham 
and Brown visited this house in De- 
cember, 1903, it was their opinion 
that it was constructed about 1684. 

The last occupant left it before 
18 7 7, and as the dust worm has prac- 
tically destroyed its frame in the 
first story, it cannot remain standing 
many years longer. 

"William Ricketson's business was 
that of a miller, and he operated a 
saw mill on the brook southeast from 
his homestead, where possibly the 
timbers of this house were prepared 
and finished. 

Waite-Potter House, Westport. 

This house is located about half a 
mile north of Central Village, between 
Main and River roads, and was owned 
in 1904 by Perry G. Potter. It can be 
seen from the main road except in the 
summer season, when hid by the foli- 
age of the trees. 



The original farm in which this 
house is located was situated on both 
sides of the main road, and was con- 
veyed in 1 GO 1 by William Earle to 
Thomas Waite; comprised over 2U0 
acres and was bounded east by the 
Noquoehoke river. It remained in the 
Waite family until 1728, when Ben- 
jamin Waite sold the part between the 
riser and the main road to Robert 
Kirby, whose descendants continued in 
possession until 1837, when lehabod 
Kirby conveyed to Restcome Potter 
his homestead farm of 50 acres on 
which this house is located. When 
Restcome Potter died the farm de- 
scended to his son, the present owner. 
In the deed to Mr. Potter a small 
piece of land was reserved which had 
been the Kirby burial lot for over a 
hundred years, the rough stones in 
the lot being marked, one R. K. a 
second, the same, and another I. K. 
The Waite burial lot is in that section 
of the farm lying on the west side of 
the road. 

This house is the oldest in old Dart- 
mouth, if not in southern Massachu- 
setts. It will be noticed that the 
chimney is constructed in two sections, 
the right of which is stone and the 
left brick. The explanation handed 
down among the owners is that when 
the west addition was built, just previ- 
ous to the Revolutionary War, it was 
found the old stone chimney would 
not furnish a fireplace for the addi- 
tion without another Hue, and hence 
the west section of brick was built 
against the old stone chimney. The 
ancient section of the house is that 
which appears in the picture as the 
centre. It is built according to the 
methods in vogue in Rhode Island 
following 1650. 

It is a one-story dwelling of one 
room IS feet square, with a fireplace, 
as shown in the photograph, and a low 
attic under the roof. The west end of 
the ancient house was a stone wall 
tapering with the roof and ending in 
the chimney stack. The fireplace is 
wide, but low, and a century after the 
house was built was lined with brick. 
The chimney jamb is a beam 18 inches 
square. The summer was placed par- 
allel to the chimney and was sup- 
ported by posts set into the walls of 
the house. The corner posts are 
bracketed and braced. The mortar in 
the chimney is of composition made 
from seashells. The entire construc- 
tion indicates that the building was 
erected before 1700. 

Messrs. Isham and Brown of Provi- 
dence, experts in Colonial house 
building, examined this structure in 
1903, and suggested 1660 as the prob- 
able date of construction, but the tra- 
dition exists that it was built in the 
1677, which was the year following the 
King Philip war, as the Indians are 
supposed to have destroyed all dwell- 



ings in this section. The tradition is 
probably correct, us last occupant, a 
Kirby, left it to move into the west 
addition, and the old portion has 
since been used as a pigsty, henroost 
and general farm purposes. 

Restcome Potter lived in the west 
part two years after he purchased the 
farm, and then built the present 
farmhouse 

Dr. Handy House, Westport. 

This house is located a short dis- 
tance west of the Ilix Bridge, at the 
northwest corner of the road leading 
to Westport Point and in 1904 Wis 
owned by a descendant of the famous 
Dr. Handy. 

The laud was originally set off to 
George Cadman and that farm ex- 
tended from the river west and in- 
cluded the Quaker meeting house, 
cemetery, and town house at Central 
Village. 

George Cadman's only child was 
Elizabeth, who married William 
White of Rochester. Thus the name 
Cadman in this branch of the family 
disappeared from Dartmouth, but the 
numerous descendants by the name 
of White in that part of New England 
all trace their lineage back to Eliza- 
beth Cadman. They were married 
about 1714, and this property was 
placed at their disposal by George 
Cadman, and in his will, probated in 
1729, was devised to William White 
and wife. 

1794. Jonathan White to Humph- 
rey White. 

17 94. Humphrey White to Ell 
Handy, physician, and the house has 
remained in the Handy family since 
that date. 

From an exterior view the impres- 
sion might be gained that this house 
was originally built for a tavern or 
a road house, but the observer would 
scarcely discover that it was con- 
structed at the separate dates cover- 
ing 120 years. This clearly appears 
by an interior examination. 

The two front doors divide the 
house into three sections, forming 
six rooms on the lower floor and the 
same number on the second. Begin- 
ning at the east end it will be ob- 
served that here is a heavy summer 
parallel to the end of the house ex- 
tending through both rooms, and in 
the second story the heavy corner- 
posts are bracketed. In the middle 
section there is no summer and the 
part of the corner-posts projecting in- 
to the room somewhat insignificant; 
while in the west rooms the summer 
and corner-posts have entirely dis- 
appeared. In the east part a signi- 
iicant feature is the bracing from cor- 
ner-post to girder, as shown in the 
interior. In the east part the edge3 
of all timbers chamfered. 



. 



to 



The evidence Is satisfactory to indi- 
cate that the east end was the origin- 
al house; but it was built in 1714 to 
16; that it had a west chimney which 
provided a fire-place for all the 
rooms; that about 1730 the owner de- 
sired to build a west addition, and 
that it became necessary to remove 



the original chimney and build the 
present east chimney; that Dr. Handy 
in 1821 built the west third of the 
house. 

The house was purchased by Abbott 
P. Smith in 1911 and he has done 
much to restore the house l<> its orig- 
inal condition. H. B. W. 




ABBOTT P. SMITH 




OLD DARTMOUTH 



HISTORICAL SKETCHES 



No. 37 



Being the proceedings of the Thirty-Seventh Meeting of the 
Old Dartmouth Historical Society, held in their building, 
Water Street, New Bedford, Massachusetts, on January 29, 1913. 



NEW BEDFORD ONE HUNDRED AND TWENTY 
YEARS AGO, AS GLIMPSED THROUGH THE 
MEDLEY. 

By Ida A. McAfee. 



[Note. — The "Old Dartmouth Historical Sketches" will be published by the 
Society quarterly and may be purchased for ten cents each on application to the 
Secretary and also at Hutchinson's Hook Store.] 




OLD DARTMOUTH 



HISTORICAL SKETCHES 



No. 37 



Being the proceedings of the Thirty-Seventh Meeting of the 
Old Dartmouth Historical Society, held in their building, 
Water Street, New Bedford, Massachusetts, on January 29, 1913. 



NEW BEDFORD ONE HUNDRED AND TWENTY 
YEARS AGO, AS GLIMPSED THROUGH THE 
MEDLEY. 



By Ida A. McAfee. 



[Note. — The "Old Dartmouth Historical Sketches" will be published by the 
Society quarterly and may be purchased for ten cents each on application to the 
Secretary and also at Hutchinson's Book Store.] 



PROCEEDINGS 



OF THE 



THIRTY -SEVENTH MEETING 



Old Dartmouth Historical Society 



in their building 

WATER STREET, NEW BEDFORD 

MASSACHUSETTS 



JANUARY 29, 1913 



On Henry Howland Crapo's The 

Comeoverers " and Tablet to 

Ralph Earle 

BY 

PRESIDENT EDMUND WOOD 



President Edmund Wood in opening- generations this undertaking was 

the meeting said: enough to occupy about all their 

Since our last meeting there has energy Much of the life which was 

been published in this community a llved , b « v these uld w crtnies in this 

notable book, "Certain Comeoverers," very locality was a hemely life, but 

in two volumes, by Henry Howland they were creatures of flesh and 

Crapo. This publication is worthy of *>lood. With a few notable exceptions 

prominent notice in the proceedings they were quite ordinary men and 



of this society, not only because it 



women with a very limited sphere of 



was written by one of our members actl on. The family was in a way 



who has already contributed for us a 



patriarchal and few broke away 
from the ancestral home. Far from 



paper, but also because it treats so •"." " JC auL »"*J uumc. j. ; «u u^u 

largely of the people who settled and their iarms and from their usual 

established the township of Old Dart- wealth of children 

mouth. "Their sober wishes never learned to 

The history of this locality is in- stray. 
teresting only as it becomes a history Alon ? the cocl sequestered vale of 
of the people who settled here, and » e noiseless tenor of their 
lived and loved and strove and who way." 
transmitted through worthy descend- 
ants so goodly a Heritage. But it isn't They tilled the land and got 
often that a learned book on more than a living off of it. and we 
genealogy and ballasted heavily with know the obstinate ungrateful char- 
ancestral diagrams with infinite rami- acter of most of that land now and it 
Mentions, nan be considered an ani- couldn't have been much better then, 
mated history of a people or place. Slocum's Neck yields more hens and 
Such a work is generally a history of eggs end less in crops every year, 
dead names, dry, yes, and mouldy, Jl1 th ^' description of this locality 
too. But here we have a publication we recognize an old friend in the 
about the dead,— long, long dead, but story of Lhezer Slocum and his wife 
which is very much alive. The char- the Lady Elephel. The material m 
acters in it have lived, and been < hl * chapter was first presented m a 
actuated bv the same ambitions and P*Per re ad before this society a few 



passions which we recognize about us 



years ago. And a most delightful 



daily. Some led saintly lives or vio- ™ap[er %lX , P ?hTi„ wht ^ 

i + i i • t n . *„;+u ...-./i e ,,f felocum s Neck are here brought into 

ently proclaimed their faith and suf- dd t h . = 

tered dire persecution and torture for ■ 

righteousness s sake; and there were civilization 

others who sinned easily and fell far He £ . g aH the material for a most 

short of the glory of God. delightful novel and that too without 

The story begins with the landing a viulent departure from the rather 

of the Pilgrims, close by us at Ply- legendary story. Can we not indulge 

mouth, and extends up into Newbury- in . the hope that the author, having 

port and down thro' Old Dartmouth already contributed so much pleasure 

into Rhode Island. All this land was j )V n j S artistic recital of the rather 

new. It was an unbroken wilderness meagre historical facts, may not 

and the first instinct and duty was to come day give his imagination free 

break and subdue it, and for a few rein and round out tin story into a 



historical romance almost medieval in dust but lo! the style is, as it were, 
its ruggedness and truly artistic in moistened wit 1j sparkling champagne', 
its harmonious grouping of most The Old Dartmouth Historical so- 
violent contrasts. ciety is gratified by its connection 

Taking- this publication as a whole wltn so charming a book, 
we are impressed with its compre- President Wood announced that 
hensiveness and the wide range of *inee the last meeting an additional 
the author's research. The balancing tablet had been added to 'the collec- 
of conflicting authorities, which are tiori already in possession of the so- 
more or less traditions, -is calmly ciety, this latest tablet being inscribed 
judicial. R*it the whole is pervaded "Ralph Earle, Leader of Settlers, 
by a playful fancy working with a Died 1716." It was from a descend- 
light and delicate touch. Never be- ant, Margaret Earle Wood. Secretary 
fore it seems to us, has a scholarly Wing read a brief sketch from Mr. 
genealogy been handled vivaciously. Crapo's book of the Ralph Earle for 
The subject and the abundant pedi- whom the tablet was erected, and his 
grees lead us to expect a Dr. Dryas- parents. 



■ 



New Bedford One Hundred and Twenty 

Years Ago, as Glimpsed through 

The Medley 



BY 



IDA A. McAFEE 



One hundred and twenty year;? 
ago takes us back to 1793. That 
was ten years later than the 
signing of the treaty of peace 
following the Colonies' War for 
Independence. It was the year of the 
closing scenes of the French Revolu- 
tion, and the year that saw the 
French Republic established. Ii wa^ 
the year when Louis XVI lost his 
head and Marie Antoinette suffered 
a similar fate. It was a year that 
saw France and England embroiled 
in war, and pretty much all of Europe 
(j ut with gun and sword. 

It was in the presidency of George 
Washington. It wad when John 
Hancock was governor of Massachu- 
setts, and the year in which he died. 
It was the time when this nation con- 
sisted of fifteen states; when the 
Indian was a very live problem; and 
when the western frontier lay along 
the Ohic. 

The year 179 3 was hardly more 
than a quarter of a century after 
the name of Bedford — ^to be af- 
terwards changed to Newbedford — 
had attached itself to the little com- 
munity in Dartmouth that for the 
brief years of its existence had been 
content to be known as "the settie- 
ment at the foot of Joseph Russell's 
homestead." It was the sixth year 
after Newbedford had been set apart 
from the town c£ Dartmouth, as a 
separate township, inclu ling within 
itself the villages of Acushnet and 
Fairhaven. 

It was twelve years earlier than the 
time when William A. Wall made his 
familiar picture of the section thai 
lay between the water front and what 
is now William and Second streets, 
and nineteen years earlier than when 
the Fourcorners picture was put on 
canvas; and as it was fifteen year> 
after the British soldiery had landed 
at Clark's Cove and marched up 



around the head of the river and dis- 
embarked at Sconticut Neck, burning 
as it went eleven houses and twenty - 
three shops, the place must have had 
a much sparser look as to buildings 
even than in these pictures. 

It was a time when all Bedford, 
Fairhaven, and Acushnet counted 3313 
people, using the figures of the federal 
census of 17U0. 

It was a year when iifty-four 
citizens of the town cast a vote for 
governor and for senators — there was 
a property qualification attached to 
the franchise in that day. 

It was a time when there were two 
mails a week between th:s town and 
Bost.-n. 

Especially it was the time of New- 
bedford's first newspaper, The Medley 
or Newbedford Marine Journal. 

The time to appreciate a newspaper 
is when it gets to be about one hun- 
dred and twenty years old — when the 
paper is brown and the ink faded and 
the letters worn. Here we are mak- 
ing a special point of this little ragged 
dingy paper, while in its day John 
Spooner, its founder, publisher, editor, 
printer, and everything else, got a 
hearty rebuke from a subscriber be- 
cause it did not satisfy his expectations 
of what a newspaper ought to be; and 
when the printer had to coax his sub- 
scribers to come up with the price, in 
cash or rags, junk, country produce 
or whatever they would give. 

To us it is the mirror of the past — a 
good deal blurred and not reflecting 
Quite clearly, but giving a glimpse 
here and there of what we want to 
see. From the standpoint of the Old 
Dartmouth Historical society, which 
owns a two-year volume dating 
from the start, — through the favor of 
Misses Anna and Ellen Clifford, — it 
is not so very satisfactory a docu- 
ment. The value of chronicling local 
news had not yet been learned. The 



interest of the future in the past was 
not appreciated. 

The Medley printed a great deal 
about the revolution in Prance and 
the establishment of the French Re- 
public, in which the new republic of 
America was vastly interested; gave 
considerable space to congressional 
and legislative proceedings; printed 
such news from over the seas and 
from other sections of the country as 
came its way in letters to people in 
this town or to their friends in other 
places — as "a letter from an American 
in Dunkirk to his friend in this town, 
received by brig Mary;" as brought 
by word of mouth by travellers or the 
shipmasters, as "a gentleman from 
Philadelphia says;" or as copied from 
other newspapers, — weeks _or months 
old, as the case might be. Especially 
it gave literary Xewbedford a chance 
to express itself in print on all sorts 
of abstract and philosophical themes, 
and to worry and flurry each other a 
bit, under such signatures as Equitas 
and Agathocles, Philanthropos, Phil- 
ander, and the like: but it seemed to 
take for granted that the people knew 
what was going on about them and 
that what they knew there was no 
reason to put into print. 

A llighfa luting Salutatory. 

It was a highfaluting salutatory 
with which The Medley greeted the 
people of the beginnings of this city 
on November 2 7th, 17 9 2 — about "the 
establishment of the art of printing in 
this part of our empire," with "here 
an extensive country, situate remote 
from a printing press — its inhabitants 
numerous; but a small part of them 
knowing or being known in the trans- 
actions of the world, unless they ad- 
vance a large extra sum for their 
knowledge," and its intention to "in- 
struct them in the ways of men at a 
much cheaper rate" — than subscribing 
for an out-of-town paper. 

"A general knowledge of the world 
— of the revolutions of Empires, 
Kingdoms, and States, the political 
transactions of men in public stations 
■ — the revolutions in commerce — im- 
provement in arts and mechanics — 
philosophical discoveries and mari- 
time observations, are useful to man 
in his journey through life," writes the 
editor, and analyzes a newspaper as 
"a mirror in which is seen Ambition, 
Envy, Revenge, Treachery, Bigotry, 
Pride, Superstition, Joy and Sorrow — 
Passions which constitute the essence 
of man; wherein we may read, view 
ourselves, and, if prudent men, alter 
our deformities; or, at any rate, that 
is a source of knowledge and enter- 
tainment for the curious and enquir- 
ing mind," he abruptly concludes. 
"Here the statesman may read the 



fate of nations. — Here the philosopher 
may spread before him a map of man, 
of manners, and of things; and enter- 
tain the mind with an agreeable re- 
past. — Here the honest laborer by his 
social fire, surrounded by his little do- 
mestic republic, may waste "his even- 
ings in delightsome . relaxation of 
mind — may acquaint himself with sur- 
rounding occurrences, — may bless his 
God and his industry, which have 
placed him in his happy state of in- 
dependence; while, unenvious, he 
reads the agitations of mind which 
distract the peace and blast the fe- 
licity of the 'great ones of the earth.' 

"Here the moral philosopher, the 
friend of man, may communicate to 
his fellow rationals all the benevo- 
lences of his soul in gentle admoni- 
tions and instructive maxims, to in- 
form the ignorant, reform the vicious, 
and encourage virtue and humanity. 

"Here the less serious may amuse 
the fancy with an original bon mot 
— a pithy anecdote and sometimes a 
Parnassian Plight" — evidently New 
Bedford has always had its poet. (But 
in that day, as in this, he did not 
always get his productions printed. 
In a "Notice to Correspondents," 
some time later, two writers were told 
their communications would be print- 
ed next week', but "New Poetic Cor- 
respondents" were recommended "to 
renew their draft at the Fount of Hel- 
icon—they appear to have but just 
siped." ) 

These, then, were the colors under 
which The .Medley was launched, with 
the promise that " 'nothing which 
worketh iniquity, or which maketh a 
lie' shall ever have impression here. 
— That here private characters shall 
ever be held sacred. — That the pro- 
duction of enmity, of partiality, and 
of resentment shall never disgrace his 
type:" — a standard that, if adhered 
to, may have been sulhcient to ac- 
count for the sale of the paper after 
seven years, to a rival printer who had 
come into the field a year earlier! 

The price was to be "nine shillings 
per annum, exe'usive of postage; for 
one quarter of a year two shillings 
and three pence, to be paid on the 
delivery of the first paper, in cash 
or rags; the succeeding quarters at 
the expiration thereof." 

The start was made at "John 
Spooner's office near Rotch's wharf." 
Between the third and fourth num- 
bers there was a gap of two weeks, 
with an apology for the non-appear- 
ance of the paper in the previous 
week, — "the editor has but to re- 
mark that the building he at present 
occupies as a printing house is un- 
finished; which exposes his work to 
the inclemency of the season — and 
rendered it impossible to fulfil his 



obligation to the public. He expects 
soon to remove to the new building 
lately erected at Fourcorners, where 
he hopes to be so accommodated as to 
issue his papei early on the day of 
each week hereafter." 

For Cash or Rags. 

Directly following this notice ap- 
peared a paragraph, preceded by a 
couple of stars and a dagger, giving 
it a kind of pyrotechnic appearance, 
a sort of hold-up look, "The printer 
will receive of country customers any 
kind of produce or wood, if they 
prefer it to cash. in payment for 
newspapers — or of any farmer who 
wishes to become a customer." 

When he had gotten established in 
the i»ew office at Fourcorners, the 
printer of The Medley returned 
thanks to those who "favored him 
with their custom." offered to fill 
any "commands in the art of print- 
ing" at short notice, thanked those 
who had generously aided in getting 
subscriptions, .-md announced that 
"Advertisements, Articles of Intelli- 
gence, Essays, &c. would be thank- 
fully received for publication." B-y 
and by he took the latter part of 
that back — though before this oc- 
curred he apologized, "Cato will 
excuse the non-appearance of his 
valediction addressed to Sydney, 
this three weeks past. It was mis- 
laid." When later "Ignoramus Rus- 
ticus" wrote a column and a half 
attack on "Mr. Curiositas," in a long- 
continued discussion over the use of 
an expression by one that the other 
could not tind in the dictionary and 
that the printer afterwards agreed 
was a typographical error, the editor 
added this note: "Quit! quit! cries 
the Turkey — Se does the Printer. — ■ 
For where Cards grow to Essays he 
thinks it time to quit." 

More than the editor was tired of 
the lung communications on abstract 
subjects or giving neighborly rubs, for 
a little later "A Subscriber" wrote: 
"Mr. Spooner: 

"I am well assured it was the ex- 
pectation of many of your subscrib- 
ers that your paper would be filled 
with the most interesting intelligence, 
both foreign and domestic, proceed- 
ings of congress and state legislature, 
&C, &c. In your Medley, No. 16, 
•Quit, quit, cries the Turkey, and so 
cries the Printer;' and so does a num- 
ber of your subscribers; for when 
dull overgrown Cards and dry Essays 
occupy seven-eighths of the Medley 
they think it time to Quit." 

Following this was an editorial 
reply, in italic and with the index 
sign that indicated the editor at 
work, rebuking the correspondents 
who had contributed "public essays, 



which if comprised in a volume or 
pamphlet would make something of 
a handsome addition to a library," 
and asking for reports of political 
occurrences, rer.'arkabie events, new 
discoveries, and information of in- 
terest In the agricultural and com- 
mercial world. 

When The Medley had co.mpleted 
its third quarter there appeared as 
the first item on the first page a re- 
minder that payments became due 
at the expiration of each quarter. 
"The sum individually," said the print- 
er, "is small; but put together in one 
mass would enable the Printer to 
cancel the Papermaker's bill, pur- 
chase Rags, and sometimes a quarter 
of Mutton." 

A little later, in October, "the Hus- 
bandman who wishes to read the 
News of the Day & would prefer ex- 
changing the product of his Labor with 
the Printer for his Medley rather than 
paying Cash," was informed that 
"good Winter Apples, Corn, Rye, But- 
ter, Cheese, or almost any kind of 
vegetable" would be received "at cur- 
rent Market Price, if brot within three 
weeks." Evidently the larder was 
running low. 

"Two Coppers on the Pound." 

The offer of not only The Medley 
but of merchants as well to exchange 
goods for rags, usually specifically 
stated as "clean cotton and linen 
rags," actually signified a real demand 
for rags for paper making. In the 
very first issue of The Medley an ar- 
ticle was quoted from the Windham 
Phenix in which the opinion was ex- 
pressed that "the person who saves 
one pound of rags for the manufac- 
ture' of paper does more real good to 
the community than he who conquers 
a city." Lest this might seem strong 
language, "Consider," continues the 
writer, "that without this saving, 
science must fall and learning must 
drop to the ground, and everything 
which the civilized man holds dear 
must cease to exist." He reports that 
his own family has sold to the printer 
in the course of a year fifty-five 
pounds of rags, "paying for the pur- 
chase of a Bible for one of the chil- 
dren: but even without the price," he 
would have had them save the val- 
uable commodity, for he rates the per- 
son who persists in destroying rags, 
"after being convinced of their util- 
ity," as culpable, and deserving to be 
looked upon with as much contempt 
"as a betrayer of his country — and 
an enemy to every useful science." 

Some considerable time after this, 
appeared a whimsical communication 
with a feminine touch, asking what 
encouragement there was in "two 
coppers on the pound to a young lady 
for stooping two hundred times to 



pick up threds, pr for fouling her 
hands with a dish-clout or house 
cloth. — Fie on the man who thinks 
that Moll and Betty would undertake 
such small business for such small 
gains. — We have bibles enough in the 
house already, and Pa buys us our 
caps, curtains, &c." 

Eai'ly Business Interests. 
Prom the advertisements some idea 
is gained of the business interests of 
the place, just as the ship news tells 
of the sailings and arrivals of the 
whalers and the ships in the mer- 
chant service — and they serve success- 
fully to people the town, with their 
names and suggestions of activity, 
their show of enterprise, and proof 
of competition. 

Besides the whaling and the ship- 
ping, probably ship building was the 
next big business, but there is refer- 
ence to only one launching during the 
year. On October 18 an inch and a 
half notice stated that "Tomorrow 
morning between the hours of 7 and 
8, the new and beautiful ship Barck- 
ley, burthen 270 tons, will be launched 
from the shipyard of Colonel George 
Ciaghorn. The satisfaction of view- 
ing this token of our increasing coYn- 
meree will, we doubt not, induce 
many to watch the first beams of the 
Rising Sun" — with a liberal use of 
italics, small caps and capitals. 
La until in»; "The Barcklcy." 
The next day the story of the 
launching was told, under the head- 
ing—and headings were rare — -"Ship 
Barckley": 

"The new and beautiful ship, Barck- 
ley, went off from her stocks Satur- 
day last, without any intervening ac- 
cident to soil the happiness of a large 
and respectable crowd of spectators. 
Fifteen discharges of cannon, and re- 
peated huzzas, announced her hull 
Moating on the ellement we hope may 
buoy her with safety these many, 
many years. Her beauty is acknowl- 
edged by able judges to vie with any 
ship of her size that floats on the At- 
lantic. And while we wish she may 
long continue the pride of Newbed- 
ford, we hope her success in aiding 
the commercial interest of her owners 
may be felt among every class of our 
citizens." 

This George Ciaghorn was the same 
who built the frigate Constitution at 
the Charlestown navy yard. His ship 
yard here was a little south of the 
present toot of North street. Besides 
shipbuilder, he was colonel of the 
local military company, as is revealed 
by a notice to the members. 
» William Botch, Jun.'s Shop. 

William Jun. was the Botch man 
in the field ac this time, but his only 
appearances in The Medley were to 



advertise his stock izi trade at his 
shop — the location of which is not 
given, since it must have been known 
to all Newbedford. It was in the 

Botch building that stood at the head 
of Botch's wharf, a little north of 
what is now Centre street. It was in 
this building that The Medley had its 
ofiice. 

In the first issue of the paper Mr. 
Botch "respectfully informs his cus- 
tomers and friends" that he has for 
sale wholesale and retail "sail Cloth 
of an excellent quality, — No. 2, 3, 4, 
5, 0, and 8; coarse and fine 5-4th 
Sheeting; window Glass, of sizes given 
ranging from 0x8 to 10x12; large and 
small Booking Glasses, and Plates un- 
framed; Glass Tumblers, Twine and 
Cordage; Flour and Shipbreads; Pork 
and Salt; Philadelphia and Russia Bar 
Iron, excellent for Cart Tire; Paints 
of several kinds; Sheathing Paper, 
Wrapping Paper, &c." 

Pater he adds to his' stock: "Sugar, 
Prime Pork. French Duck, Tar, Tur- 
pentine, Salt, Cordage, Bolt Rope, 
Spermaceti Candles, Strained Sperma- 
ceti ( >il, and Grindstones." 

In this same advertisement space he 
shows his thrift by making known 
his own need of "a sober industrious 
young farmer who, if he is well 
recommended, will find good encour- 
agement." Still later he advertises 
as having for sale, "a few pieces best 
superfine Broadcloth, Cambrics and 
French Lutestring, Silk Stockings 
and Sewing Sill;, and a few Silver 
Watches," continuing the old list down 
through spermaceti oil, bar iron, and 
bolt rope, as though there were noth- 
ing incongruous in the list! 

Books "Bedford" Bead. 
John Spooner was apparently al- 
ready a book seller before he became 
the publisher of The Medley. In the 
second number he announced that he 
had "just received from Newlondon 
and for sale, the following books, 
viz:" and here is the complete collec- 
tion announced — note how it differs 
from the list of works offered in the 
"literary" advertisements of today: 
"Bibles, Testaments, Barlow's revision 
of Watt's Psalm and Hymns, Gard- 
ner's Life, Vicar of Wakefield, Web- 
ster's Institute, 1st, 2d, and 3d parts, 
Fenning's Spelling-Rook, Dilworth's 
ditto, Prompter, Little Beader's 
Assistant, Occom's Hymns, CEconomy 
of Human Life, Medical Cases and 
Observations; Seamen's Journals, 
Writingbooks, Pocket Memorandums 
with pencils, ditto ditto without (thus 
the list runs on without break under 
that first imposing head of Books), 
Primers. Children's Books, Geo- 
graphical Cards, Dutch Quills, Wafers, 
<^o. &c." Then follows a list of pam- 
phlets and a group of titles headed 



Chapman's Books, evidently referring 
to a series of publications under the 
publisher's name, in which appear 
Fanny or the Happy Repentance, 
Adventures of Robinson Crusoe, Ad- 
ventures of Gil Bias, History of Queen 
Elizabeth, Young Gentlemen and Ra- 
dies Entertaining Friend, Choice Col- 
lection of Songs," and Almanacks for 
17D3. The advertisement concluded 
with this stirring appeal: "Radios, 
Gentlemen, and Merchants" — I hope 
the merchants of today will not 
dislike the differentiation — "are in- 
vited to call and furnish themselves 
and children with books: as they may 
here obtain them as cheap as in Bos- 
ton." Obviously the shopping in Bos- 
ton habit that our merchants com- 
plain of was early established! 

Six months later John Spooner 
advertised another assortment of 
books, including "Hume's History of 
England, 8 volumes, Robertford's 
ditto of America, 3 ditto; Moore s 
travels, 2 ditto: The Spectator, 8 
ditto; Buchan's Domestic Medicine; 
Morse's Geography of America, 
Christian Economy, The Whole Duty 
of Woman, Advice to Prevent Poverty, 
FotbergilL's Sermons, and school and 
children's books," — any of which were 
to be given "in exchange for cash, 
clean cotton or cotton and linen, or 
linen rags of any color, old sail cloth, 
or junk." 

A Versatile Gentleman. 

Caleb Greene respectfully informed 
his friends and the public in general 
that he "now carries on and pro- 
poses to enlarge the bookbinding 
business in its several branches," and 
that he had for sale account books 
and hooks ruled to any pattern, and 
that he could "in a short time supply 
shopkeepers with spelling books by 
the dozen of thr most approved au- 
thors." and that "from his long ex- 
perience in books he thinks he may 
lay claim to so much knowledge as 
that the public may depend on being 
well supplied, and at as low rate as 
in Boston." Not only were reading 
and spelling encouraged, but writing 
as well, in a note after the date line — ■ 
"N. B. Black and red ink of the best 
quality." 

Later on Mr. Greene offered to take 
orders for Bibles — in an early 1794 
issue: "Any persons who would wish 
to supply themselves with large and 
complete Bibles — with or without 
apocrypha and concordance, or Bibles 
of any size, are desired to leave their 
names at Caleb Greene's shop; where 
they may view the sizes and in a few 
weeks have their supply — No part of 
the pay will be asked till they are 
delivered." 

But he did not confine his attention 
to book binding and selling. An adver- 



tisement of Isaac Wood of Fairhaven 
probably suggested to him a new 
branch of business possible to this side 
of the river. Two weeks before 

Christmas this Wood announced 
having Hist received and for sale "at 
his shop near the meeting .house, 
Fairhaven, a fresh assortment of 
European and West Indian Goods, 
suited to the present season," and 
also, further, — showing the range of 
the merchants of the day, — ^'family 
medicines, which he can recommend 
as genuine, — and for sale, by retail, 
as cheap as can be procured in 
Boston- — together with Phials, &c." 
Incidentally it may be stated that Mr. 
Wood also offered for sale "Flower 
by the small quantity, Crockery, 
Tobacco and Snuff, Shoemakers' 
Tools, Books and Paper and Almanacs 
— with the announcement that in pay- 
ment would be received cash, cotton, 
rags, sailcloth, pork & beef, and any 
kind of country produce." Would it 
do to wonder how many heirloom 
treasures in this city owed their 
family possession to pork and rags! 

At the Sign of the Mortal-. 

The announcement of family medi- 
cines evidently sparred Caleb Greene's 
enterprise, for in the next issue he 
proved that Newbedford did not 
need to go to the rival village across 
the river for its medicines: "From 
the encouragement given oy a number 
of the inhabitants of Bedford and its 
vicinity," he had "furnished himself 
with and just opened a good assort- 
ment of fresh Drugs and Medicines, 
at the Sign of the Mortar, in Water- 
street, among which are" — and in a 
half column advertisement he named 
them frankly, opium and castor oil 
among the rest: a goodly list, includ- 
ing a variety of patent medicines, and 
also "an excellent electuary for 
cleansing and preserving the teeth, 
with brushes for ditto." And the ad- 
vertisement concluded, "As said 
medicines are deemed genuine, they 
are confidently offered to the public." 
Apparently Mr. Greene did not want 
his original business lost sight of. for 
after a dash rule he continued: "Said 
Greene carries on the bookbinding 
business and has for sale geographies, 
arithmetics, spellers, dictionaries, 
blank books, &c, wnieh customers 
are desired to call and see." 

Oil Skin Hat Covers. 

The full extent of his business 
versatility is not told, however, until 
is quoted his announcement of "neat 
oilcloth covers for hats and women's 
bonnets — on silk or linen, of various 
colours — made at a short notice and 
reasonable price — by said Greene." 



10 



Though umbrellas had been in- 
troduced into the colonies Jn the latter 
half of the eighteenth century, there 
is no likelihood that they were 
common in the village of Bedford 
in 1793, since their manufacture did 
not begin in this country tor some 
six or eight years later than this. 

Mr. Greene was certainly a useful 
citizen, for he is credited ' also with 
keeping the marine journal and the 
weather record. 

Compasses and Hardware. 

There Avere advertisements of Jo- 
seph Clement "(late from London), 
Compass Maker and Iron Plate- 
Worker, doing business on Union 
street, a few rods west from 
Mr. Isaac Howland's store; Joseph 
Ricketson, Cutlery and Hardware 
Dealer, lately removed "to the new 
building erected at Fourcorners, and 
fronting on Prospect and North 
streets" — otherwise at the northeasi 
corner of the present Union and Wa- 
ter streets: Gamaliel Bryant, Jun., 
"removed from the shop he formerly 
work'd in, to the Fourcorners, No. 4, 
fronting North street, " where he had 
for sale a general assortment of tin- 
ware. 

Reduction for Cash. 

Reuben Jenne, Blacksmith, of "Ox- 
ford, Newbedford," offered inducement 
for cash payment — objecting "to the 
present mode of long credit and a re- 
mote payday." He informed the pub- 
lic that he proposed "to keep con- 
stantly for sale a handsome variety of 
edgetools, together with plow shares, 
hoes, &c," and that "all other 
branches of his Profession will be at- 
tended to and the work executed with 
neatness and dispatch;" and he con- 
cluded the notice with the statement 
that "the articles received in payment 
are too numerous to be mentioned 
here: but whoever will pay in cash 
he will make to them a reduction of 
16 2-3 per cent;" and he adds per- 
suasively that "he flatters himself that 
all who favor him with their custom 
will rind his terms much better suited 
to benefit the public than the present 
mode of long credit and a remote pay 
day." " 

Medicine Boxes for Seamen. 

Thomas Hersey of Fairhaven, "ready 
to wait upon all disposed to employ 
him, in the medical line," announced 
" — Medicine boxes, for the use of sea- 
men, with suitable directions, pre- 
pared at the shortest notice." 
Cloth Dressed to Taste. 

Westport, which had been set off 
from Dartmouth at the same time 
that Newbedford had, and that now 
had a population of 2466, — within 
thirty-three as many as the town of 



Dartmouth, — was heard from in the 
notice of John Chace, who, bringing 
to mind the hand loom, respectfully 
informed the public that he carried 
on the Clothier's Business, in its va- 
rious branches, at his works at the 
head of Acoaxet River, in Westport, 
and that "Any person wishing to have 
his cloth dressed to his taste, by up- 
plying to him, or forwarding it by 
the post from Newbedford to New- 
port, or leaving it at Smith's Mills, 
shall have their directions attended 
to, with the greatest punctuality and 
care, and returned by the first con- 
veyance after dressed." 

Joseph and Elihu Russell of Dart- 
mouth later offered "to dress and 
colour cloth at their new works at 
Russells mills;" but this came early 
in the next year. 

Occasionally someone advertised for 
supplies, as "Wanted — Ash timber, for 
which good pay will be made on de- 
livery," "untaned sheep and lambskin, 
for which a generous price will be 
given," "a number of bushels of 
leached ashes," etc. 

Sailcloth was announced as being 
"fabricated" in Nantucket. 

Dispersing Benjamin Russell's Goods. 

How Benjamin Russell's household 
goods found their way into Newbed- 
ford homes is suggested in this "Sale 
at Auction!" notice, ottering a choice 
and valuable parcel of household 
goods and furniture, being part of the 
estate of Benjamin Russell, Esq., late 
of Dartmouth, consisting of several 
good Feather Beds and Furniture, 
Mahogany Desk, High Case of Draw- 
ers, and other Cabinet Work; Silver 
Plate, China Ware, Pewter, Stone and 
other hard Ware; a number of Chairs 
great and small, both of Mahogany 
and other sorts — with many other 
kinds of Household Goods not here 
enumerated." 

Whaling and The Privateers. 

If the impression prevails that ships 
were coming from and starting on 
whaling voyages continually in those 
early days, let the illusion be dis- 
pelled, so tar as this period at least 
is concerned. 

Whaling at this time was just be- 
ginning to look up after the crushing 
blow it had received in the Revolu- 
tionary war. First there had been 
the unrighteous British legislation 
curtailing American fishing and trad- 
ing Tights, and then there had been 
the barbarous enactment giving the 
right of search of American vessels 
and impressment of American sailors 
into the British service or the British 
whak fishery, bringing whaling pretty 
much to a standstill. Besides, there 
had been the destruction of seventy 



11 



vessels in the harbor of Newbedford 
at the time of the British raid in 
September of 177 8, — and for several 
year« nothing was done toward the 
restoration of the industry. One ship 
is known to nave gone out from 
Dartmouth in 3 785 and another in 
1787. A little at a time the business 
picked up. In 1793 the first whaler 
to enter the Pacific sailed from New- 
bedford. It was one of George Olag- 
horn's ship — though Tbe Medley does 
not e*em to have reported the sail- 
ing. By the beginning of the nine- 
teenth century the Old Dartmouth 
whaling and merchant fieet numbered 
about fifty vessels. Generally speak- 
ing, 171)3 was one of the years of low 
ebb in the whaling industry. 

A count of the ships reported in 
The Medley as arriving during the 
last half of that year showed nine 
Newbedford whalers to have come 
into rort, bringing cargoes of oil 
ranging from eighty barrels to thir- 
teen hundred barrels, and totalling 
6130 barrels, whale and sperm totalled 
in together; while in that same period, 
therri arrived at Nantucket twenty- 
two whalers, bringing 13,290 barrels, 
in lots ranging from fifty barrels to 
thirteen hundred — one vessel coming 
in clean; and they were reported to 
have come from Brazil, from Wool- 
wich Bay off the coast of Africa, and 
from the neighborhood of the West 
Indies and Bahamas. A few whalers be- 
longing in Dunkirk put in here at 
that time, fearing to encounter the 
French during the hostilities with 
Great Britain. 

That it was not always necessary to 
go to the west coast of Africa, but 
that whales were sometimes caught 
nearer at hand, -s shown in the item 
that "Perry Davis, master of a small 
fishing vessel, brot into Westport, 2 5 
July, a whale that made 17 bbls. oil — 
out three days." 

There were tryworks in that day, in 
this town at about the foot of what 
is now Centre street and probably at 
Smoking Rocks, where the Potomska 
Mills now stand; at Oxford, now Pov- 
erty Point, in Fairhaven; and at Dart- 
mouth and Westport. 

The ciose touch into which New- 
bedford vessels — whalers and mer- 
chantmen — came with the war diffi- 
culties of the day is revealed in sev- 
eral items about their encounters 
with privateers. Captain Benjamin 
Howland of brig Lucretia, arrived in 
seventeen days from Capefrancois. re- 
ports that he "was brot to seven times 
on his passage by different priva- 
teers — five English, one Spanish, and 
one French — ordered on board the 
Spanish and French; the others 
boarded him in their own boats — all 
treated him with great civility." 



Pifkaroons Out-Pickaroon'd. 

But all ships did not have so good 
fortune as this. Here are a couple of 
real adventures, undtr the head of 
"Pickaroons Out-Pickaroon'd, which 
show the dangers of the seas at the 
time and also suggest something of 
the stuff some at least of th6 Newbed- 
ford whaling masters were made of: 

The captain of the Brig Polly, Levi 
Jenne, tells his own story for The 
Medley, following the item that hi3 
ship had arrived here from St. Marks, 
with a prizemaster and three men, put 
on board by a Newprovidence pick- 
aroon. 

Capt. Jenne submitted first to the 
examination of his papers by two 
strangers; when they had left, a 
strange ship came alongside and he 
was hailed in "'a brutish ' manner," 
in a strange language, and six men 
came aboard "in a hostile manner, 
with naked cutlasses and pistols in 
their hand," and he had to sail un- 
der their orders on the course to 
Cuba — but owing to a small wind hia 
ship did not get far. He and his peo- 
ple were kept in constant fear of los- 
ing their lives. Then they ran into 
a fieet of nine sail, three of them 
privateers, and after the commodore 
had spent the whole day "huckling 
from vessel to vessel," a prizemaster 
was put aboard the Polly, one other 
white man and two Negroes, "the 
•three last mentioned not worth one 
farthing, only to encumber us as lum- 
ber upon deck," and she sailed toward 
Newprovidence, in the Bahamas; then 
his men refused to sail her except for 
Newbedford, the prizemaster con- 
fessed himself helpless, and Capt. 
Jenne and the Polly came along in due 
time into their home harbor, with 
the four strangers aboard. 

Capt. Weston Howland, of the sloop 
Nancy, who left St. Marks in company 
with Capt. Jenne, confirmed the lat- 
ter's story, and also bore witness "to 
similar treatment by four prizemen, 
which he brot in with him" — in the 
following statement: — 

"The 23d of July, the sloop Nancy 
of Newbedford, left St. Marks, bound 
for Philadelphia. The 24th ult. was 
boarded by Capt. Mackevtr, from Ja- 
maica; whose Officers came on board 
and examined my papers; after which 
he ordered me to proceed on my way. 
In 20 minutes after they left me, I 
was boarded by the sloop John, Capt. 
Edward Shearman, from Newprovi- 
dence; who, in a very hostile manner 
pushed me into the boat — carried me 
on board his vessel, — where I re- 
mained as prisoner 14 hours. — At the 
expiration of that time he hove out 
his boat — ordered me into her — got in 
himself and came on board my vessel. 



12 



— He then ordered me to open my 
chest, which I complied with. — He 
then took every article out — yet made 
no discovery of the property he pre- 
tended to be after. — After this, the 
2 5th, he left me, and returned to his 
own vessel — I was soon revisited by a 
prizemaster and four men, who 
ordered me to steer for Newprovi- 
dence. — The 20th, being- clear of the 
Keys, I resumed the command, and 
directed my course as I thot proper — 
Newbedford appearing most consist- 
ent, I shaped my course thither: — 
Here I arrived 12th August — prize- 
master and all well. 

"Weston Rowland." 
Then The Medley commented: 
"Such is the treatment received 
from Newprovidence privateers — and 
this not the first instance — Capt. 
Jenne informs that numbers of 
Americans have been taken in the 
same manner and sent into that place, 
without daring even to resist. Then 
they have been tried upon suspicion of 
having French property on board — if 
acquited the captors do not release 
them but take them to Inagua and 
there plunder them of everything 
valuable. — This the privateers say 
would have been the fate of Captain 
Jenne and Capt. Rowland, could they 
have gotten them into this den of 
thieves. — Among this banditti appears 
the famed Lord Dunmore, governor of 
Newprovidence. — Such insults, Ameri- 
cans, ought surely not to pass unno- 
ticed. 

"The above mentioned vessels were 
laden with Sugar, Coffee and Cotton." 
Though it may seem to have no con- 
nection here, there Is interest in the 
notice soon after of the marriage of 
Capt. Weston Rowland to Miss Nabby 
Hathaway — won, possibly, by the cap- 
tain's cool daring. 

Later on, similar news came in an 
extract of a letter from the master 
of a vessed in Newprovidence, to a 
merchant in this town, which said: 
"There are fifty sail of American ves- 
sels here now; 36 of which were brot 
down by the Privateers: some of 
them have been here ninety days, 
with their Coffee hogsheads bursting 
in their holds, and their Cotton sacks 
roting and droping oft from their 
Quarters." 

Making Sport of a Whaler. 
Row a whaling master fared at the 
hand:: of the preycrs upon ships at 
this time is told with spirit by Capt. 
Gardner, in the account of an ex- 
perience off St. Helena in September 
of 1703. The Medley says: "Arrived, 
Ship Edward, MJcaiah Gardner, from 
a Delago Bay whalecruise. 1500 bbls. 
whale oil — Capt. Gardner, not having 



heard of a war, ran in for St. 
Helena to get information. — Sent his 
Mate and five hands on shore to make 
inquiry; who were detained by the 
Governor; and an American ship's 
boat the Seahorse, Albert Hussty, 
Master, belonging to Capeann, was 
sent off with the following- letter, to 
decoy him into port: 

" 'France is fit war with all the 
world — the American Ambassador's 
head has been cut off at Paris — you 
have no port en earth to put into 
where you will not be taken — here 
you shall have generous terms, all 
your private property, and that of 
the crew, shall remain your own, the 
same as if you had never been taken: 
I have consulted the Lieut. Governor, 
and we have agreed to give you these 
terms — In witness whereof, I hereun- 
to sign, and give it under my hand, 
and the Seal of the Honorable United 
East India company. 

" 'Robert Brooke, 
" 'Governor and Commander in Chief.' 

"li answer to which, Capt. Gard- 
ner sent word, — 'He thanked him for 
his generous offer — but rather doubt- 
ed the truth of France being at war 
with all the world' — Should not there- 
fore throw himself on their mercy — 
and continued to stand off and "on, 
hoping his boa*, would return. — But 
next day by the same boat received 
a second letter, as follows: — 

" 'I again inform you that France 
is at War with all the world — That 
the American States are in alliance 
with Great Britain — I therefore now 
treat with you as an American sub- 
ject — and demand of you to enter 
our port immediately — Which if you 
refuse to comnly with, I shall be 
obliged to make a representation of 
the case to the British Secretary of 
State and to General Washington. — 
Afte" promising this, if you continue 
obstinate, and are taken on any 
foreign coast, you must undergo all 
the severity of treatment by the laws 
of Nations in such eases made and 
provided.' 

"Captain Gardner doubting much 
this British Governor's candor, only 
replied to the last letter — 'I shall not 
enter your port, but snail shape my 
course for America.' — which he ac- 
cordingly did — leaving his Mate and 
boat'* crew at 1he Island — and here 
safe'v arrived." 

Tragedies of Whaling. 

The tragedies in the whaling indus- 
try and the homes left mourning 
through its vicissitudes, find sugges- 
tion in an extract of a letter from 
Capt. Benjamin Crowninshield to his 
friend at Salem, dated Port Royal 
Sept. 2 0, 1703, to the effect that "Two 



13 



American vessels have been deprived 
of every officer on board by the fever — 
a brig from Newbedford, the super- 
cargo, captain, mate and boy all died 
in the course of seven days and the 
vessel left destitute": — with this in- 
formation followed up in the next issue 
by the further statement "that the 
brig mentioned proved to be the 
Nancy, owned by Messrs. Benjamin 
Church, and Nathaniel Pope, and com- 
manded by Capt. Caleb Church," and 
a letter that had been received from 
one of the hands on board by his 
parents', in which was written, under 
date of Martinicd, St. Pierres, Oct. 6, 
1793 : 

"After a short fit of sickness, T once 
more have a chance to send you a few 
lines. We have all been sick with the 
West India fever — and have recovered; 
except those whom God hath "pleased 
to take away by the disease. — First 
our Mate and Boy — then the super- 
cargo and Captain left this world, they 
got one Fishers Skiper, an American 
Counsellor" — and here is inserted an 
asterisk and The Medley comments be- 
low, "We think the writer has in this 
instance mistook 'Fishers Skiper, 
American Counsellor' for Fulivar Skip- 
with, American Consul" — to get a 
Captain, and more hands, if wanted, 
and send the vessel to Alexandria, as 
fast as possible." 

After other details, the writer says 
"it \\as the captain's will before he 
died T should act in the room of the 
m;*te," and he says, "1 shall do the 
best I can to get the vessel home to 
the owners as soon as possible." 
Lost at Sea. 

How William Howland, master of 
the sloop Sally, was lost at sea, is told 
in an item headed merely "Ship 
News' ': 

"Sloop Sally, William Howland, 
master, left this port 2 3d Jan. on a 
whale cruise, returned last Wednes- 
day. 14th March, off Hispanola, the 
Captain, Oliver Slocum, (mate), Solo- 
mon Slocum, William Church, Joseph 
"Wilcox, James Jan, and Jack Williams, 
(two last blacks), went on shore to 
procure stores for said vessel, then 
lying off and on at the mouth of 
Aricot harbor: late in the evening at- 
tempted to return on board (as say 
the inhabitants of the place), when 
a squall of wind arising drove the 
sloop to sea — and the boat in the gale 
with all the men above-named was 
lost— no discovery could be made for 
eight days except some pieces of a 
boat, which all agree were part of the 
boat the master went on shore in." 
4 Stage and Post Route*. 

In sp'te of the merchants' deter- 
mination to serve customers as well 



as they could buy in Boston, on the 
fifth of July a new inducement was 
offered to visit that town. Under the 
head "Newbedford anu Boston New- 
Line of Stages!" (and the picture of 
a stage coach drawn by two spans of 
horses — a wood cut, and done by an 
artis* with no great sense of per- 
spective), "William Henshaw respect- 
fully informs his friends & the nub 
lis in general thac for the convenience 
and accommodation of those Ladies 
and Gentlemen who may wish a 
pleasant tour to or from Boston, he 
has furnished himself with an ele- 
gant carriage and good horses, tc run 
once a week. 

"He Mill start from Newbedford 
every Tuesday morning at 5 o'clock 
and arrive in Boston the evening of 
the same day. — On his rerurn he will 
leave Boston every Friday morning at 
5 o'clock, and arrive in Bedford the 
evening of the same day" — a' four 
days' trip. 

"The price for each passenger will 
be three pence per mile — 20 lb. bag- 
gage gratis — 150 lbs. weight equal to 
a passenger. 

"Ladies and Gentlemen who take 
passage in his stage may depend on 
the greatest care — and the most par- 
ticular attention on his part that his 
horses are good, and well suited to an 
expeditious and pleasant tour. 

"Business entrusted io him to trans- 
act shall be performed wkh the great- 
est punctuality; and every encour- 
agement in the undertaking most 
gratefully acknowledged. 

"He would mention, as some per- 
son might otherwise consider Uiree 
pence per mile for passengers a large 
fee, that it is caused by the present 
exorbitant price demanded for hay 
and provender. — So soon as the price 
of these articles shall fall, the Public 
may rest assured the price per mile 
shall be reduced." 



Mr. Henshaw was 
without a eompetitor 
stage business. Three 
half later Abraham 
tised a 
Boston, 



not left long 
in the Boston 
months and a 
Russell adver- 
conveyance to Taunton and 
to run through the winter 



season once a week, the round trip 
to be completed between Monday 
morning and Friday evening. As to 
the. price he made no apology — 'the 
price will be three pence per mile 
for each passenger, which is the same 
rate as other stages, and will appear 
moderate to any who will consider 
the nigh price of provender." 

Mr. Russell also announced at the 
same time his intention to start a 
stage route to Boston through the 
town of Bridgewater — a round trip in 
four days, afterwards increased to five 



14 



days, to tflvo Borne daylight hours in 
Boston. The price of a passenger on 
this line was to l)e fifteen shillings 
from Newbedford to Boston. 

William Henshaw announced about 
this time that his service would con- 
tinue through the winter, and that 
he should put on covered sleighs as 
soon as the snow presented the run- 
ning of his carriage. 

Earlier than these latest notices 
there had been announcement that 
"the mail is taken from the postof- 
fice every Sunday and Wednesday 
evening." Now the mails for Bos- 
ton were closed on Monday and 
Wednesday mornings, fitting in with 
the running of the stages. 

Early in the year, Samuel Sprague 
had proposed, "if suitable encourage- 
ment" were given, "to establish a post 
route from Newbedford to Barn- 
stable by way of Rochester, Ware- 
ham, Sandwich, &c., and return thro 
Plymouth, Middleborough, &c, home." 
He promised "the greatest care and 
attention paid to private business; 
and every command punctually per- 
formed at reasonable terms." 

Apparently a post route had already 
been established to Newport, for The 
Medley, early announcing that "one 
Jess-i Haskell having undertaken to 
prosecute the post business between 
Newbedford and Newport, The Med- 
ley would be delivered en route in 
Dartmouth, Westport, Tiverton and 
Little Compton, as well as in New- 
port." 

Later, a notice signed by John 
Spooner announced that the post from 
Bedford to Newport, through the win- 
ter season, would leave every Monday 
morning, arriving the same night, and 
he offered: "Letters carried and pri- 
vate business transacted with the 
greatest care." 

Few as the mails were, there was 
evidently little care in their transmis- 
sion, and great difficulty in their col- 
lection, for "Letters remaining at the 
postoffice" was a regular feature of 
The Medley, with letters in this office 
addressed Rochester, Dartmouth, 
Westport, and Martha's Vineyard, be- 
sides Acushnet, Fairhaven and Bed- 
ford, and sometimes three deep to the 
same address. 

The Medley tried to stimulate the 
-establishment of post routes by call- 
ing for "Smart able men to supply some 
•excellent post routes, good encourage- 
ment to be given by the printer here- 
of." In the closing number of the 
year was a call for a "steady, capable 
man to prosecute a post route to the 
•eastward" — sign not only that The 
"Medley was looking for an enlarged 
field but that Newbedford was seek- 



ing to broaden its touch with the 
neighboring towns. 

Early Shipping. 

Through its ships it already had 
touch with more distant ports. In one 
week, for instance, at the custom 
house were cleared sloops for Charles- 
ton and Savannah, and a schooner for 
Hudson; and in another week, besides 
the clearance of a schooner and a ship 
for whale voyages, sloops sailed for 
Newbern, for Philadelphia, and Sa- 
vannah — these being merely sample 
weeks. Such advertisements as this 
appeared: 

"For New York and North River, 
the fast sailing schooner Tr.bitha, now 
lying at Rotch wharf, John Crowell 
master, will sail (at such a time), 
wind and weather permitting. For 
freight or " passage apply to John 
Spooner or to the said Crowell." 

"For Newport and Philadelphia, the 
sloop Lively, lying at Russell Wharf, 
Shubael Bunker, master, will sail" 
(etc.); "and will be a constant trader 
all this season, from this port to 
those places. For freight or passage 
apply to the Master in Bedford: who 
will transact business for any gentle- 
man at either the above places on 
the most reasonable terms." 

No Flurry Over Elections. 

Contrary to the usual flurry of to- 
day preceding town meeting day in 
the neighboring towns, and the stir 
of our own city election, in March 
appeared a little five line notice: 
" — Monday next, at 10 o'clock a. m. 
is notified for the legal voters of this 
town to meet to choose town officers 
for the year ensuing. Also, at 2 
o'clock p. m. to choose a Governor, 
Lieutenant governor, and Senators." 
Not a word had been previously said 
about candidates. In the following 
week's paper appeared the item, with- 
out heading of any sort: "At a meet- 
ing of the inhabitants of this town, 
on Monday last, the votes given in 
were:" — with the vote for governor, 
lieutenant governor, and senators, 
Hancock getting fifty-three of the 
fifty-four votes cast. The vote for 
senators stood: "Hon. George Leonard 
3X — Hon. Thomas Durl'ee 3 3 — Hon. 
Elisha May 37." 

With similar brevity appeared the 
call to " — the citizens of Newbedford 
who are legal voters" to meet at "the 
old Congregational meeting house to 
choose a representative to congress, 
to be a citizen of Barnstable or Ply- 
mouth county. Every person who 
values the privileges of a Freeman will 
attend. General James Warren, John 
Davis, and Shear Jashub Bourne, 
Esqs. are mentioned as candidates." 
There was afterwards no report of 
the result of the election. 



15 



Drinking Toasts to Washington. 

Ncwbedford and Fairhaven had a 
rousing 1 good time in the celebration 
of the birthday of "our worthy Presi- 
dent George Washington," i on the 
eleventh of February, the date under 
the old style of time reckoning. To 
quote The Medley report: 

"The day was ushered in With the 
rising gun, by fifteen discharges of 
cannon, from the foot of Prospect 
street; attended with mussick, and a 
display of the national colors from an 
eminence. 

"At 2 o'clock p. m. the citizens 
assembled at Fourcorners, at the foot 
of Union street; •and with the artillery, 
and mussick in front, headed by Col. 
Claghcrn, moved in procession to 
the South part of Water street," — 
Water street only run about a block 
south in that day, — "which situation 
gave them a commanding view of their 
fellow eitizens, assembled on the occa- 
sion, in Fairhaven. 

"The signal for commencing the 
fire was now given by the discharge 
of a cannon by our fellow citizens 
of Fairhaven. A regular and alter- 
nate tire was then kept up: — each 
discharge preceded by the following 
toasts and sentiments: 

"1st. Long life to the American 
Solomon. 

"2d. May the cause of Liberty and 
Freedom never experience the want 
of a Friend like him. 

"3d. May humanity like his ever 
confound the enemies to Freedom, 
and convert them to walk in his 
benevolent paths. 

"4th. That the peace of America 
may continue the same, may his suc- 
cessor adopt his virtues. 

"5th. Directed by his wisdom, may 
agriculture, commerce, arts, and 
mechanism become more general 
beneficial to the citizens of mankind. 

"6th. May each soldier, like him, 
feel himself a citizen, and each citizen 
a soldier. 

"7th. May his religious examples 
pervade the breast of every citizen; 
and the shades of bigotry and super- 
stition give place to the enlightening 
beams of philanthropy. 

"Nth. May his principles of liberty 
never sleep, where they have taken 
root, till every root and branch of 
despotism he dispelled the terrestrial 
globe. 

''9th. The French Republic! — may 
she ever continue to cherish the 
sparks of Freedom, caught from the 
American altar of Liberty. 
♦ "10th. The officers and soldiers of 
the late army, who, with their illus- 
trious Chief, have shared the immor- 
tal honor of emancipating their 



country from slavery, and establish- 
ing the blessings of Liberty. 

"lith. May every existing tyrant 
tremble at the name of Washington! — 
and the genuine principles of Liberty 
and Equality universally pervade and 
enlighten the w orld. 

"12th. Downfall to tyrannical Mon- 
archy. 

"13th. Fayette! May we all pos- 
sess his virtues, but not be sharers of 
the fate which envy hurls upon him. 

"14th. May an honest heart never 
feel distress. 

"15th. May health, and every tem- 
poral blessing be continued to our be- 
loved president. May his name be 
transmitted with respect and gratitude 
to posterity; and may succeeding gen- 
erations experience the benign influ- 
ence of his virtue and his Patriotism. 
"After which the following Patriotic 
and volunteer toast was given: — 

"May the French Nation long enjoy 
the blessings of liberty and equality; 
and may it never tarnish its glory. 
by any acts of inhumanity. 

"The Procession." the report con- 
tinues, "then moved from Water street 
to North Bedford; and at sunsetting, 
bring recommenced and continued for 
near an hour. — After which, the com- 
pany retired, and partook of an ele- 
gant entertainment at citizen Garish's, 
where their Patriotic joy was demon- 
strated by the following toasts and 
federal sentiments: 

"Confederated America! May free- 
dom and unanimity continue to be the 
distinguishing characteristics of these 
states: — and may Columbia annually 
shine with redoubled accession of vir- 
tue, knowledge, and glory. 

"The Commonwealth of Massachu- 
setts! May she ever enjoy the bless- 
ings, and always flourish under the 
immediate direction of a wise and 
virtuous administration: and may her 
citizens ever evince to the world, the 
possession of those principles most 
essential to the dignity of Man. 

"The County of Bristol! Success to 
her husbandry and navigation, and 
unanimity among her citizens in poli- 
tical sentiments. 

"Newbedford! May we never again 
suffer by the ravaging hand of war. 
May unanimity, industry, and litera- 
ture, with all the benevolent and so- 
cial virtues, ever harmonize and dis- 
tinguish her citizens. 

"The day passed in the greatest 
harmony and good order — and at the 
hour of ten at Eve, the citizens re- 
tired elate with the agreeable re- 
flections which the pleasures of the 
day had inspired." 

"When the tiring had ceased." the 
report proceeds, "our fellow citizens 



16 



of Fairhaven retired to a convenient 
place, where fifteen convivial toasts 
were drank [the celebration proceed- 
ing- simultaneously in the two 
townsj : — 

"1. Long life to the President of 
the United States. — May he continue 
the Patton (sic) of Liberty, and Ty- 
rant's foe. 

'% His amiable Lady. — May they 
long enjoy eonnubial felicity. 

"3. The Vicepresident. 

"4. The Government of the United 
States. 

'•5. The liberty of Nations. 

"G. Tranquillity in France, and a 
peaceable return to her emigrant. 
citizens. 

"7. May that noble spark which 
was kindled in America spread thro 
the world. 

•S. The memory of our sleeping 
Heroes. 

"'9. The downfall of Monarchy. 

•'Hi. Our Brethren on the Frontiers. 

"11. Agriculture. 

••11'. Commerce and Navigation. 

"13. Arts and Sciences. 

"14. Love, peace, and unity, at 
home and abroad. 

••15. The eleventh of February. 

"After which an elegant entertain- 
ment was provided, and the evening 
was spent in festivity and joy — O 
Bedford! — How unlike the day. when 
the British stardard waved in tri- 
umph round thy shores — when wild 
dismay sat on every countenance, and 
the Valiant trembled with fear." 

"Breasts Glowing with Liberty." 

Possibly taking fire from this enthu- 
siasm of the adjoining town, 
Rochester — which in that day com- 
prised what air now the towns of 
Matt jpoisett, Marion, and Rochester, 
with a population, according to the 
1 7 i» eensus, of 2,044 — went in for a 
great Independence Day celebration. 
Nothing is said about the day's ob- 
servance in this town, but as a 
number of "patriots of neighboring 
towns" are reported to have been 
pies .'lit in Rochester, probably that 
was the place of the day in this 
vicinity. 

The Medley tells about a day of 
"festivity and rejoicing," after which 
"each <<ne retired with his breast 
glowing with the spirit of Liberty and 
Equality." How much of this was 
due to genuine patriotism and 
how much to the "elegant re- 
past" partaken of at "Citizen Rug- 
bies' tavern" earlier in the day, and 
the fifteen toasts later drunk can not 
♦ be said; but the facts of the case are 
that "the morning was ushered by a 
discharge of cannon and a display of 
the tiag of the United States; at ten 



o'clock a number of patriotic citizens. 
of Rochester and the neighboring 
towns assembled at Citizen Buggies' 
tavern, where (hey partook of an 
elegant repast. At two o'clock p. in. 
the first company of Militia of 
Rochester, commanded . By Capt. 
Sturtevant, paraded; where, after go- 
ing thro the military exercise, was a 
discharge of fifteen cannon, answering 
co the fifteen free, sovereign and con- 
federated States of America; after 
which the officers again joined with 
their patriotic: brethren to celebrate 
the day, when the following Toasts 
were drunk: 

"1. The United States of America — 
may their Independence be lasting as 
time. 

"2. The President — long live the 
patriotic Hero. 

"3. The Legislature of the Union — 
may its deliberations be for the pub- 
lie good. 

"4. The Commonwealth of Massa- 
chusetts — may her fishery, commerce, 
and agriculture ever flourish. 

"5. The Governor-— may immortal 
honor be the reward of his exertions 
in establishing our Independence. 

"<'>. The Lieut. Governor — may 
peace and tranquillity attend him 
thro his declining years. 

"7. The Patriots and Heroes of 
seventy-six — may the same patriotic 
zeal animate our breasts which then 
warmed theirs. 

"8. The Officers and Soldiers of the 
day — may their principles of liberty 
and equality never sleep. 

"0. The Frontiers — may they be 
protected from the depredations of 
savage barbarians. 

"la. The Republic of France — as 
she has catch ed the spark of liberty 
hem America, may its flame never be 
extinguished. 

"11. The Marquis de la Fayette — 
may the day soon arrive when he again 
shall breathe the air of freedom. 

"12. May strict neutrality be pre- 
served between the United States and 
the Belligerent Bowers. 

"13. May Liberty run parallel with 
Time. 

"14. 

"15, 

The 
the d£ 



The 

The 

it w 
in l 
one retired with 
with the spirit 
Equality." 



State of Vermont. 

State of Kentucky." 

is that "after- having spent 

tivity and rejoicing, each 

his breast glowing 

of Liberty and 



The Philomafhean Society. 

Probably some of the "scholars' 
and "lovers of learning" in the Phil- 
omatliean society had a hand in for- 
mulating the toasts for the Washing 



17 



ton birthday celebration; and we get 
a touch of the same grandiloquence, 
coupled with re'j.l practicality, in the 
subjects propounded for discussion at 
one of its meetings. There had been a 
call to a quarterly meeting "to be held 
at the new school house at Mead of 
Acushnet River," "to be opened pre- 
cisely at 9 o'clock a. m." — No late 
evening meetings for the early New- 
bedfordians. According- to a notice is- 
sued by the secretary, who was no 
other than the editor of The Medley, 
at that meeting it was voted that "the 
following questions should be debated 
upon at the next meeting of the 
society and that the secretary pub- 
lish them in the interim, for the in- 
formation of absent members: 

"Is it for the Emolument of Society 
that the chief Magistrate should have 
it in his Power to pardon Criminals 7 

"Is it consistent wJTh justice that 
Minors should pay a poll tax for the 
support of government? 

"Is a reform in English Orthogra- 
phy under our present circumstances, 
expedient or not':'" — tne sign of an 
early beginning to a long-continued 
discussion. 

Schools Publio aim Private. 

Adopting the Massachusetts policy, 
in Colonial times, of maintaining 
schools by public money raised by 
taxation, Old Dartmouth maintained, 
certainly as early as the end of the 
first third of the eighteenth century, 
a school-master for each village and 
every person in each village had 
"free access or liberty," to quote an 
old town report, "to send their chil- 
dren to sd master for benefit of the 
lattin tongue, but no other." New- 
bed ford had such a "grammar mas- 
ter," chietly to prepare students for 
the university at Cambridge. Almost 
certainly at the same time there was 
also an elementary school. 

With the adoption of the state con- 
stitution in 17S0, public education 
received a livelier attention; and 
when in 1787 Newbedford was in- 
corporated as a separate town, its 
first town meeting voted that "there 
be one person employed as a town 
school master in this town." For the 
next eleven years there is record of 
a vote passed annually that the se- 
lectmen appoint the school masters 
of the town according to law. But 
public support of schools in this town 
had been growing less willing, if one 
may judge by the fact that in 1798 
only "a sum of money for schooling 
poor children" was voted, this sum 
being placed at two hundred dollars, 
* at the recommendation of a commit- 
tee which had been appointed to "in- 
quire into the number of poor chil- 
dren in said town necessary to send 



to school at the expense of the town;" 
and for more than a score of years 
the public schools were schools for 
the Indigent. Probably, then, in 17'Ji 
more children went to private schools 
than to public ones in this town. 
From a very early period there was 
a school on Johnny Cake Hill. At 
this time there was one at Oxford, 
- — the Poverty Point of today: 
still standing on the Taber Farm, — 
and probably others, besides the one 
referred to in this advertisement: 

"Thaddeus Mayhew respectfully 
informs the inhabitants of Bedford 
and its vicinity, that, if suitable en- 
couragement be given, he proposes to 
open a School at the north School- 
nouse. where lie will teach Reading, 
Writing, vulgar and decimal Arithe- 
metic, and English grammar; and 
hopes from his acquaintance with 
actual business, and a due sense of the 
importance of the undertaking, to be 
able to give satisfaction to his Em- 
ployers. 

"Those who are disposed to favor 
him with encouragement are desired 
to leave their names, at the store of 
Captain Jeremiah Mayhew or Mr. 
William Ross, where they may see tne 
conditions." 

The First Evening School. 

Nothing mora appears on this score 
until in October Mr. Mayhew in a no- 
tice headed "Evening school" an- 
nounces that: 

"Tne Subscriber, returning his grate- 
ful thanks to his employers for past 
patronage, begs leave to acquaint the 
public that he has concluded to con- 
tinue the business; and that for the 
accommodation and benefit of those 
whose particular vocations render 
attendance impracticable, he proposes 
en Monday evening next to open an 
evening school - — when in addition to 
what was formerly advertised, he will 
teach bookkeeping navigation, and 
the iheory of mensuration, and gaug- 
ing. Ami flattering himself with hav- 
ing given general satisfaction hereto- 
fore engages by his assiduous atten- 
tion to the improvement of :hose en- 
trusted to his care, that those who 
may hereafter be disposed tj favor 
him with encouragement shall not tind 
their confidence misplaced — especial- 
ly as he is determined they shall find 
no lower Terms, nor easier mode of 
payment." 

An Early Reader. 

The editor and publisher of The 
Medley at about this time set about 
trying to enrich the school life- -and 
possibly his own purse- -by gettine up 
a school reader. He announced "Pro- 
posals of John Spooner for Printing, 
by Subscription, Miscellanies, Moral 
and Instructive, in Prose and Verse, 



18 



from Various Authors, Designed for 
the Use of Schools and improvement 
of young - persons of both sexes," quot- 
ing 
" 'Tis education forms the common 

mind; 
Just as the twig- is bent the tree 's in- 

clin'd. — Pope." 

It was to have two hundred pages, 
to be printed as soon as three hun- 
dred copies were subscribed for, and 
to sell for three shillings a book; and 
those who subscribed for twelve "would 
receive two gratis." "Subscription 
papers were lodged with the printer 
and several gentlemen." 

Boarding the Schoolmaster. 

No record of school matters would 
be complete without reference to the 
complaint, of one signing himself 
"Preceptor," against the custom of 
boarding schoolmasters around among 
the hon.es of their employers. "The 
method" he said, "of cbliging a Mas- 
ter to change the place of his resi- 
dence so frequently is attended with 
many demonstrative inconveniences: 
for wherj a man thinks not of stay- 
ing more than a week, he cannot be 
at home. No sooner has he learnt to 
conform to the different manners, 
government, customs, &C. of one fam- 
ily, but he must remove to another: 
there with equal difficulty learn to 
conform to theirs. Generally those 
persons who employ a Schoolmaster, 
have families of smali children. For 
this, and many other reasons, there is 
scarce one family in ten, where a man 
can have the convenience of a studi- 
ous life (which I am, and every 
Schoolmaster ought to be fond of). I 
have sometimes experienced very dis- 
agreeable feelings, on receiving visits 
from my friends; which m other cir- 
cumstances woulj have given me the 
most pleasing sensations. Ashamed, or 
discommoded at my lodgings, I have 
Fought refreshment for them at a Pub- 
lic House; or been obliged to burden 
some one of my acquaintances with 
them, when we wished to be retired. 
We are often obliged to observe the 
most persevering and rigid temper- 
ance. I have been in perils by water; 
and in perils for want of fire; twice 
have 1 been lousy: thrice have I caught 
the itch; once 1 nave had — but I for- 
bear: for I do not like ex- 
posing myself." He complains of 
often being so far from his 
schoolhouse as to be unable to give 
"that attention which is requisite to 
his business." He wants the custom 
lo be changed so that any one may 
be at liberty to board a schoolmaster 
who lives at a suitable distance from 
the school and has "those con- 
veniences which will render his life 
comfortable and agreeable." 



Certainly one might well fancy the 
public sympathy going out to the 
long suffering Preceptor. Put there 
was one oi" his own class who soon 
gave sign of small gratitude for this 
intervention in behalf of school- 
masterly comfort. Two weeks later 
in a communication in The Medley 
"Mr. Preceptor" was addressed by 
one signing himself "E. D." and 
under date of Oxford, who asked him 
"if possest of the common principles 
of humanity" to publish his name, as 
he would thereby "justify to the 
public an innocent character, which 
suffers by your disguise — one who, 
together with his own infirmities has 
to bear (which is no inconsiderable 
grievance) the imputation of all your 
nonsense and ill-nature." 

Whereupon Preceptor informs E. 
D. that in making his complaint he 
had in view not only his own happi- 
ness but the happiness of the faculty 
in general. He should not expect a 
sympathizing brother to ask him to 
expose his name and in consequence 
that of his employers. All he will 
say is that E. D. was not the writer 
of it, — which he does with the use of 
a nonsensical "syllogism." "As to 
what he has said of its being ill- 
natured nonsense, I shall only say," 
he comments, "that I am somewhat 
inclined to be of his opinion; for I 
have not heard a person read it, but 
what said Mr. D — was the author of 
it, for 'say they,' it is his style; sounds 
just like him, &c. — If it is my un- 
happiness to write in his style, I 
think he should use me more ten- 
derly than to cry out, nonsense, ill- 
nature, &c. seeing the intent was to 
erase a custom, which experience 
must have taught him is contrary to 
his happiness and mine." And he 
adds, "I shall conclude in the words 
of the Poet: 

"Then wherefore may not I be skip'd 
And in my room another whip'd? 
Canst thou refuse to bear thy part 
1' tli' public work, base as thou art — 
To higgle thus for a small scolding 
To gain the faculty good boarding?" 
leaving small doubt that Preceptor 
was of a poetic turn of mind as well 
as of a studious nature and a tease. 
"Preceptor" did not have the last 
word, for there came a caustic reply 
from the Oxford schoolmaster, under 
his full name of Elihu Doty, — the last 
two communications carrying the 
matter over into the new year. 
A Public Library. 
Some eight or ten years before the 
commonwealth of Massachusetts paid 
heed to the matter of public libraries, 
.the subject of a library had come up 
for consideration in the village of 



19 



Bedford. On Feb. 2d, 1793, The Med- 
ley said editorially: "A correspondent 
observes that as something has been 
proposed respecting a library in this 
town, he hopes it may soon succeed: 
and that the proprietors will make 
the most modern and best dictionaries 
the object of their first choice, in the 
collection of books (as the diffusion 
of knowledge is the end and design of 
such a valuable institution) by which 
means they may the more readily be 
benefited by the lucubrations of some 
of our late modern writers." 

That word "lucubrations" stirred 
up the town literary disputants into 
a discussion as to its right use in this 
connection, a Friend to Literature 
asking how the correspondent can 
determine whether such writings are 
"the production of diurnal or noc- 
turnal studies," and the argument 
being clinched by recourse to the 
Latin, which shows that lucubro is 
to make by candlelight and lucu- 
bratio studying by candlelight — 
proving that "no authority whether 
modern or ancient is sufficient to sup- 
port the correspondent in using 
lucubrations in any other sense than 
that of night studies" — a learned dis- 
cussion that perhaps furnished in 
part the foundation for New Bed- 
ford historians' assertion that the 
early inhabitants of the town "con- 
sisted of a highly intellectual class 
of people." 

Nothing further appeared about 
the library; though from other 
sources it can be said that eventually 
book clubs were formed, the Library 
Society got organized, followed by 
the Social Library, and that when, in 
the progress of time, all these had 
combined, the New Bedford Social 
Library enjoyed "a long, prosperous, 
and profitable career." 

A Doctor of Divinity. 

The town had at least one real stu- 
dent, but he was an importation. The 
name of the Rev. Samuel West, the 
able Congregational minister in the 
village at the head of the river was 
occasionally mentioned in The Med- 
ley, but never mv.re interestingly than 
in the statement that "at the late 
commencement at Harvard College 
the degree of Doctor oi! Divinity was 
conferred on the Rev. Samuel West, 
of this town." 

Interest in the French Republic. • 

If one may judge from the 
columns and columns of news in The 
Medley of affairs in France, the 
people here were greatly interested 
*in the French revolution and in the 
establishment of the French Re- 
public. For instance, the proceed- 
ings of the convention that sentenced 



Louis Capet to death were recorded 
in lull, with the voice of every mem- 
ber chronicled on the question of 
guilt, and the full text of the decree 
of sentence was given, with apology 
from week to week for the omission 
of other matters because of the news 
from France. Certainly the editor of 
The Medley was tremendously inter- 
ested. On February 2d he said: "Ca 
Ira! Ca Ira! is the song of the day. 
By yesterday's mail, we are agreeably 
entertained with particulars of the 
Civic Feast, celebrated the 24th ult. 
at Boston, Charlestown, Watertown, 
Medford, Plymouth, and Brookline, in 
this state, and at Providence in 
Rhodeisland, on the establishment of 
Liberty and Equality in France. 
Altho the citizens of this vicinity may 
nol manifest their joy in so public a 
manner, yet, with sincere hearts, 
each one will reecho the wish that the 
spread of Liberty may speedily be- 
come as universal as that of Life — 
and that our noble allies 'having 
wrested the sceptre from Monarchy, 
may enjoy Liberty, without An- 
archy.' " 

And in reporting the sentence of 
death for Louis he said: "The editor is 
happy to be able to give his readers 
so early and so general a statement 
of the matter: but must lament with 
every true friend to liberty the death 
of that generous monarch, who was 
Columbia's early friend: — who, when 
oppression and tyranny spread their 
banners over this young domain, flew 
to its relief, and quelled the haughty 
pride of Britain. — As true, un- 
prejudiced friend, we bid adieu to his 
sleeping ashes — & hope his shade 
reigns now upon a throne which mobs 
nor cruel foes can ne'er destroy." 

Later on, the French triumphs over 
the British were nuts to The Medley. 
W h e n t h e D uke of York was taken 
with his whole army, early in 1794, 
"the editor gladly presents his Patrons 
the agreeable morceau." Hut then, 
that very same piece of news affected 
congress so that "it could not stay in 
their siting"! 

Newbedford, however, fell in with 
Boston in adopting resolutions in favor 
of strict neutrality toward all belliger- 
ent European powers, in accord with 
President Washington's proclamation 
urging an impartial attitude. "A 
number of the inhabitants of this 
town met" and "voted the following 
resolves: That we will to the utmost 
of our power strictly attend to the 
pacific system manifested by the 
president in his late proclamations: 
that we heartily concur with our fel- 
low citizens of the town of Boston in 
their late doings relative hereto; and 
that we will endeavor to detect all 



20 



such as may, in the smallest degree, 
violate that neutrality we so highly 
approve." Signed Thaddeus Mayhew, 
ck-rk. 

News of the holding of American 
vessels in Algiers — in the midst of the 
European wars — led The Medley to 
get out the only "extra" referred to: 
"a handbill," it is called, .issued on 
the day of the receipt of the news; 
while the item itself was repeated in 
the next regular issue. 

Preserving the Peace. 

Newbedford had at this time, and 
apparently needed it, a peace pro- 
tection association. Some idea of the 
goings on can be grasped from this 
paragraph printed in November: 

"A correspondent being asked, why 
the noise has become so great in the 
streets as almost to preclude the pos- 
sibility of transacting business in the 
evening, gave for answer, what Elijah 
the Prophet did to the Priests of Baal 
- — 'Perhaps the Watchmen are talk- 
ing — or they are pursuing, or they 
are in a journey, or peradventure they 
are sleeping and must be awaked.' 

There is suggestion, too, of the 
presence of unruly spirits in an earlier 
advertisement of two men who "ut- 
terly refused" to lend their boats to 
•'any persons whomsoever" because 
of the many damages inflicted by 
those who had previously been accom- 
modated, and in the later call for 
assistance by a man living at "the 
Bongpknn" in finding out who had 
taken, 'thro mistake or designingly," 
a lot of white pine boards that had 
been left some months before at the 
Head of Aeushnet River. 

"Bedford Association." 

Nothing had been said in The 
Medley about the existence of an or- 
ganization to preserve the peace. .V 
meeting had been called in March of 
the "Bedford Association," for "the 
appointment of officers and transact- 
ing such other business as may ap- 
pear necessary," the meeting to be 
held "at the north school house": 
but no .nkling was given as to what 
the Bedford Association was and no 
report followed of the meeting. But 
now, when "the noise had become 
so great in the streets" as to disturb 
the rural quiet of Fourcorners, and to 
suggest that the watchmen were 
sleeping, the Bedford Associa- 
tion comes to the front in a 
long announcement, divided be- 
tween two issues of The Medley, 
"published for the information ot all 
concerned — more particularly as a 
guide and Monitor to our 'Peace 
Officers' " of "a system of Regulations 
proposed for the purpose of promot- 
ing good Order, Quietness, and 



Security in the' Village of Bedford, 
within she Town of Xewbedford- and 
County of Bristol." This consisted of 

a preamble and nineteen articles of 
orders and regulations, ana under 
date showing that the association had 
organized on the "17fh of* 3d month 
called March, 1792." 

This was the situation revealed by 
the preamble: 

"We, the subscribers, inhabitants 
of the Village of Bedford and its 
vicinity, having hereiofore suffered 
many inconveniences by the disorderly 
conduct of some of the young people 
and others, in various instances, for 
the purpose of preventing and re- 
form, ng those disorders— Do hereby 
agree to form ourselves into an asso- 
ciate body, and engage as much as 
may be in cur power, uj suppress the 
various species of vice and immoral- 
ity, that have led to those inconveni- 
ences " 

Without attempting to go into the 
rules and regulations in detail, it may- 
be said that they piovided for the 
division of the village into three 
wards, South, Middle, and North, and 
"out of each Ward was to be ap- 
pointed annually three suitable per- 
sons, men of orderly and temperate 
conduct," to lie "stiled" censors, "to 
sit not less than two of them upon 
any occasion,'! to hear the com- 
plaints brought in by the Officers of 
the Peace of any disorderly conduct 
"practiced either within or without 
the limits" of the village. 

After hearing the parties "with 
candor and impartiality," they were 
"to determine and require such repa- 
ration made (when injury hath been 
sustained) by the offender to the in- 
jured party, as they shall think 
equitable, and further in all eases to 
admonish and advice the parties to 
more circumspect conduct in future; 
which advice being well accepted, the 
party to be discharged: but when 
there appears an obstinate and in- 
corrigible disposition," the Censors 
were "to certify the same to the 
Secretary, that their names may be 
recorded, and also to the Counsellor, 
requiring his entring complaint there- 
of to the civil magistrate (when the 
action is cognizable by law), and in 
the absence of the Counsellor to make 
complaint themselves." 

Every subscriber to the association 
was constituted an Officer of the 
Peace, "not less than four of which, 
at any one time to have the care of 
the Village ».<: to patrole the streets, 
at such times as is necessary, in order 
to preserve the peace and good order 
of the Village; and they and all 
others are required, upon discovery of 



21 



any tumult or unnecessary noise, to 
admonish and advise the persons to 
desist, and quietly to repair to their 
respective homes; and upon refusal, 
or discovery of any other malprac- 
tices to the injury of any individual, 
that they delay not to make com- 
plaint to the Censors, in order for 
their further examination." 

Disorderly Conduct. 
Conduct deemed offences within 
the intention of the association was 
specified as: "Indecent and disorderly 
behavior on the Sabbath, as idle and 
unnecessary meeting- in the streets in 
companies and conversing — sailing for 
pleasure on that day, or any kind of 
gaming; ransacking orchards, gar- 
dens, or any other inclosure, to the 
injury of the owner; or robing them 
of their fruit and produce, within or 
without the limits of this association; 
lighting, obscene language, or pro- 
fane swearing, and drunkenness; 
tumults in the streets on evenings or 
at other times or places; breaking 
windows, throwing stones or sticks, 
and wantonly killing or abusing any 
domestic animals which are allowed 
to run at large; uncivil language and 
behavior to any person." 

Members of the association offend- 
ing were to be brought before the 
censors, refusing which they were to 
be expelled and brought before a 
magistrate. 

Every parent, master, or guardian, 
on the transgression of his child or 
apprentice was to deliverihim up to the 
censors for trial; and all members 
were to use "every exertion in their 
power" to prevent disorders and dis- 
cover all breaches of the peace. In 
all cases affecting the liberty or 
reputation of the subject, two-thirds 
of the members were required to be 
present. Any culprit who "reformed 
his manners" could have his name 
erased by the secretary. 

Any person of lawful age was at 
liberty to be a subscriber of the as- 
sociation, but once a member, he 
solemnly bound himself to adhere to 
it until the object in view had been 
accomplished or the association 
mutually dissolved. 

Evidently there was some difficulty 
about carrying out the provisions of 
bringing offenders before the censors, 
for notice is here given that at the 
annual meeting of that year, a year 
after organization, it had been voted 
that the peace officer having the care 
of the town at the time should "serve 
citations on those whom they may be 
directed to by the Censors and to see 
the persons so cited be brot before 
the said Censors." 



The document was signed by Caleb 
Greene, Secretary, followed by the 
words, 

"Signed by 8f> of the inhabitants of 
Bedford and its vicinity." 

The Intellectual Centre 
It is noticeable that the intellec- 
tual interests of the town all seemed 
to cluster about this "north school 
house" at the head of the river, 
while the chief business of the town 
was pursued at Fourcorners. 

A Rochester Ordination. 
No church matters were reported 
for this town during the year, but a 
new minister was ordained at the 
Congregational church in Rochester, 
"to the pastoral care of the Congre- 
gational church and society" in the 
"Congregational precinct of Roches- 
ter, Middleborough, and Freetown." 
lie was the Rev. Calvin Chaddock. 
The ministers named as taking part 
in the service, belonged in Carver, 
Plymouth, Rochester, and Abington; 
and The Medley comments that "the 
greatest order and regularity were 
observed by the very numerous 
auditory which attended on the occa- 
sion." While a candidate for the 
place the youn^ man had had the 
good judgment to marry, in Roches- 
ter, "the amiable Miss Melatiah Nye 
of Oakham," as the marriage notice 
stated. 

Street Names. 
In an early issue of 1793 appeared 
this notice as to street names — that 
"the editor of The Medley, by desire 
of a number of gentlemen in this 
place and for the information of the 
public, would mention — that the 
Street, beginning at Fourcorners, and 
running west, is distinguished and 
known by the name of Union street; 
the street running north, from said 
Fourcorners, North street; the street 
running east, Prospect street; and 
that running south, Water street." 

Poor Roads. 

The local good roads, or bad roads, 
question dates back at least to 171*3. 
In what is evidently an editorial re- 
view, and under the head "A Hint," 
a correspondent is said to suggest "to 
the Surveyors of roads in the town of 
Newbedford the necessity of attend- 
ing to some considerable repairs 
thereon. — He prefers the candid 
mode of redressing the grievances, to 
presenting a complaint to the Grand- 
juryman: and since it is universally 
agreed that the roads of Newbedford 
are inferior in point of goodness to 
any in New England, he hopes this 
seasonable word will not pass un- 
noticed." 



j 22 

Town Militia. was the one who got things under 
George Claghorn, eolonel of the 1 ' ;lls( ' pretenses, or at least ma<Je mis- 
Second Regiment in the Second takes: "The Person who claimed But- 
Brigade of the Fifth Division of the 'ers Hudibras and took it from this 
state militia, on .May 31st, quoted the ot!,ce will much oblige the printer by 
law of the commonwealth providing returning the same, or more fully 
"that every noncommissioned Officer ascertaining his property.:' There was 
and Soldier of the Militia shall equip the one who lost his Pocketbook "on 
himself, and be constantly provided the roa^ from the paper mills in Mil- 
with a good firearm with a steel or ton to the Northpansh m Bndgewater" 
iron ramrod, a spring to retain the J n A"gu*t, and got roun * to advertis- 
same, a worm, priming wire and ' >g t <,r it in 1- ebruary. There was the 
brush— a bayonet lited to his firearm, \^\\ w *° panted more money than he 
a scabbard and belt for the same— a h d - Wanted, on loan, lor 6 Months 
cartridge box that will hold fifteen ^^T'' °"% hund , retl P ?" nds « for 
nartrfi??M at lMist six flints— one uhlch ,j r a part, good security will be 

pound of powdir-fort/ leaoen bails ^^to' th^^lm r'-^ T iTh^ 1^ 

suitable for his J«ar» & c " under $* ^^J^^J by fd sened 

penalty of a possible fine of three huflband tnat h ' as apue ared in the 

pounds tor failure to comply with the newS papers every once in a while up 

regulation; and the company was tQ nQW and wl > wh „ marria&e J. 

called together for exercise and to felicity remains an unhappy fact, of a 

examine their equipment — and it is wilVs havi left hep husbamr ' bed 

the earnest wish of the Colonel and :iml |)oard and f nig fopbIddln g pep . 

Major to see them appear in the sons Ul trust her Qn hig a * Cf f UTkU 

character they sustain, which is signed by a Dartmouth man, under 

Soldiers and Citizens. the exceptionally sensational heading 

"Stop a Runaway!" for that day of ";£c Elopement!!" and 

That youth" was not always satis- a crude woodcut picture of a hoop- 
lied with the working of the appren- skirted woman, with a bag hanging 
tice system and sometimes took it ,rom » stick ov,er her shoulder — quite 
into its own hands to remedy real or ;,n Amazon in appearance, though the 
fancied wrongs or to secure at least cut is <)llly three-quarters of an inch 
a change, and that those to whom high! 

they were bound in service took ad- A Legalized Lottery. 
vantage of the constitutional right to And there were the peo ple who 
get back, if possible, those whose wanted surnething for nothing and 
labor they claimed, is shown in two .subscribed for the legalized lottery 
advertisements calling upon the organized to pay for a bridge in New- 
populace to "Stop a Runaway!" — one field, Connecticut. The lottery had 
from Freetown and the other from been authorized by the legislature, 
Dartmouth. In regard to the latter— providing for 13,334 tickets at four 
"Thomas Akin, a Blacksmith," an- dollars each, with 4078 prizes ranging 
nounced: from four thousand dollars down to 

"Kan away from the subscriber, the ,ive dollars, to a total of $53,336, sub- 

27th ult., an indented apprentice boy, - 1ect to ;t deduction of 1 2 y 2 per cent.; 

by name Hattle Bravley; sixteen years and leaving 9256 tickets blank. The 

old — about four feet six inches high — management flattered themselves 

light complexion and short hair. — Had these schemes would give "as general 

on, when he went away, a short green satisfaction as is possible for one to 

outside coat, fustic-coloured broad- »e found— so variable is the opinion 

cloth trousers, patched on the knees :l,1(1 calculation of adventures." 
with cloth of the same kind and colour William Ross and Shearman and 

as his coat, — a good felt hat. Took Procter offered tickets for sale in New- 

with him, a good caster hat — a good bed ford. That it was an entirely 

led coloured broadcloth coat — a jack- reputable scheme is shown in an 

et and breeches — also a seal skin cap. advertisement changing the date of 

"Whoever will return said Boy shall the drawing, which explained the rea- 
receive a handsome reward and all son for this as "the adjournment of 
charges. All persons are forbid bar- the County Court to the time first 
bouring or trusting him on my ac- proposed;" the manager who sub- 
count — and Masters of vessels are scribed his name "being clerk of said 
hereby forewarned against taking him court, and others of the managers be- 
to sea — as they will answer for it at longing to it." 



their peril. 



\ Natural Singularity 



Human Nature Manifested. That running to the newspaper 

Human nature seems to have been with freaks, whether of turnips, 

much the same then as now: there flowers, or animals, is no new adven- 



23 

hire, either, finds witness in this item The Medley some time after this stated 

under the head of "Natural Singu- that the selectmen had in their pos- 

larity!" session a circular issued by the New 

•In Tiverton, llhodeisland, is a lamb Vork quarantine committee saying 

three months old, which dame Nature lh;it lnt! disease was not easily taken 

has furnished with three mouths. The "without a predisposition of the body 

iwo extra mouths are on each side of and that the climate was not favorable 

its head; which open and shut, and to the disease in any place but Phila- 

move regularly with the front mouth. delphia!"— which bears a trace of the 

— EJach mouth has four handsome rivalry between the two places, 

teeth — and appear firmly set. It The Xew York circular sought in 

grazes with the flock — and is active specific terms to "preserve that com- 

and as likely to thrive as any lamb mercial and social intercourse so nec- 

in the flock. Tn all other parts it is cessary to the general prosperity and 

like other sheep. — This singularity happiness." 

may be seen at Mrs. Sarah Almy's, by Quaint Marriage Notices, 

any one who doubts the truth of the „, „, 

above account " Mostly the marriage notices were 

the merest naming of names, usually 

Small Pox Hill of Mortality. without name oi ! minister, or Uate — 

Hut, unlike the present day, that though occasionally Mr.-So-and-So 

there was no clamor to get things into married the "amiable" cr "agreeable" 

the paper the moment they happened Miss So-and-So; and twice a notice 

is shown in the item, in the middle of was accompanied by verse. Here, 

January, giving the names of those evidently, was an unusually important 

persons who had died of the small function: 

pox in this town in the four previous "It. this tow;., Sunday evening las', 

months. Under the head of "Small by toe Rev. Doctor West, Capt. Pre- 

Pox Kill of Mortality" were printed served Fish, to Miss Polly Gerrish, 

twenty-nine names, including twelve eldesl daughter of Mr. John Gerrish, 

of children; and the lack of system in of th ;; place. 

keeping track of deaths is evidenced in " 'Thus pass their life 

the statement that "any person who A clear united stream,, by care uri- 

can give more particular information, ruffled; 

by communicating details not here in- While with each other blest, creative 



serted will much oblige the Editor by 
"banding him an account for publica- 
tion." Again, marriage moved to playful, 



lov 

Still bids eternal Eden smile around. 



'it in iga ting with Gun Powder 



flattering rhyme 



here " Ip this town Mr - William Delano 

bpeakmg ol the small pox— there tf) Mjgg Hannah Tallrnan: 

was :'n epidemic ot yellow fever in „, Tr . 

Philadelphia that year, and, following smiles^"^ pleafls ' viln artful 

the lead of New York Governor Han- She oft th ' e stoutest heart be guiles; 

cock, at the vote of the Massachusetts n ut join'd with ll's wit and sense, 

senate, issued a proclamation of Who could resist .such eloquence?" 

quarantine against persons and things Obituarv Notice's 

from Philadelphia, after which Boston ,>,•* 

issued a set of regulations that pro- _ Obituary notices were rare. When 
vided, among other things, for the Governor Hancock died, a tribute to 
holding for thirty days of all vessels nim appeared i" a separate item, 
from i, la.es suoposed to be infected, under a head-line Hancock!" flanked 
'•during which time she shall be duly ? n e]th . er s ,id e xvlth Skull and cross- 
washed with vinegar and cleansed by bones - m whkn Tht ' Medley said: 
the explosion of gunpowder between "Monday last the corpse of our late 
decks and in the cabin." Persons worthy Governor was entomb'd with 
arriving overland from places civic and military honors. While the 
supposed to be infected were to be de- heart of sensibility laments the loss of 
tained "at places appropriated by the so useful a character, the honor and 
health officers" and "their effects, bag- respect manifested in his interment, by 
gage, and merchandise were there to the parade of a numerous military 
be opened, washed, and fumigated band and thousands of his fellow 
with vinegar and repeated explosions citizens, will afford a satisfaction to 
of gun powder." the bereaved mind, which only is expe- 
All that The Medley said with refer- rienced when others sympathize with 
ence to any move on the part of this us in woe; for as he lived respected, so 
town was that "the selectmen have he died honored and lamented — What 
take*) the necessary precautions to more can be said but that the noblest 
prevent the disease from being tribute was paid to his memory which 
brought into this place." Evidently worth and virtue merit or mortals 
the town was stirred up, however, for can bestow." 



24 



Again, skull and erossbones helped 
to announce the sorrow in the com- 
munity over the drowning in the river 
of a respected citizen: 

Overset by a Whirlwind. 
•Monday last, Mr. Charles Church, 
Senior, of this town, attempting to 
cross the harbor to Fairhaven, in an 
open boat, was overset by a whirlwind, 
and drowned.— -Immediate trial was 
made to recover the body: which after 
two hours' search was found. — Every 
exertion which a humane public could 
invent was used to reanimate him, but 
in vain. . Thus died 'an honest man' — 
respected by all who knew him— be- 
loved by all who revere true virtue — 
and much lamented by a worthy 
partner, and a large family of respect- 
able children, who bid fair to practice 
the virtues instilled in their tender 
minds by him who loved them. — His 
remains were on Wednesday decently 
interred, in the burying ground of the 
first Congregational society in this 
town, attended by a numerous con- 
course of friends and relatives." And 
then there followed an elegy written 
on the evening of the drowning by 
Philander — a very soulful effusion. 

Here )s another of the rare obit- 
uaries of the year: 

V Man of Solid Deportment. 
"Died — In this town Mr. Kbenezer 
Allen. Jun., Cabinet Maker, in the 37th 
year of his life. — On the morning of 
the 27th (of January) he was seized 
with a pain in his head, which in- 
creased till about 1 o'clock; when, fall- 
ing asleep, a stupor succeeded, from 
which he was incapable of being 
aroused: every stimulating effort which 
those of the faculty who were called 
in could advise, was made use of. — 
Thus continuing till about two o'clock 
on the morning of the 28th, he ex- 
pired. He has left behind a discon- 
solate widow, and four children, to 
lament his loss. — He was a kind and 
affectionate husband, tender father, 
sincere friend, and obliging neighbor, 
and an honest man: these virtues 
were much increased by his Christian 
conduct; which was abundantly con- 
spicuous, in tile solid deportment 
which accompanied the transactions of 
his life. In him the community has 
lost one of its most industrious citi- 
zens. May the kind hand of friend- 
ship pour in the oil of comfort, to 
softer the sorrows of his afflicted 
family." 

Probate Court. 

Probate court was announced to be 
♦held here "in May and October, the 
first Tuesday, at Major Fbenezer 
Willis's" — known to a later day as the 
John Avery Parker house, on Willis 



street, between County and State: a 
small section of which is still standing, 
in a remodelled dwelling. 

!n the citations in connection with 
the settling of estates, the occupation 
of deceased was frequently stated, as 
husbandman, yeoman, merchant, and 
the like. 

Other Death Notices. 

Among other death notices were: 

"In Dartmouth, Mr. Joseph Picket- 
son, ./Ft. 47. — Climbing a tree after 
grapes a limb broke — he fell— his 
head striking a stub put an immediate 
end to his existence." 

"At Dartmouth, Miss Betsey Wilber, 
daughter of Mr. Jonathan \Vilber, of 
that town, MX.. Hi. 
"'Death's shafts lly thick' — 

The cup goes round — 

And wlio so artful as to put it by!*" 

"Died — At Xeworleans, Mr. Jona- 
than Ricketson, AZt. 2 0. — Son of 
rapt. Daniel Ricketson of this town. 
He sailed mate of a brig from Phila- 
delphia, to the above place, where he, 
with the whole crew, were taken sick 
with the dissentery — and till except the 
captain died." 

"Died — At Boston, suddenly, Sun- 
day morning last (Feb. 24). Captain 
William Claghorn, of this town, aged 
5ih He lived beloved and his loss is 
lamented by all his acquaintances." 
This was followed by a sympathetic 
verse, spoke by Religion for consola- 
tion, of the wonders of redeeming 
love. An elegy appeared in a later 
issue, signed Philander, where the 
statement was also made that Captain 
Claghorn died on a visit to Boston and 
died of apoplexy. 

When Mr. 'Oliver Spencer, mer- 
chant, died at Nantucket, he was "de- 
cently layed in the Friends burying 
ground: to which place he was fol- 
lowed by more than three hundred 
of his friends and neighbors." 
A Tragic Death. 

Xewbedford furnished nothing so 
thrilling in the dying line nor cause 
for so really distinctive an obituary as 
appeared under the head: "Married — 
At Nantucket," with the tragic tale 
told thus breathlessly: 

"Mr. John fair weather to Miss 
Heppy Swain. Mr. Fairweather was 
single and an apprentice — free— mar- 
ried and heded — broke out with the 
smallpox the natural way- — of neces- 
sity separated from his wife, and 
lodged in the smallpox hospital: all 
fhis in the short space of less than 
4 8 hours " 

And, under the head of "Died," be- 
low: 

"Mr. John Fairweather, of the small 
pox the natural way." 



m 



,*\i 




ro :% 



THE 

Whaleman Statue 

ON THE GROUNDS OF THE 

FREE PUBLIC LIBRARY 
NEW BEDFORD, MASS. 



THE PRESENTATION 

OF THE 

Whaleman Statue 

TO THE 

CITY OF NEW BEDFORD' 

BY 

WILLIAM W. CRAPO 

AND THE 

EXERCISES AT THE DEDICATION 
JUNE TWENTIETH 

Nineteen Hundred and Thirteen 



OLD DARTMOUTH HISTORICAL SKETCHES, No. 38 



NEW BEDFORD, MASS. 

E. Anthony & Sons, Inc., Printers 

1913 



Introductory 



In the New Bedford Standard of May 16th, 1903, 
referring to a poem by John Spollon, appeared the 
following editorial: 

Considered merely as poetry, we could not say with 
any great degree of candor that the contribution to Fibre 
and Fabric, entitled "The Whaleman," which was re- 
produced in this paper the other day, would take a high 
rank. But the sentiment must be very appealing to any 
son of New Bedford who remembers the old whaling 
days, and the mariners and merchants who made the 
whaling industry a magnificent success. We do not re- 
call that it has ever before been suggested that the 
whaleman should be commemorated by a statue, yet 
the suggestion is one that is well worth hearing and 
heeding. Those of our readers who have visited Spring- 
field, and who have seen the impressive statue by 
Augustus St. Gaudens, known generally as "The Puri- 
tan,' ' but which is a memorial to Deacon Samuel 
Chapin, an early settler of the town, have seen the idea 
of Fibre and Fabric's poet carried out as applied to 
the conditions of that city. As the Puritan was typical 
of Springfield, so the whaleman would be typical of this 
city. What a noble thing it would be if a St. Gaudens 
statue of The Whaleman could be placed on City Hall 
square, where hundreds of people passing every day 
could be reminded of the rugged sailors who made New 
Bedford possible! Whether the verse is good poetry 
% or not, no matter. The idea is as good as it can be, 
when the aged and gray mariner is represented as 
saying : 

3 



"Yet I heartily wish his old shape could be seen, 
In marble or bronze, mounted here on the green, 
As a Pounder the town should remember 
Till Sentiment's last glowing ember 
To ashes has faded away. 

Let his monument stand, with his harpoon in hand, 
Sturdy son of the sea who dragged wealth to the land 
In defiance of hardship and danger; 
For in this town he'll soon be a stranger." 

This subject, in the hands of a master, should readily 
adapt itself to a bold and masterly artistic treatment, 
though we shudder to think what it might be if attempted 
by mediocrity. Committed to 'genius, The Whaleman 
might easily be one of the great statues of America, — 
and New Bedford would be the only city where it could 
appropriately stand. 

The first information communicated to the public that 
this suggestion was likely to be realized was presented 
in the following letter of Hon. William W. Crapo, ad- 
dressed to the Mayor of New Bedford, who is chair- 
man of the Trustees of the Free Public Library: 

New Bedford, Feb. 8th, 1912. 
Hon. Charles S. Ashley, Mayor, New Bedford, Mass.: 

My Dear Sir: — I desire, subject to your approval, to 
make arrangements for a memorial in honor of the 
whalemen whose skill, hardihood, and daring brought 
fame and fortune to New Bedford and made its name 
known in every seaport on the globe ; and to be privileged 
to present it to the City of New Bedford as a tribute 
to the citizenship which I have so long enjoyed. 

For this purpose I have asked Mr. Bela L. Pratt, of 
Boston, to design a model of a bronze figure of a boat- 
steerer throwing a harpoon from the bow of a whale- 
boat. The sketch model has been prepared and shows 
the character of the work proposed. My wish is that 
this memorial be placed on the ground by the Public 
Library, and the model has been designed with that 
location in view. ( 




WILLIAM W. CRAPO 



If it meets with your approval I suggest that you 
refer the consideration of this offer on my part to the 
Trustees of the Free Public Library. If the matter 
meets with the approval of the Trustees I will venture 
to proceed with the work, which when completed I shall 
desire to present for the acceptance of the City Council 
of New Bedford. 

Eespectfully yours, 

WILLIAM W. CRAPO. 

To this Mayor Ashley replied as folloivs: 

New Bedford, Feb. 21, 1912. 
Hon. William W. Crapo, New Bedford, Mass. : 

Dear Sir: — Agreeable to the suggestion which your 
communication to me contains as to reference to the 
Trustees of the Free Public Library of the proposal 
which you make to present to the city a bronze memorial 
in honor of "The Whalemen," I will engage to do so 
at the meeting Friday evening of this week. 

I can assure you that the proposition meets my hearty 
approval and must commend itself to every person as 
a thoughtful, generous act deserving public appreciation 
in the fullest measure. 

I have every belief that the Board of Trustees will be 
greatly pleased to designate the grounds of the Library 
building as a location where the figure shall be erected, 
and will select a place in every way fitting, and I will 
ask them in this respect to forthwith communicate with 
you. 

With great appreciation, I am yours most respectfully, 

CHARLES S. ASHLEY, Mayor. 

Action was taken by the Trustees of the Library as 
shown in the following letter: 

New Bedford, Mass., March 29, 1912. 

Hon. William W. Crapo, New Bedford, Mass. : 

My Dear Sir:— The Board of Trustees of the New 
Bedford Free Public Library at their last meeting 
directed me, as clerk of the Board, to express to you 



their grateful appreciation of the kindly spirit mani- 
fested in your offer to present to the City of New 
Bedford, to be placed in some suitable location in the 
grounds surrounding the Library building, the beautiful 
memorial to those hardy mariners who have in the past 
done so much to add lustre to the honor and fame of 
this great nation, the American Whaleman, designed by 
Mr. Bela L. Pratt of Boston. 

" Voted: That the generous offer of Mr. Crapo be 
accepted and that the clerk be directed to communicate 
the same to him with the thanks of the Board." 

Yours very truly, 

A. McL. GOODSPEED, Clerk. 






The Whaleman Statue 

The appreciation of this gift by the citizens of New 
Bedford was expressed by the following editorials : 

From The Evening Standard, New Bedford: 

To be able to announce, as this newspaper has the rare 
privilege of announcing today, the approaching realiza- 
tion of a long-cherished dream that this city might be 
adorned with a fitting memorial to the New Bedford 
whalemen, is such a pleasure as is not often experienced. 
Adding William W. Crapo's public-spirited generosity 
to Bela L. Pratt's genius for sculpture, the total is a 
creation of statuary such as very few cities in the United 
States are fortunate enough to possess. New Bedford 
has so few examples of line artistry that this munificent 
contribution is of surpassing importance and so of ex- 
ceptional welcome. As the giver says in his letter, the 
men whose memory it commemorates Brought fame and 
fortune to New Bedford; and nothing can be more ap- 
propriate than that this memorial should perpetuate 
their fame, while adding by the perfection of its artistic 
excellence to the city's renown. 

Two reproductions from photographs of the sculptor's 
sketch, with Mr. Crapo's letter to the Mayor, and with 
a few words of unadorned explanation, given elsewhere, 
tell the whole story. Nothing can better speak for the 
gift than the gift itself, and anything added here in the 
way of praise is the addition of superfluity, notwith- 
standing the temptation presses too hard to be resisted. 

Mr. Crapo's thought of this memorial began to take 
shape in his mind many months ago. From the first, 
his desire was to see commemorated that epoch of the 

7 



8 



whaling industry which he had known in his boyhood — 
an industry of strong, venturesome, ambitious men, of 
young men looking to the future, men who meant to be 
leaders and who turned out to be leaders. From that 
thought he evolved the conception of the boatsteerer, 
now fashioned from the clay by Mr. Pratt, and by and 
by to be set up in bronze and granite where all the 
people can see. Possibly our older folk need no re- 
minder that this is the figure of the young man who 
realized that his killing the whale was on his way to 
becoming, as they used to say, " captain of a ship." 
So many barrels of oil, so many dollars of profit at the 
end of the three years' cruise, — of course. But beyond 
the immense bulk of floating flesh unconsciously waiting 
his attack he saw himself a mate, a master, an owner 
of ships, a leading citizen of his native city, wife and 
children, prosperity, and an honored name. This is 
the man of the statue — The Whaleman "who brought 
fame and fortune to New Bedford and made its name 
known in every seaport in the globe." Here he is, a 
man in the full glory and promise of a young manhood 
and who made that promise good. Long years after- 
ward, lie walked these streets, a gray-haired old man, 
he sailed the seas and he killed whales in fancy at the 
Chronometer club, he was a director in the bank, he 
sat at the head of his pew on the main aisle, he served 
his term in the legislature — but in the thought of the 
giver and in the brain of the artist he is always the 
eternal youth, inspiring and leading all those other 
youths who, coming after, will feel the impulse of his 
beckoning to achievement. Something like this, Mr. 
Crapo must have said to the sculptor, and discerning 
his splendid opportunity the sculptor has translated 
the vision into the image of the youthful boatsteerer, 
intent upon his whale, and yet still intent upon his own 
glowing dreams. 

Of the sculptor himself, little more than a word is 
needed, and much would be impertinence. Probably 
with respect to fitness for this especial commission his 



equal cannot be found among American sculptors, while 
of the two or three who may be ranked among his rivals 
in talent, not one is his superior. He has, along with 
breadth and delicacy of imagination, the power of 
vigorous execution, as is easily discoverable in the statue 
of The Whaleman. That he deems himself fortunate 
in his subject is his own modest way of putting it, but 
another can say with no reservation and with no taint 
of exaggeration that his subject is fortunate in him. 

In The Whaleman poising his harpoon where the 
currents of business and pleasure flow and swirl, for 
many a generation to come the people of New Bedford 
will see with grateful acknowledgment honor to the 
daring men of a wonderful industry, genius speaking 
inspiration through bronze and stone, and loyal affec- 
tion for the generous giver's home through a long and 
useful life. 

From the Morning Mercury, New Bedford: 

The announcement by William W. Crapo of his 
purpose to erect a memorial to the whalemen, is re- 
ceived with the greatest satisfaction. It has been the 
dream of all the lovers of the immortal days when New 
Bedford, first in the brave industry of whaling, carried 
the flag to all the seas of earth, that we might rear a 
iitting monument to the daring race of men who brought 
opulence and fame to the city through their perilous 
enterprise. 

The hope was always associated with the fear that 
the thing might not be fittingly or worthily done. But 
for this apprehension it is likely it might have been 
attempted before this day. It is gratifying to know that 
it is to be done by an artist with the sympathy and in- 
telligence of Mr. Pratt, without restriction as to cost, 
and there is no less gratification that the name of Mr. 
Crapo, possibly our most distinguished and highly 
cherished citizen, is to be linked with the splendid 
achievement. 



10 

Once it was decided to erect such a memorial, there 
could be no doubt in any mind regarding the subject of 
the design. "It is the harpooner that makes the 
voyage." It is the harpooner who performs the task 
with the responsibility and the task with the thrill. 
"Nowhere in all America," said Melville, writing of 
the olden day, "will you find more patrician-like houses; 
parks and gardens more opulent, than in New Bedford. 
Whence came they"? How planted upon this once scraggy 
scoria of a country? Go and gaze upon the iron em- 
blematical harpoons round yonder lofty mansion and 
your question will be answered. Yes; all these brave 
houses and flowery gardens came from the Atlantic, 
Pacific, and Indian oceans. One and all they were har- 
pooned and dragged up hither from the bottom of the 
sea. Can ITerr Alexander perform a feat like that?" 

The harpooner is at the forefront of the whole des- 
perate business. When the greenliand first takes his 
place in a boat to go upon a whale, lie is commanded to 
keep his eyes astern, so terrifying is the spectacle of 
the contest — a contest in which the harpooner is the 
dominant figure. If it is necessary for the harpooner 
to qualify further as to his importance, let us quote 
from Melville once again: 

''According to the invariable usage of the fishery, the 
wlialeboat pushes off from the ship, with the headsman 
or whale-killer as temporary steersman, and the har- 
pooner or whale-fastener pulling the foremost oar, the 
one known as the harpooner-oar. Now it needs a strong, 
nervous arm to strike the first iron into the fish, for 
often, in what is called a long dart, the heavy implement 
has to be flung to the distance of twenty or thirty feet. 
But however prolonged and exhausting the chase, the 
harpooner is expected to pull his oar meanwhile to the 
uttermost; indeed, he is expected to set an example of 
superhuman activity to the rest, not only by incredible 
rowing, but by repeated loud and intrepid exclamations ; 
and what it is to keep shouting at the top of one's 
compass, while all the other muscles are strained and 
half started — what this is none know but those who have 
tried it. For one, I cannot bawl very heartily and work 



11 

very recklessly at one and the same time. In this 
straining, bawling state, then, with his back to the fish, 
all at once the exhausted harpooner hears the exciting 
cry — i Stand up, and give it to him!' lie now lias to 
drop and secure his oar, turn around on his centre half 
way, seize his harpoon from the crotch, and with what 
little strength may remain, he essays to pitch it somehow 
into the whale. No wonder taking the whole fleet of 
whalemen in a body, that out of fifty fair chances for a 
dart, not five are successful; no wonder that so many 
hapless harpooners are madly cursed and disrated; no 
wonder that some of them actually burst their blood- 
vessels in the boat; no wonder that some sperm whale- 
men are absent four years with four barrels; no wonder 
that to many ship owners, whaling is but a losing 
concern; for it is the harpooner that makes the voyage, 
and if you take the breath out of his body how can you 
expect to find it there when most wanted." 

Having decided that it is the harpooner who fills the 
picture, the artist must next pick his type. If he is a 
lover of the whaling classic there is recalled to his mind 
the dreadful Queequeg, who "eats nothing but steaks 
and likes 'em rare," or Daggoo, or Tashtego, the three 
salt-sea warriors with the portentous appetites which 
barons of salt junk could not satisfy. But these are not 
typical of the glorious host of whalemen who made the 
fame of New Bedford, valorous, hardy, God-fearing 
men. 

The whalers of yesteryear, whom the sculptor honors 
and perpetuates, is the Native born — "A health to the 
Native born, Stand up!" — young men athirst for gain 
and glory in the fishery, "stalwart fellows who have 
felled forests and now seek to drop the axe and snatch 
the whale lance." The time was when the boys of New 
Bedford were fired by the deeds of the fathers and 
aspired to be captains and heroes. This is the figure 
of youth who stands at the prow of the boat — looking 
forward. 

The Mercury has often expressed its admiration for 
the slogan of the whaleman, as brought out by Captain 
Ahab. Calling aft the crew, the captain demands : 



12 



' ' What do ye do when ye see a whale, men?" 

"Sing out for him," responds the clubbed chorus. 

"And what do ye next, men!" 

"Lower away and after him ! ' ' 

"And what tune is it ye pull to, men?" 

"A dead whale or a stove boat!" 

In the one hundredth anniversary edition of the Mer- 
cury, the Mercury said of the phrase "A Dead Whale 
or a Stove Boat," that "it should be emblazoned on the 
monument we are one day to build to the whaleman. 
It should be inscribed in the schoolroom and on the 
wall of the bed chamber of the youth of New Bedford." 

We are rejoiced that our suggestion has been adopted 
and that the phrase will appear upon the sculpture. 
This slogan was the impulse which led the whaleman to 
do such deeds that all history cannot point to an enter- 
prise prosecuted with greater courage, hardihood, and 
intelligence. It is a glowing, slashing, spirit-stirring- 
phrase, and we are glad it is to be perpetually before 
the youth of this city. 

No gift, we believe, could be more highly cherished 
than the memorial which Mr. Crapo has bestowed. We 
express, we know, a universal sentiment of appreciation, 
with the hope that the First Citizen of New Bedford, 
a position Mr. Crapo holds by common agreement, will 
live long in the place he loves so well, and honors no less. 




THE WHALEMAN 



Unveiling of The Whaleman Statue 

1 'The Whaleman, ' ' William W. Crapo 's gift to the 
city, was unveiled June 20, 1913, in the presence of 
thousands of interested spectators. 

In keeping with the sentiment that inspired the gift 
of the statue, Captain George 0. Baker, New Bedford's 
oldest living whaling master, performed the office of 
loosening the ropes that held the covering of the statue, 
and revealing the figure. 

Mr. Crapo spoke briefly in presenting the statue; and 
Mayor Ashley made the address of acceptance in behalf 
of the city. Other speakers at the exercises were Ed- 
mund Wood, Rev. C. S. Thurber, P. C. Headley, Jr., 
and Otis S. Cook. 

The exercises incidental to the unveiling began at 11 
o'clock, in the presence of a crowd which covered the 
lawn around the bronze figure and overflowed across 
William and Pleasant streets. Traffic was prevented 
through these thoroughfares and electric cars were 
diverted through Sixth to Union street, that the im- 
mediate district might be kept as quiet as possible, and 
the spectators might be given an opportunity to hear 
the addresses of Mr. Crapo and of the others who par- 
ticipated in the programme. 

To Mr. Crapo was accorded a position of honor upon 
the speakers' platform which had been erected at the 
northeast corner of the Library building near the statue, 
while sitting there with him were the Mayor, who ac- 
cepted the statue on behalf of the city and who presided 
over the exercises, the speakers, and invited guests. The 
* party included Captain Ezra B. Lapham and Captain 
Thomas H. Jenkins, Mayor Ashley, John I. Bryant, 
Jireh Swift, Clifton W. Bartlett, Librarian George H. 

13 



14 

Tripp, Phineas C. Headley, Jr., Edmund Wood, Rev. 
Charles S. Thurber, Alexander McL. Goodspeed, Dr. 
Frank M. Kennedy, Frank A. Milliken, Otis S. Cook, 
George R. Phillips, Charles P. Maxheld of Pairhaven, 
and Charles W. Howlancl of Dartmouth. Invitations 
had been extended to the mayors of surrounding cities 
and to the selectmen of neighboring towns, but several 
of them, because of other business, were unable to be in 
attendance. 

The space immediately around the statue had been 
roped off in order to give Captain Baker ample room 
for the unveiling, while chairs were brought from the 
Library and placed in front of the platform for the in- 
vited guests. Among these were members of Mr. 
Crapo 's immediate family, this party including Mrs. 
Sarah B. C. Ross, of Boston, a sister of Mr. Crapo; 
Mr. and Mrs. Stanford Crapo and family of Detroit; 
Henry II. Crapo, and Mrs. Charles W. Whittier and 
family of Milton. 

Included also in the group near the statue were Bela 
L. Pratt, the sculptor, and friends of Mr. Crapo. 

The platform which was used by the speakers had 
been built over the steps, and the woodwork was ob- 
scured by a covering of bunting, while large American 
flags on staffs marked the four corners of the stand. 

In order to regulate traffic, a police detail of 12 men, 
under command of Lieutenant Underwood was present. 

A few moments previous to the scheduled time for 
the exercises Mr. Crapo, the Mayor, and the others of 
the platform party met in the office of Librarian Tripp 
and promptly at 11 o'clock came through the Library 
and took their positions upon the stand, the statue 
hidden from view by its covering being directly to 
their left. 

After a selection by Gray's Band, the Mayor stepped 
to the front of the platform, accompanied by Captain 
Baker, and in introducing him paid a brief tribute to 
the former mariner — in the Mayor's words, "a splendid 
example of the men who brought honor and fame to the 
hardy and fearless calling of the whalernen." 



15 

The actual unveiling took but a moment, and as the 
covering fell away, revealing to the people for the first 
time tlie completed work, the Mayor introduced to those 
gathered about the statue, the donor, William W. Crapo. 

The Mayor expressed his gratification at the honor 
accorded him. 

Remarks by the Mayor: 

"One citizen there is among us, whose life embracing 
an honorable span of years, has witnessed each history 
making epoch in our expanding municipal development. 

"He has borne an important and commanding part in 
the business of other years and is a foremost figure in 
the enterprises of the present day. 

"To no other New Bedford man has been allotted so 
large a place in the activities of a community attaining 
marvelous prosperity in two pursuits so radically differ- 
ing in nature. 

"The devotion which he brings to the numerous duties 
which bear upon him, never allures him from the keenest 
interest in all that concerns our daily doings, and his 
reverent appreciation of our history and achievements 
has been manifested on ever) r occasion. 

"At this time lie confers upon us a dignified and im- 
pressive example of the traits and qualities which con- 
trol him, our distinguished fellow townsman, and I re- 
gard it as my most gratifying privilege to present him 
to you — William W. Crapo. ' ' 



16 



Remarks by Mr. Crapo: 

The statue of The Whaleman which is presented to 
the city recalls the earlier history of this locality. For 
a hundred years the whale fishery was the absorbing 
and well nigh exclusive industry of New Bedford, fur- 
nishing employment to its artisans on shore and to its 
sailors on the ocean, Its ships sailed from this port 
bound on long voyages to far distant seas and they 
returned with rich cargoes. They were manned with 
self-reliant, hardy, stout-hearted men. Many of them 
who had entered the forecastle, through well deserved 
promotions reached the quarter deck. They were trained 
to obey and they were fitted to command. Undaunted 
they encountered the terrific storms of the tropics and 
the ice fields of polar regions. Fearlessly they pur- 
sued, and with a daring not surpassed in mortal war- 
fare they captured the huge leviathans of the deep and 
made them contribute to the wants of mankind. 

These men brought back something more than barrels 
of oil and pounds of bone. They enriched our citizen- 
ship. In visiting foreign ports in every quarter of the 
globe for the purpose of shipments or recruits or 
repairs, in braving the perils of the ocean, in meeting 
the frenzied attacks of wounded and angry whales, in 
dealing with barbarous natives of South Sea Islands, 
in thrilling adventures and hair-breadth escapes, they 
gained strength of character, a broader vision, and a 
clearer judgment. "Retiring from a strenuous and 
hazardous service at a comparatively early age they 
sought on land the comforts of home. Here they were 
not idle. They engaged in various pursuits and they 
added greatly to the social life of the town. They were 
citizens whose opinions were respected by their neigh- 
bors, for they had been reared in a school which made 
them neither narrow-minded nor timid. Some of them 
took part in the management of our municipal affairs. 
The first mayor of New Bedford when a young man was 
a whaleman. He had stood at the masthead, in the boat 
as harpooner, he had "struck his whale," as the phrase 



17 

went, and be earned the position and title of ship cap- 
tain. For five years lie ably filled the office of chief 
executive of the city. 

It was the adventurous spirit and the rugged hardi- 
hood of our whalemen, the integrity and excellence in 
construction and equipment of our ships, and the 
sagacious foresight and fair dealing of our whaling 
merchants, that made New Bedford the foremost 
whaling j)ort of the world. The industry still lingers 
here, a remnant of its former greatness. Instead of 
fleets of wbalers cruising in every ocean, a few vessels 
returning from their voyages land their catch on our 
wharves. Modern devices have lessened the risk at- 
tending the pursuit and capture, and the romance that 
once gathered around the harpoon has largely vanished. 

This statue, placed in our civic center, a spot endeared 
to us by cherished memories, is erected in remembrance 
of the energy and fortitude, the toil and enterprise of 
the men who laid the foundation of the prosperity of 
this community. It is a tribute to men who faced 
dangers, who grappled with difficulties, and who achieved 
success. Let us hope that in keeping alive the story of 
the past it may serve to inspire the men of the future 
with confidence and courage to meet the perplexities 
and duties which await them. 

At the conclusion of Mr. Crapo's remarks the Mayor, 
on behalf of the city of New Bedford, formally ac- 
cepted the statue, and as the city's chief executive ex- 
pressed the appreciation and the gratitude of the 
municipality. 

Remarks by the Mayor: 

"I accept in behalf of the people this grand monument 
in the firm conviction that those of the days to come will 
have for it the regard and appreciation which now 
possess us. 



18 

"It is symbolical of deeds of fearless endeavor and 
typifies the sterling worth of resolute manhood in an 
important work of life, happily combining the toil of 
industry with the romance of adventure. 

"I believe it to be no part of exaggeration in forecast 
or over-statement in prophecy to proclaim as a certainty 
that this pile will find an enduring respect in the hearts 
of the people in whose control it is from this hour to 
remain. 

"For them and in their name, I thank you." 

With the statue formally offered in its complete shape, 
and formally accepted by the city, the remainder of the 
programme was devoted to several short addresses, in 
which men prominently identified with different phases 
of the city's interests, added their words of tribute. 
Edmund Wood, president of the Old Dartmouth His- 
torical Society, was the first of the speakers. 

Remarks by Edmund Wood: 

The event of this day with its appropriate exercises 
writes a new and interesting page in our city's history. 
But this event today also recalls and commemorates the 
history of this community fifty and one hundred years 
ago. We are proud of our past and its glorious record 
of heroic achievement, but too seldom do we show our 
appreciation of what we owe to those who left us this 
inheritance. 

The Old Dartmouth Historical Society, which I rep- 
resent here today, was founded in order to foster a 
reverence for the past, to preserve the records of those 
early days, and to keep the virtues of our forebears 
from falling into forgetful ness. The generous thought 
that inspired the gift which culminates today had its 
source in that same spirit of gratitude to those who 
created this goodly heritage. 

No more appropriate subject for a Memorial Statue 
could be found to typify and epitomize the founding of 



19 

our prosperity. New Bedford's chief — its only industry, 
was the whale fishery, and it was a wonderful developer 
of the sturdy character of our people. In the mariner 
it called for bravery, hardihood, and endurance. In the 
successful merchant it demanded speculative boldness, 
patient confidence, and ability to endure with an equal 
mind the most extreme variations of fortune. It broad- 
ened the horizon of our local life and liberalized its 
thought. We knew that the earth was round, that there 
were other peoples, other religions, other civilizations. 

The spirit of exploration which even now breaks forth 
in successive Arctic and Antarctic expeditions, was sat- 
isfied by this constant pursuit of the whales into un- 
known and uncharted seas. 

The spirit of adventure appealed strongly to the youth 
and the extensive fleet which sailed from this port in 
the most successful days of the industry was recruited 
with no difficulty. Schiller's lines express the enthusi- 
asm of the time : 

"Youth with thousand masted vessel 
Ploughs the sea in morning light." 

The stories of the chase and hunting adventure have 
always had a charm and fascination. Some of the 
earliest attempts at English literature and the still 
earlier songs of the minstrels recounted the perils of the 
hunt and the excitement of the killing. This must be 
inbred in our very nature, for the refinements of a more 
complex civilization have not eradicated it. The pop- 
ular magazines of today have frequent tales of the wild 
boar hunt, of shooting gigantic elephants and fierce 
lions, and tracking man-eating tigers in the jungle. But 
our fathers and mothers in the township of old Dart- 
mouth were not surfeited with magazines. In their 
place they revelled in the frequent recital of the more 
intimate personal experiences of a father or a brother 
on the other side of the earth. Shipwrecks among the 
Fiji or Society Islands, blood-thirsty fights with 
Madagascar pirates in the Indian ocean, or the losing 



20 

of a whole boat's crew by the lashing flukes of a bund red- 
barrel whale in his fearful dying* agony. 

No wonder the boys went to sea when twelve or 
fourteen years old, or became stowaways on a whaler 
when parental permission was refused. 

But already these familiar tales are becoming tradi- 
tions and modern whaling with its bomb guns and other 
new appliances has lost many of the dangers that gave 
it its chief charm. 

In those early days the young whaleman of New 
Bedford experienced a thrill of excitement far keener 
than that of the modern hunter for great game witli his 
magazine rifle. 

I have always been thankful, and I am doubly thank- 
ful today that as a New Bedford boy I had a chance to 
go on a part of a whaling voyage and to see for myself 
the chase, the capture, and the trying out, before the sad 
decadence of this our earliest industry. It makes one 
feel that he is a truer son of New Bedford and a more 
appreciative heir to all this rich inheritance of indus- 
trial romance. I can to some extent share the keen 
enjoyment of our surviving whalemen, on this occasion 
when we commemorate the heroism of those early days 
by this worthy monument of enduring bronze. 

I can recall now those long days of cruising in the 
North Atlantic in 36 degrees — 46 degrees with four- 
vigilant lookouts at the mastheads and the mate also on 
the foretopsail yard. I can today almost feel the thrill 
of that moment when suddenly there came from aloft 
the welcome cry of "There she blows." The immediate 
bustle on deck, the lifting of the heavy tubs of towline 
into the boats, the rigging and unsheathing of the har- 
poons, the lowering of the boats, the barefooted sailors 
following down the sides of the ships, the long fierce 
pull with the oars, and then as the boats neared the 
whale, the sudden leap of the boatsteerer to the bow. 
He poises his harpoon, and as the boat slides almost 
on to the very back of the whale, he darts it deep into 
the huge carcass. "Stern all," and the boat draws back 



21 

from the awful danger, but not before the boatsteerer 
with desperate energy grabs his second harpoon and 
plunges it alongside of its fellow. 

With a fearful swish the whale is off. The line 
tightens through the length of the boat and spins round 
the loggerhead with lightning speed. After several 
minutes the officer in the stern snubs the line and gives 
the whale the weight of the boat. Forward it darts with 
amazing velocity. Down on the floor of the boat sink 
the green hands of the crew who are seeing their first 
whale, and hug the thwarts for safety — so terrified that 
even the curse of the mate is unheeded. 

But the whale is slackening his speed. He spouts 
blood and is severely wounded. 

Slowly the boat is pulled up to the whale. The mate 
now changes ends with the boatsteerer. He seizes the 
long and deadly-looking lance, and as the prow touches 
the side of the whale, he churns it for one dangerous 
instant into his very vitals. 

Now comes the flurry — the death. agony — and woe to 
the boat that is found within range of those mighty 
flukes, as they lash the white water fifty feet into the 
air. 

The dead whale is proudly towed to the welcoming 
ship, and fastened alongside by the fluke chains which 
are led up through the hawser hole. The famished crew 
are fed, and as a special reward gingerbread is added 
to the regular bill of fare of lobscouse. But to the man 
who first sighted the whale is given a five dollar gold 
piece. 

Now the scene of activity is shifted to the deck of the 
vessel. The cutting stage is rigged out over the water and 
the whale,* and the heavy falls are led from the main top 
to the windlass. The officers on the stage cut with the 
sharp spades, and as the huge blanket pieces are hoisted 
toward the main top, the blubber is peeled spirally from 
the carcass. The fires are lighted under the try-works 
forward and burn fiercely, fed by the oily scrap. On 
through the night the work continues. It is a weird 



22 

scene with the flames belching with fierce tongues high 
above the short chimneys, — the red glare reflected on 
the close-reefed sail aloft, and above all the noise and 
bustle sounds the droning', dragging chantey of the crew 
as they toil unceasingly at the windlass. 

All this vivid scene is suggested by this beautiful 
figure of the typical whaleman at the supreme moment 
of his life. After weeks of tedious cruising and keeping 
constant watch, the whale has been sighted, the boat 
has reached him, and everything, — the success of the 
voyage even, depends now upon his splendid nerve and 
vigorous manhood. 

He deserves this commanding public statue. He has 
waited long for this recognition. It lias come, and the 
tribute is worthy and adequate. Not only we who are 
living today, but generations yet to come, who study our 
city's romantic history, will hold in grateful honor, the 
name and memory of the generous giver, and praise his 
wise and just appreciation of what this community owes 
to the New Bedford Whaleman. 

In introducing Rev. Charles S. Thurber, chaplain of 
the Port Society, Mayor Ashley paid a glowing tribute 
to the work for mankind which that organization has 
done, and is doing, in this city. "This association, one 
of the oldest in the city," he declared, "has done more 
for the uplift of mankind in New Bedford than any 
other association or society." 

Remarks by Rev. C. S. Thurber: 

It affords me much pleasure to be privileged, on this 
brilliant occasion, to give a very brief history of the 
New Bedford Port Society, and a sketch of the splendid 
work which they have accomplished since their organ- 
ization took effect in 1828, or 85 years ago. 

The object of this society was to protect the rights 
and interests of seamen, and to furnish them with such 
moral, intellectual, and religious instructions as the 



23 

Board of Managers should deem practicable. Article 
four of their coustitution reads as follows: The busi- 
ness of the society shall be conducted by a president, 
two vice presidents, a treasurer, recording secretary, 
and eleven directors; who shall constitute a Board of 
Managers. The first election of officers of which we 
have any record took effect at the annual meeting held 
June 7th, 1831, Their names in part were as follows: 
President, Thomas Rodman, Jr.; vice presidents, Syl- 
vester Holmes, John Howland, Jr.; recording secretary, 
Jonathan Tuttle; corresponding secretary, John II. W. 
Page; treasurer, Jared Parkhurst. 

At this stage of our history it was highly important 
that some moral, intellectual, and spiritual reform 
should be brought to pass in the interests of New Bed- 
ford seamen; in consideration of the fact that at this 
time there were 150 ships sailing from this port, whose 
crews aggregated 7,500 men, arid many of these men 
"like sheep scattered abroad, having no shepherd." 
They were considered as a distinct caste, or order of 
being, whose follies, since they could not be corrected, 
had to be endured. As one of the earlier chaplains 
presented the situation by saying: "The moment the 
sailor sets his foot on shore, all the means for the grati- 
fication of his fatal instincts are poured upon him in 
every form of allurement. He is immediately insane 
by intoxicating drink; and in this condition is sur- 
rendered over to the tender mercies of men and women, 
whose only subsistence is derived from plundering him 
of his earnings; and who, themselves, are destroying 
both soul and body by ministering to his vices." To 
improve these conditions the managers of the Port 
Society established the Seamen's Bethel, which was 
dedicated and opened in May, 1832, under the pastoral 
care of the Rev. Enoch Mudge, who, from that time 
became, and continued to be, the unwearied, kind, 
judicious, and Christian friend of seamen. To him 
they were pearls that came from the ocean; jewels fit to 
adorn the Saviour's crown, and "what hath God 



24 

wrought," through his ministry of love at the Bethel, 
for it is frequently noted that the Bethel was filled to 
overflowing with the men for whom it was founded. 
This ever vigilant chaplain also found, that in sickness 
the sailor often suffered from neglect and want. There- 
fore, several benevolent gentlemen united with him in 
representing to some of the ladies of this place the 
necessity of having arrangements made for the comfort 
of the sick. Their sympathies responded to the call, 
and after deliberation, in 1833, one or two meetings 
were called, a constitution was presented, adopted, and 
signed by about forty ladies who were organized under 
the name of the Ladies' Branch of the New Bedford 
Port Society. The first object of the Ladies' Society 
was to prepare suitable garments for the sick, bedding, 
mattresses, pillows and grave clothes ; jellies, fruit, and 
other little comforts. At this time many of the board- 
ing houses were so wanting in neatness and every 
comfort, so noisy and disagreeable, that the task of this 
committee was no light one, and sometimes it was im- 
possible to make the patients comfortable except by a 
removal. There was no hospital, no receiving house for 
them, and much vigilance was necessary to secure 
proper care and attention. From this time on, the 
subject of a boarding-house for seamen which should 
be in all respects a "home" for the sailor on his return 
to port continued to engage the attention of the Board 
until September 17th, 1850, when through the Board's 
untiring efforts and the kindness of Mrs. Sarah B. 
Arnold, in connection with her husband, the Hon. James 
Arnold, the former mansion of her late father, William 
Botch, Jr., was donated as a "sailor's home," together 
with land eligibly situated, on which to place it, and 
funds to remove it and fit it for occupancy, adding even 
the care of fitting it upon its new foundation. The 
donation was made still more valuable by the condition 
annexed, that at least $3,000 should be added from other 
sources to furnish the "home," and to enable the 
society to open it under favorable auspices. On Jan- 



25 

uary 17th, 1851, the committee reported that the sum 
of about $3,800 had been subscribed, of which $3,000 
had been paid into the treasury. Mr. Arnold then de- 
livered the deed of the "horne" and lot, duly executed 
by him and his good wife. The whole expenses of re- 
pairing the house, making some required additions, 
putting up some fences, and furnishing it throughout, 
was about $2,200. Of this sum nearly $1,400 was paid 
from the funds of the society, and almost $800 was con- 
tributed by the Ladies' Branch. 

Prom this statement it can be seen how deep was the 
interest felt by the ladies in this movement, and yet 
we are occasionally asked why we should do so much 
for our seamen? Let me repeat what you have doubt- 
less heard before. New Bedford is now, and always 
has been, at the head of the whale fishery throughout 
the world. Your magnificent public buildings, your 
private dwellings, typical of the ''palaces of kings," are 
all the product of that form of industry, by means of 
which this wealth has been acquired. New Bedford 
owes almost every dollar of its wealth to the tireless 
energy of its sailors. Its hardy men have scoured every 
ocean where a whale could be found; and our beautiful 
city is the product of their labors. It is said that Lowell, 
Fall River, and Lawrence were built by spindles, but 
New Bedford was built by harpoons. These men have 
spent the greater part of their lives amid hours of 
loneliness and seasons of homesickness. They having 
left their dear ones in the distant land of their birth, 
at sea they were comparatively alone; no mother, no 
wife or sister near to whom they could tell the story of 
their sufferings. Some of these men came back to you 
crippled, scarred, and infirm for life, and many of them 
in need of your tender mercies. The New Bedford Port 
Society has never forgotten or neglected to provide, as 
best it could, for our industrious and loyal seamen. 
Nor have the people of our beloved city, during the 85 
years that our society has existed, ever withheld from 
us their benevolent spirit in our time of need. We 



26 

have labored and they have helped us, we have asked 
and they have freely given, in the interests of these 
men; and from their hearts, if living, or from their 
silent tombs, whether they rest in country church-yard, 
or beneath the shadow of the deep blue sea, the spirits 
of the invisible heroes arise and hover as a cloud of 
witnesses about us on this important day, as we dedicate 
to their sacred memory this lasting monument. Speak- 
ing with a more universal language than ours: This, 
' 'ye have done in remembrance of me." To none do 
these words, applied to the living and the dead of our 
heroes, appeal more strongly than to our venerable 
citizen, Hon. W. W. Crapo, the generous donor of this 
memorial stone; this token of his love for his city, and 
the men who made it. This work for the people will 
show clearer and clearer, as the years pass on ; by this 
he is building a monument more lasting than granite or 
metal. 

But, let us all, by good deeds, kindly words, and by 
showing human sympathy for all mankind, also build a 
monument that will live until memory is gone and time 
shall be no more. Then when the " earth and the sea 
shall give up their dead" on that last great "Day of 
Judgment," the thousands whom you have comforted 
will say "Wo were a-hungered, and thou gavest us the 
bread of mercy; we were thirsty for friendship and 
thou gavest us companionship; we were strangers and 
thou gavest us a home; we were sick from hardship and 
exposure, and thou didst visit us; we were in the prison 
house of moral and spiritual despair and thou earnest 
unto us;" and the King will surely say, "Inasmuch as 
thou hast done tins unto the least of these my brethren, 
thou hast done it unto Me." 

Representing the Board of Trade, which was formed 
years ago in the office of a pioneer whaling firm, was 
the president of today, P. C. Headley, Jr., and he paid 
tribute to the Yankee ships from New Bedford which 
carried the Stars and Stripes to every corner of the 
world. 



27 



Remarks by Mr. Headley: 
Mr. Chairman, Honored Guests, and Fellow Citizens: 

Perhaps it was nothing more than natural that the 
Board of Trade, as a .representative civic body, should 
be asked to participate today in the dedication of this 
memorial to the whaling' industry, given by one of New 
Bedford's best known citizens. However, the signifi- 
cance and appropriateness of that request were not so 
apparent at first. I recall the story of the Irishman and 
Scot who were vying with each other in connecting 
their countries with great events: 

"Ah, weel," said Sandy, "they toor doon an auld 
castle in Scotland and foond many wires under it, which 
shows that the telegraph was knoon there hoondreds o' 
years ago." 

"Well," said Pat, "they toor down an ould castle in 
Oireland, and begorra there was no wires found undher 
it, which shows that they knew all about wireless tel'- 
graphy in Oireland hundreds av years ago." 

My hearers, I assure you there is a much closer re- 
lationship between the Board of Trade and the whal- 
ing business in New Bedford and that its claims are 
more relevant than those of either the Scot or the 
Irishman ; for, not only was this board created in the 
office of one of the pioneer whaling firms here, but it 
began solely for that interest, and was organized in the 
spring of 1884 by the honored George F. Bartlett, our 
own Mr. Phillips, and John F. Tucker. A little later 
Mr. Frederick Swift joined the ranks and the board was 
launched and he was made its first president. All these 
gentlemen represented leading shipping firms. The 
board was established for the specific purpose of abol- 
ishing the policy of secrecy in the prices received for 
whalebone and oil, as it was customary for competitors 
to conceal the prices of their sales. This secrecy 
worked to the disadvantage of the business as a whole 
and the Board of Trade opened its doors as a sort of 
exchange for this industry and tried to wipe out star 



28 

chamber methods. An open book of prices was kept in 
the Board of Trade rooms and each dealer entered the 
price of his latest sale of oil or bone. Soon disaffection 
arose among some who clung to secrecy and who went 
on the principle of the man who said he "made a for- 
tune minding his own business." Then the Board of 
Trade changed its direction for wider service and in- 
vited all merchants and individuals to join in the de- 
velopment of the common interest and helpfulness 
throughout the entire business life of the city. So the 
Board of Trade is peculiarly interested in this memorial 
to the great industry which brought this city into prom- 
inence and carried the name and fame of New Bedford 
from ocean to ocean; in fact, wherever the sea-roving 
man has turned his ship's prow; and, gentlemen, per- 
haps I may be pardoned in mentioning the additional 
pride I take today in representing this board, because 
that same I. H. Bartlett, in whose office the Board of 
Trade originated, was my grandfather. 

We are also proud of our city's progress and reputa- 
tion in the great industry of cotton manufacturing, but 
still we fondly cling to the viking lore and the dauntless 
courage of those former days, the days of the "An- 
cient Mariner," when that adventurous and enterprising 
spirit sent forth our ships over the face of the earth 
to gather from the far away climes the treasures of 
the deep in the face of every peril. We do not be- 
gin to appreciate the magnitude of their undertakings. 
Charts of the Arctic seas were most unreliable then 
and far from correct today, and the compass is so 
affected by polar magnetism that it cannot be depended 
upon, and navigation in those waters was largely in- 
tuitive and the rest common sense or uncommon sense. 
Beset with wintry blasts and frigid temperature and 
ever threatening fields of ice, they cruised about in 
unknown and unknowable waters. Thus bereft of ac- 
curate calculations, the American whaleman braved 
eveiy conceivable peril, enduring long exile from home, 
in the face of almost certain death. No wonder these 



29 

intrepid sailors earned the reputation of being the most 
skillful and daring* navigators in the world. Moreover, 
they probably carried the American flag into more in- 
accessible places than were ever reached by the flag of 
any other nation. Only last fall, in the harbor of Fayal, 
the Stars and Stripes were seen flying from nearly a 
dozen whaling vessels, a sight impossible to duplicate in 
any other department of our American shipping, about 
the only evidence we have of a merchant marine. 

That same spirit which carried our city to the front 
rank in this bold quest has also made her the first in fine 
goods and the second largest cotton manufacturing city 
in the United States, third in the state and fourth in New 
England, and fifth on the Atlantic coast in immigration. 
Nor has she been far behind in glass and silver ware, 
copper, twist drills, eyelets, and her cordage works from 
which the rope on yonder harpoon was made. She has 
many other large lines of business, including lumber and 
coal, as well as oil refineries known all over the world. 
New Bedford is of international fame in two great indus- 
tries, besides a peer of many in other trades. But 
she began her famous career on the world's waterways. 
Therefore, as president of the Board of Trade, which 
was the offspring of the whaling industry, I bring to 
you, sir, the donor of this gift, the gratitude of the past 
and the present, and pledge our co-operation in immor- 
talizing the ancient landmarks of fame and honor and 
in ever seeking this city's advancement for "God and 
Fatherland." 

The last speaker of the forenoon ivas Otis Seabury 
Cook, one of the trustees of the Library. 

Mr. Chairman, Mr. Crapo, Ladies and Gentlemen : 

The New Bedford Library Trustees are customarily 
a docile and unobtrusive body. The average citizen 
rarely hears of them. At their board meetings they 
respectfully listen to the advice of the Librarian, and 



30 

are wont to assent promptly to his suggestions. Thus 
they perform their duties in a manner generally com- 
mended by Mr. Tripp in his annual reports. 

Today, however, being assured of hearty sympathy, 
the trustees take, advantage of an opportunity to ap- 
pear for themselves in public. 

To participate in these proceedings is a real privilege. 
The occasion marks an epoch in municipal events. It 
is an example and may become a precedent. The good 
spirit and generosity that have prompted the donor in 
giving the people this remarkable statue deserve 
magnanimous emulation. 

Here is an impressive reminder of earlier activities. 
It cannot fail to inspire. Rugged and fine, wrought 
with bold and delicate skill, and cast in lasting bronze, 
there is portrayed a character of venturesome self- 
reliance and determination. It seems to be an almost 
animate presentation of the idea, as the classic motto 
has it, that there must be "A dead whale or a stove 
boat." 

The conception is accurate. It is correct historically. 
While the man's figure itself is properly slightly heroic, 
the demonstrating model, Richard L. McLachlan, has 
been a New Bedford boatsteerer and first male of whal- 
ers, and the pose is that of experience. The boat was 
produced from one that has had actual service, and may 
be found in the rooms of the Old Dartmouth Historical 
Society. It was measured and photographed and draw- 
ings of it were made under the artist's directions in the 
interest of exactness. The same museum furnished also 
the original of the harpoon. Prom our own Library 
was obtained much assistance. 

In this Library is the world's greatest collection of 
papers, books, and pictures relating to the industry 
and the romance of whaling. 

Bela Lyon Pratt has used these means and sources of 
information with earnest enthusiasm. His accomplish- 
ment is a distinction for the community. 



31 

This man, born in Norwich, Connecticut, in 1867, in 
early youth gave evidence of superior talent, and now 
ranks as an acknowledged leader among American 
sculptors, a worthy successor of Saint Gaudens. 

Since 1892, when Pratt returned from the Ecole 
Nationale des Beaux Arts in Paris, where he was 
awarded three medals and two prizes for excellence, lie 
has been an instructor in modelling at the Boston 
Museum of Fine Arts. He is. an associate member of 
the National Academy of Design, a member of the 
National Institute of Arts and Letters, and of many 
societies of scholars and men of genius. 

He designed two colossal groups for the water gate 
of the Peristyle at the Columbian Exposition; and of 
his various other notable successes there might be men- 
tioned six large spandrel figures for the main entrance 
to the Library of Congress; the bronze statue of the 
" Anderson ville Prisoner Boy/' erected at Anderson- 
ville, Georgia, for the State of Connecticut; groups at 
the front of the Boston Public Library; the recently 
dedicated statue of Edward Everett Hale in the Public 
Garden at Boston; and numerous well known works of 
art through all of which the lustre of his name has been 
enhanced. 

May bis present achievement stand for generations 
to regard as a credit to himself, an honor to the liberal 
patriotism of William W. Crapo, and a fitting monu- 
ment to the abiding fame of the City of New Bedford. 

A selection by the band brought the formal exercises 
to a close. 



Appreciation 



From the Morning Mercury, New Bedford: 

There was unveiled yesterday, on Library Square, 
the memorial to the race of whalemen who brought 
fame and fortune to the city and who contributed the 
example of bravery and energy which created a spirit 
among the men of New Bedford that has led to the 
prosperity of this neighborhood. 

The scene and incidents on the square yesterday will 
be long remembered in this community. The oldest of 
the whaling captains who is left, Captain George 0. 
Baker, sturdy as most at seventy-six, but with whitened 
hair and some of the afflictions that the burden of years 
must bring, lifted the covering from the bronze figure of 
Youth at the prow of the whaleboat with the harpoon 
poised, ready to hurl. 

It must have seemed to the aged captain like a glance 
backward when he stood with a glorious future before 
him, "In the very May morn of his Youth, ripe for ex- 
ploits and mighty enterprises.' ' 

The life of this captain who drew aside the covering, 
was typical of those whom the statue commemorates. 
He had gone to sea at the age of thirteen, had become 
a captain, and on his first voyage as commander his ship 
was captured by the Shenandoah and burned. The 
Confederate captain, Waddell, promised him a high 
place in the Confederate navy if he would forswear his 
allegiance to the Union, which he of course refused. 
Then he was landed at Ascencion and led the army of the 
savage king, with a sword tied about his wrist with a 
ropeyarn, "fighting for a king against the common peo- 

32 



33 

pie, notwithstanding I have always been a Democrat," as 
the captain puts it. For this service the king offered to 
adopt him, but the captain put aside the crown and re- 
sumed whaling. So the story runs. We only toucli upon 
the captain's career here, to show the experiences that 
came to the whalemen whom the statue personifies. 

An attempt was made to get the captains together. The 
little group that gathered reminds us how few are left. 
So it was time that those who remember the whaleman 
and his deeds should pay the tribute the memory de- 
serves, and it is a source of gratification that the First 
Citizen of New Bedford, William W. Crapo, was prompt- 
ed to do this admirable thing in the maimer that must 
fill every citizen with satisfaction. 

In selecting Bela Pratt for the task, Mr. Crapo picked 
the best man available and the result shows that the 
sculptor found inspiration in the subject and possessed 
the genius to execute it in a fashion which will make it 
among the noteworthy achievements of the sculptors of 
this period. 

The harpooner is the figure that deserves to be per- 
petuated in a composition commemorating the whaleman. 
It is the harpooner who makes the voyage. His task is 
the difficult one. When the boat lowers to go upon a 
whale, custom requires the harpooner to pull the fore- 
most oar. He is not only expected to pull his oar to the 
uttermost, but he is expected to set an example of super- 
human activity to the rest, not only by incredible row- 
ing but by repeated loud and intrepid exclamations. 

Mr. Pratt chose for his harpooner such a young man as 
were found aboard whalers in the palmy days, young fel- 
lows of stalwart frames, fellows who had felled forests, 
and dropped the axe to snatch the whale lance — fellows 
all a thirst for gain and glory in the fishery. The New 
Bedford whaling master in the olden days wore, when 
ashore, broadcloth and fine linen, big seals for watch fobs 
and silk hats. He was pointed out by the boys as a cap- 
tain, no less a lord than the captain of a Mississippi 
steamboat. The whaling merchants lived in lofty man- 



34 



sions, in brave houses with flowery gardens, "one and all , 
harpooned and dragged up hither from the bottom of the 
sea." 

The sculptor, then, was to fashion a youth, brave, hot 
and bold looking to become the captain of a whaleship, 
with all the power and glory that the position meant 
in that day. That is the youth who is at the prow of 
the whaleboat in the statue. His face is as handsome 
as a Praxiteles. It is a strong face, revealing that the 
imminent instant has arrived. The figure is superb and 
the pose is grand and free in a way that manifests the 
genius of the sculptor. We feel that here is a resource- 
ful man, "one who," as Mr. Bullen has said, "could 
whittle with a jack-knife a quadrant, tear off the rim of 
a compass focal for an arc, break up a five-cent mirror 
for a speculum, and with such crude device, fight his 
way back to home and life." 

The whaleman is hard to satisfy when it comes to the 
details of his trade and the task of the sculptor lias not 
been easy. The bronze whaleman faced a critical crowd 
yesterday. The old sailors grudgingly admitted, as a 
general thing, that the position of the harpooner, if he 
was throwing his lance into a bowhead, was all right. 
They didn't think the dimensions of the boat were 
accurate. The harpooner should have more room 
"forrard. " The curve of the bow of the whaleboat was 
not exact. The ribbon on the boat is too wide. The 
line was not properly rigged in running through the 
bow direct to the harpoon. "If the harpooner is strik- 
ing a bowhead he must be in the Arctic, and he ought 
to have a shirt on," commented one who said he was a 
whaler, but who may have been a sea cook, or a son of 
one. "Maybe he's harpooning a sperm whale in the 
Atlantic," said a bystander. "He wouldn't go out in a 
boat without his shirt if he was after sparm," was the 
reply. "He'd burn his back." 

The difficulty with most of the critics is that they are 
unaware that there is such a thing as artistic license. 
The prow of the boat is purposely foreshortened be- 



35 



cause in looking up from the position the statue occupies,- 
the figure would not be visible if this was not done. 
Mr. Pratt made an effort to find what a whaleman 
habitually wore. He was told they insisted upon straw 
hats for the summer season, any old hat at any other 
time. Old prints showed a harpooner, in one instance 
wearing a plug hat. The sculptor found nothing in the 
sJqp chests of the outfitters that could be effectively 
reproduced in bronze. So he chose the bareheaded 
figure, naked from the waist up, and the choice un- 
questionably assists the suggestion the statue was de- 
signed to make. There is authority in Melville, if any 
was needed, "As for Fedallah," we read, "who was 
seen pulling the harpooner oar, he had thrown aside his 
black jacket and displayed his naked chest with the 
whole part of his body above the gunwale, clearly cut 
against the alternating depressions of the watery 
horizon. " 

These criticisms recall that when Robert Swain Gif- 
ford, William Bradford, and Van Beest painted the 
picture, "The Chase," they mounted it on a card with 
a six-inch margin and invited the whaling masters to 
write criticisms upon it. The entire margin was covered 
and there was no agreement among them. The sculptor 
need not be concerned. It is like a sailor to grumble. 
In his heart every son of them is filled with top-gallant 
joy and delight at the inspiring consummation of the 
work, a feeling in which the citizens of New Bedford 
join. 

From The Evening Standard, New Bedford: 

Elsewhere in this newspaper will be found a full 
account of the unveiling of The Whaleman statue on the 
grounds of the Free Public Library, with the eloquent 
and modest address of the giver, and the appreciative 
words of the speakers who appeared for the city and 
for the various organizations which were appropriately 
represented on this occasion. When the gift was an- 



36 

nounced, some months since, this newspaper endeavored 
to express its own pleasure and the community gratitude" 
that at last a long-cherished hope was to be given visible 
form. This afternoon we can say no more than to re- 
vive a few of the words which came when the conception 
of The Whaleman, as is now displayed in the centre 
of the city, was new. So today is repeated : 

■jf •}(■ , " *lr * flP w flr *Ip 

Mr. Crapo's brief address, we venture the suggestion, 
needs one emendation. Nowhere in it does lie refer 
to himself. The personal pronoun singular is signally 
distinguished by non-appearance. That he put himself 
out of sight in his tribute to The Whaleman was 
modestly graceful. But this community ought never to 
forget the giver of this emblem of achievement and this 
inspiration to endeavor. 



From The Evening Standard, New Bedford: 

Whenever the Observer looks out of his window he 
generally sees some one looking at The Whaleman 
statue. At this season of the year, when vacationists 
and tourists visit this town in larger numbers than many 
of our people realize, there are many of these people 
who come round to look at the bronze mariner, and a 
large share of them, it may be said parenthetically, go 
into the Public Library. The Observer likes to see them 
do that, for the Library's interior is one of the most 
attractive in the country. Almost every one who visits 
it says so, and it is gratifying to have so many visitors 
from abroad coincide with the conviction, even if it is 
partly founded on home pride, of residents of New 
Bedford who have some qualification for judging. Per- 
haps some day the librarian and his assistants will 
repeat to the people of this city a few of the many very 
gratifying compliments of this magnificent Library of 
theirs. 



37 

But to go back to the statue. It is a great favor- 
ite with the amateur photographer. Travellers with 
elaborate outfits spend a long time in studying lights 
and shades and angles and backgrounds and distances 
before they focus and expose. Others pull out vest 
pocket cameras and snap recklessly from all points of 
view, lest haply they might get one good picture. The 
other day a substantial looking gentleman lined up his 
wife and three children in front of the statue, and 
carried off a proud souvenir. At any rate, let us hope 
his shutter worked and that he didn't forget to turn 
the film. Some visitors look at the statue for a long 
time and from every side. Others are satisfied — ap- 
parently well satisfied — with one glance. There are 
times when the pantomime is obvious and amusing — as, 
for example, when a husband and wife come together 
and when one wants to study the work and the other 
doesn't, and whose every pose would make an excellent 
model for the bored. The boys usually want to look 
inside of the boat; and that is, on the whole, an evidence 
of their alert interest. It is far better than having no 
interest at all. Occasionally there comes along a group 
whose conversation the Observer would like to overhear. 
The other day two boys, eight or ten years old, home 
boys, barefooted with trousers rolled up, with their 
hands behind them, stood at a respectful distance for a 
long time, and talked. They were serious about it, too. 
That much could be seen from the window even if not a 
word could be heard. One would be safe in wagering 
that the kids were not debating the technique. Another 
was the trio composed of two Italian men, evidently 
laborers, and an Italian woman with a red handkerchief 
over her head. Their inspection of the statue was also 
minute, and their talk was also serious. The Observer 
is disposed to believe that their comment would have 
been worth hearing. So, perhaps, are the comments of 
men who point and wave their arms. But mostly these 
latter are knockers — and they are rapidly getting to 
be in the minority. 



Appendix I 



THE WHALEMAN 

Written by John Spollon and first published in Fibre and Fabric, 
May 14, 1903. 



One evening in May I was watching the play 
Of the wild restless waves rolling in from the bay 
At the breezy south end of the city, 
And listening, meanwhile, to the ditty 

Of a mariner aged and gray: 
4 'From where towered the masts of barques, schooners, and 

smacks, 
I turn to see rising those factory smokestacks ; 
And, I tell you, I think it a pity 
That the Whaleman so hardy and gritty 

Is rapidly passing away. 

"Look! Two arms of the sea half enclose the place. 
Tt resembles to me the despairing embrace 
Of a mistress cast off and forsaken, 
Who clings with affection unshaken 

To a lover grown cold and estranged. 
1 remember the time when her favors were sought; 
But they had to be purchased, and dearly were bought 
By the bold rough-and-ready sea-ranger, 
No wonder he turned to a stranger: 

Picked up a new love and is changed. 

"Like the osprey he fared with his w T ings to the breeze; 
Every danger he dared where his prey he could seize, 
And no other land was the poorer 
(Than this statement nothing is surer) 

For the riches he brought to this shore. 
When the earth yielded oil it but altered his toil, 
And he built the first factory on New Bedford soil. 

38 



39 



While his city grows bigger and bigger, 
In cotton he cuts a new figure, 

For his work as a whaleman is o'er. 

"Yet I heartily wish his old shape could be seen, 
In marble or bronze, mounted here on the green, 
As a Founder the town should remember 
Till Sentiment's last glowing ember 

To ashes has faded away. 
Let his monument stand, with his harpoon in hand, 
Sturdy sou of the sea who dragged wealth to the land, 
In defiance oi' hardship and danger; 
For in this town he'll soon be a stranger," 

Said the mariner aged and gray. 

John Spollon, a mill worker, was born of Irish parents 
in Camden, New Jersey, about 1858. His career on the 
sea began when lie was sixteen and continued for nine- 
teen years, during which period he twice rounded Cape 
Horn and the Cape of Good Hope and four times 
crossed the Atlantic. 



Appendix II 

THE MODEL 

When Bela L. Pratt was asked by William W. Crapo 
to model a statue of a whaleman, to be erected in this 
city as a gift to its people, Mr. Pratt's first problem 
was to procure a suitable model. 

"I must have a real boatsteerer," was Mr. Pratt's 
declaration; "a man who has himself been long familiar 
with the harpoon." 

Accordingly search was instituted to find an American 
whaleman of the Captain Ahab type. Augustus G. 
Moulton of J. & W. R. Wing Company was asked if 
they could produce one, and responded by offering as 
a model a native of the Cape de Verde Islands. The 
whaleman of the statue, however, was to typify the early 
Yankee courage that sent New Bedford's sailors across 



40 



all the oceans of the world, spearing cetaceans for oil, — 
so the outfitters were asked to find a boatsteerer of the 
old type, — the type made famous in "Moby Dick" and 
other stories of the sea. 

Then it was that Richard Lewis McLachlan of this 
city, a veteran of the sea, and who for ten years was a 
boatsteerer, was proposed. Mr. McLachlan was, ac- 
cordingly taken to the rooms of the Old Dartmouth 
Historical Society, where he posed in the bow of a 
whaleboat with poised harpoon for photographs for Mr. 
Pratt. The pictures pleased, and the boatsteerer was 
summoned to Boston. 

Mr. McLachlan first went to sea in 1873 as a cabin boy 
in the merchant service, voyaging from Portland, 
Oregon, to Queenstown, Ireland, round the Horn. Then 
again he went voyaging from New York to the West 
Indies ; on many other voyages lie sailed to the western 
ocean, continuing in the merchant service until about 
1880. 

It was about the year 1885 that the boatsteerer went 
whaling along the Pacific coast to the Arctic sea. His 
first trip was on the bark Rainbow, Captain Barney 
Cogan, and on the very first trip the savage ice of the 
north rushed upon the Rainbow and shattered her great 
sides. "Stove in the ice off Cape Thaddeus," said he, 
in telling the story, "we were picked up by the bark 
Pleetwing. ' ' 

He afterwards shipped on the bark Hunter, engaged 
in Arctic whaling, and finished the season on that vessel. 
During the Southern California boom, he was engaged 
as a longshoreman for the Broadway Steamship Com- 
pany. Then he returned to whaling again in the Behring 
Sea. In the employ of the Pacific Steam Whaling Com- 
pany, he spent many winters in the Arctic. In later 
years, he shipped, after serving for ten years as boat- 
steerer, as fourth mate on a vessel belonging to J. & W. 
R. Wing Company to Japan; then as second mate on 
the Alice Knowles, Captain Earle, to the Indian Ocean. 



41 

His last voyage was on the schooner Valkyria, which 
lie left at Fayal in October, 1911. The Valkyria was 
in the whaling business, and Mr. McLachlan was her 
chief mate. 

"The bottom is out of whaling," declared the boat- 
steerer, with a despondent shake of his head. "It does 
not pay to go a 'whaling any more." 

Appendix III 

CONSTRUCTION 

In The Evening Standard appeared the folloiving 
account of the work on the statue as it gradually 
developed: 

Hon. William W. Crapo proposes to give to the city 
of New Bedford a memorial to the New Bedford whale- 
man in the form of a statue to be set up, as he sug- 
gests in his letter, on the grounds of the Free Public 
Library. As Mr. Crapo relates, Bela L. Pratt of Bos- 
ton, one of the chief among living American sculptors, 
has designed the model for the statue from photo- 
graphs of which the illustrations given herewith are 
reproduced. It should be understood that at present 
the statue is in the stage which the sculptor calls a 
sketch, and though, in the main, this sketch may be ac- 
cepted as prefiguring the completed statue, it is sub- 
ject to more or less change with respect to details. As 
the sketch now stands in the studio, it is a clay model 
say two feet or more high, built upon a pedestal. It is 
still the object of the artiste manipulations, mostly 
with the purpose of giving delicacy of completion to 
the conception, with probably no great alteration of the 
main idea, and possibly none at all. 

As to the conception of The Whaleman, that was Mr. 
Crapo 's thought. His purpose was to commemorate 
and typify the New Bedford whaleman, not as a rem- 
iniscence, but as a living human being. So, in accord- 



42 



ance witli Mr. Crapo's desire, the artist has fashioned 
the presentment of the boatsteerer in the pose of throw- 
ing the harpoon from the whaleboat's bow. He stands 
for the whaling* industry at its very prime, a young' 
man, daring and ambitious, full of expectation to make 
the whale fishery a route to realizing all his dreams of 
life success. That, in brief, is the meaning of this statue. 

The statue, the boat in which it stands, and the con- 
ventionalized waves will be of bronze. The figure will 
be a little larger than life size, its anticipated position 
as related to the observer making that treatment most 
effective. The pedestal and the background will be of 
granite, of a color and texture to match, as nearly as 
may be, the granite of the Library building. On the 
face of the background, that is, the side toward the 
statue, will be carved a suggestion of sea and sky, with 
sea birds floating on the wing, and at the lower right 
hand corner, this quotation from "Moby Dick": "A 
dead whale or a stove boat." The other side will bear 
an inscription phrased very like the words used in the 
first paragraph of Mr. Crapo's letter to the mayor: 
" In honor of the whalemen whose skill, hardihood, and 
daring brought fame and fortune to New Bedford and 
made its name known in every seaport on the globe." 
The top of the granite background will he somewhere 
from twelve to fifteen feet above the sidewalk level, 
making the entire structure of dignified and impres- 
sive proportions. Two locations have been proposed — 
one on the northeast corner of the Library grounds, 
and the other directly in front of the steps.. That, 
however, is a matter to be settled later. 

It is not probable that the statue can be placed in 
position before next year. While the sculptor will ad- 
vance the work with a reasonable celerity, most of the 
processes cannot be hurried. So that a year and a half 
may easily elapse before the memorial will be set up 
in this city. 



43 
Appendix IV 

SITE FOR "THE WHALEMAN" 

"The Whaleman," Bela L. Pratt's monument, the gift 

of William W. Crapo to the city, will be placed in the 
grass plot at the northeast corner of the Library lot, 
the site which Mr. Pratt considers the best for the monu- 
ment. 

A special meeting of the Board of Trustees of the 
Free Public Library was held Thursday evening to con- 
sider the location for the monument, and the members 
present were in accord with the decision of Mr. Pratt. 

Jireh Swift, Jr., was elected chairman of the meeting, 
in the absence of the mayor, and the members present 
were Messrs. Milliken, Goodspeed, Kennedy, and Cook, 
Henry H. Crapo attended the meeting, also Nat C. Smith, 
architect of the building. 

Dr. Kennedy stated that he preferred the north corner, 
and Mr. Milliken asked if Mr. Crapo had any prefer- 
ence. 

Mr. Crapo stated that his father had no personal 
preference, preferring to leave the matter of the site 
to Mr. Pratt's judgment. He said that since Mr. Pratt's 
recent visit to view the possible locations, he had asked 
him to express his opinion, and he read the following 
letter that he had received to present to the trustees : 

Jan. 18, 1913. 

Board of Trustees, New Bedford Public Library, 

New Bedford, Mass. : 

Dear Sirs : — After my consultation with you and our 
experiments with the dummy arranged for the testing 
of the site of the proposed monument given by Hon. 
W. W. Crapo to commemorate the whalemen of New Bed- 
ford, I am more firmly than ever convinced that the 
proper site for said monument is that which I originally 
selected, namely, on the north corner of the plot in front 
of the Public Library building. There might be some 



44 

slight change necessary in the arrangement of the 
paths, but on the whole I consider the site satisfactory 
and trust that it may be adopted by you. 

Most sincerely yours, 

BELA L. PRATT. 

Mr. Crapo said further that his first impression was 
that the south corner plot would be the best, but he had 
been convinced that the north corner was better than 
the south. As to the central location, he said that if 
the background was cut down in order to locate the 
monument directly in front of the building it would 
have to be entirely obliterated, and the figure would 
have to be set against the steps. 

He said that Mr. Pratt's idea of location on the north 
lot is to lift it about 18 inches, and to have the boat 
headed northeast so that the harpoon is directed out 
towards the corner of Pleasant and William streets. 

The site suggested met with the approval of all the 
trustees present, and it was voted to adopt the sculp- 
tor's recommendation. The trustees agreed to leave 
matters of detail as to exact location, foundation, and 
drainage connection for the boat with Nat C. Smith, 
the architect of the building, who was pleased with the 
site selected for the monument. 



Appendix V 
THE WHALEMAN'S MOTTO 

A STIRRING TUNE TO WHICH THE BOAT WAS PULLED 

The motto "A dead whale or a stove boat!" to be 
inscribed on the background of The Whaleman statue, 
is from a stirring passage in Herman Melville's story 
of whaling life, "Moby Dick, or the White Whale." 
Captain Ahab, master of the Pequod, having one wooden 
leg, was walking on the deck. The recital goes on as 
follows : 



45 



"It drew near the close of day. Suddenly he came 
to a halt by tne bulwarks and inserting his bone leg into 
the auger-hole there, and with one hand grasping a 
shroud, he ordered Starbuck to send everybody aft. 

" 'Sir!' said the mate, astonished at an order sel- 
dom or never given on shipboard except in some ex- 
traordinary case. 

'■ 'Send everybody aft,' repeated Ahab. 'Mast-heads, 
there! Come down!' 

"When the entire ship's company were assembled, 
and with curious and not wholly unapprehensive faces, 
were eyeing him, for he looked not unlike the weather 
horizon when a storm is coming up, Ahab, after rapidly 
glancing over the bulwarks, and then darting his eyes 
among his crew, started from his standpoint; and as 
though not a soul were nigh him resumed his heavy 
turns upon the deck. With bent head and half-slouched 
hat he continued to pace, unmindful of the wondering 
whispering among the men; till Stubb cautiously whis- 
pered to Flask, that Ahab must have summoned them 
there for the purpose of witnessing a pedestrian feat. 
But this did not last long. Vehemently pausing he 
cried : — 

" 'What do ye do when ye see a whale, men?' 

"'Sing out for him!' was the impulsive rejoinder 
from a score of clubbed voices. 

"'Good!' cried Ahab, with a wild approval in his 
tones, observing the hearty animation into which his 
unexpected question had so magnetically thrown them. 

" 'And what do ye next, men?' 

" 'Lower away, and after him!' 

" 'And what tune is it ye pull to, men?' 

" 'A Dead Whale or a Stove Boat!' 

Appendix VI 

AROUND THE STATUE 

That the statue of "The Whaleman" given to New 
Bedford by William W. Crapo and unveiled Friday has 



46 

fired anew the interest of the people here in the ro- 
mance and the adventure of the old whaling days has 
been pretty aprjarent during the past two days, and 
within that period thousands of people have paused in 
their journey through the centre to admire the figure, 
and thousands have been the stories handed down, and 
perhaps well-nigh forgotten, which have been rehearsed 
again in front of the statue. 

Mr. Crapo said during the course of his remarks at 
the exercises Friday that he hoped the stories of the 
old whaling days would never die in this community, 
and it seems as if no one who ever heard a whaling story 
or ever read a whaling story here but what the statue 
recalls it to him. Old citizens who knew whaling masters 
and sailors in their day have stood in front of the 
statue during the last few days, and in talkative frame 
of mind have chatted away with perfect strangers, re- 
counting the tales that they had heard themselves from 
the lips of the "blubber hunters. " And then there is 
the next generation, some of whose fathers or uncles or 
grandfathers went to sea and the stories have come 
down to them. And then, last of all, perhaps, are the 
youngsters to whom the adventure appeals with tremen- 
dous force, who stand in groups with mouth banging 
wide open, literally swallowing every word that is said, 
and turning in wonderment from story teller to the 
heroic figure of "The Whaleman." 

Assuredly one has needed to stand near "The Whale- 
man" hut a few moments at any hour of the day or 
evening since the statue was revealed to learn that there 
has already been a lively awakening of interest in the 
old whaling days, and to learn that the stories of those 
romantic days will not die so long as the statue stands 
there. 

And some of the yarns are wonderful yarns that are 
spun in the shadow of this upstanding hoatsteerer. In 
many instances names have been forgotten by those 
who tell the tales, or perhaps simply a last name is 
given, but the nub of the story is always there, the in- 



47 



eiclent which has been handed down which typifies the 
skill and the daring and the courage. 

One man stepped up yesterday morning, looked at the 
statue awhile and then became critical — the work had 
awakened in him some thought at least. 

"Look at the chest muscles and the arms of that 
man," he remarked. "I don't believe there ever was a 
sailor went out of here with a development like that, 
allowing, of course, for the heroic size of the man stand- 
ing here in bronze.' ' 

He was half talking to himself, but around the statue 
all conversation becomes public property and a by- 
stander was quick to answer. He is a rigger, or at 
least was a rigger years ago and he knew whalemen. 
"That may be so true, to your way of thinking," was 
his retort, "but T would hate to see you in the grip of 
some of the arms that have hurled irons from New 
Bedford boats, just the same." 

And then this brought up a discussion of the feats 
of strength that have come to the present generation in 
stories of the sea. One man told of a mate who in sheer 
desperation when his newly shipped boatsteerer missed 
on three successive attempts on different days to make 
a strike, hustled to the bow of the boat, and grabbing 
the man around the waist hurled him bodily overboard, 
and then putting about picked him up and carried him 
back to the ship, scared, but far from drowned, and 
taught a lesson the moral of which — never try to throw 
a bluff — he doubtless never forgot so long as he lived. 

And then ensued a discussion as to how far a boat- 
steerer ever hurled an iron ; of how often they struck 
and of how often they missed; of how many hours they 
remained out in the boats, how fast a whale ever towed 
them, and how long they'd stick to a 100-barrel "fish" 
before they would cut a line and give up the fight. All 
night battles, according to the stories, were common 
occurrences, as were also stove boats, which formed an 
interesting question for discussion. 



48 

One man told of a boat's crew in which his uncle 
pulled an oar, of which five out of the six men could 
not swim a stroke, and never learned during the whole 
voyage. This boat, of course, got stove, for it was 
either kill the whale. or stick until you found yourself 
overboard. This boat's crew went up to lance the whale 
and the whale's flukes, descending, splintered the boat. 
The captain was forward and twisted the lance. He 
was one of the five who could not swim, or at least 
never was known to. But he saw another boat one 
hundred yards from him, and according to "uncle's" 
story, re-told today in front of Bela Pratt's statue, the 
"old man" simply walked through the water, with his 
prodigious strength propelling him so fast that when 
the rescuing boat dragged him aboard he wasn't wet 
above his waist. 

And then there were stories of boys, "My grand- 
father" or my "grandfather's brother" who ran away 
to sea and finally trod the quarter deck as master of 
his own ship, stories of foreign islands and strange 
peoples — and perhaps it is little wonder that "kids" 
listened for a time, studied the face of the statue a 
little, and then hustled for the library to get "Moby 
Dick" and the yarn of the white; whale. 

There were an endless array of questions, asked by 
everybody of anybody who happened to be near enough 
to listen, or skilled enough in whaling lore to answer. 
People wanted to know what the ropes were, how heavy 
the iron was, why there was a "hole" in the bow for 
the rope to run through, why the man with the harpoon 
was called the boatsteerer, and a thousand and one 
other queries that were indicative of the interest which 
has been revived in the old-time industry. And people 
whose interest is aroused usually persist until they learn. 

And then, too, to prove that there was a regular 
"gam" in progress, there was an argument yesterday 
afternoon between two old whalemen as to the respec- 
tive prowess of one of them. Whaleman Number One 
sailed out on the Eeindeer as boatsteerer years ago, and 



49 



he and his friend in the argument agreed that the statue 
was an admirable bit of work. " Makes me think of 
the time I put an iron in a right whale, the first I struck 
on the Reindeer. We were right on top of her when 
I let go, a straight up. and down strike, and down went 
the whale. We ran out two tubs of line, stayed by all 
night, and in the morning hitched a tackle on and tried 
to get her up. Ropes broke and we lost her." There- 
upon the argument ensued as to whether one rope or 
both snapped, and as Whaleman Number One was of 
the opinion that the log was down in the rooms of the 
Old Dartmouth Historical Society, down the street they 
went to look up the records. 



Appendix VII 



From The Evening Standard, New Bedford: 

That the statue of "The Whaleman " should be un- 
favorably criticized was inevitable. The criticism, how- 
ever, usually concerns itself with the technical accuracy 
of the design, not with its general effect, its artistic 
excellence, or the pleasure it affords the beholder. 
Some minds could never approve a picture of a battle, 
be it painted ever so beautifully, if the commanding 
general had one too many buttons on his coat. Sea- 
faring men are notoriously fussy about details of this 
sort. A spirited marine, with a ship speeding along, 
under full sail, would be damned in their eyes if the 
shrouds were not so accurately drawn as to serve as a 
working plan to a rigger. " These people," said one 
observer, "didn't want a picture of a ship — they wanted 
a map." And all because the whaleman in the case of 
this statue in front of the Library, observes it under 
the fatal handicap of an expert knowledge of the busi- 
ness the bronze figure is set to symbolize. The man who 
never went whaling and never balanced a harpoon is 



50 

not burdened with any such knowledge, and to him the 
creation of Mr. Pratt is satisfying. 

* # # # 

It has been objected that the whaleman holds his har- 
poon the wrong way. What it might be asked is the 
right way? It is inconceivable that there should be just 
one way of holding a harpoon, just as it is that there 
should be only one way of holding a pen. It must be 
remembered that before modelling the whaleman the 
sculptor had for a model a man who had been to sea 
and who is rated as one of the best boatsteerers here- 
abouts. He held the weapon HIS way, even if it was 
not the way of some other harpooner. Should some 
sculptor design a statue of a ball player at bat, and 
model it from so distinguished a batter as Mr. Cobb 
of Georgia, critics would doubtless come forward to 
complain that the pose was all wrong because Mr. Wag- 
ner of Pittsburg did not bat that way. In the case of 
a batter, the thing to do is to get a hit; in the case of 
the whaleman it is to get the whale; and somehow or 
other, looking at this figure of Mr. Pratt's, with shoul- 
ders, arms and chest of a Hercules, we have no doubt 
that the imaginary whale just ahead of him is as good 
as caught. 

"Another thing,' ' said an old whaleman who had been 
telling what a bad, bad statue it is, "who ever saw a 
whaleman without a shirt? I've been whaling for thirty 
years and have made twenty voyages, and I never saw 
a boatsteerer with his shirt off." "Where did you go 
whaling?" he was asked. "Mostly in the Arctic," was 
the reply. 




OLD DARTMOUTH 
HISTORICAL SKETCHES 

No. 39. 



Proceedings Annual Meetings 

Held December 30, 1913, and March 30, 1914. 



THE FIRST SETTLERS OF DARTMOUTH AND 
WHERE THEY LOCATED 

By HENRY B. WORTH 



PROCEEDINGS 



ANNUAL MEETING 



Old Dartmouth Historical Society 



DECEMBER 30, 1913 



Both President Edmund Wood and 
Secretary William A. Wing of the 
Old Dartmouth Historical society re- 
tired from office at the tenth an- 
nual meeting of the society. Both 
of them declined to stand again 
for re-election. Mr. Wood has been 
president of the society for the past 
seven years, while Mr. Wing has 
served as secretary for a number of 
years. Herbert E. Cushman was 
elected president of the society, to 
succeed Mr. Wood, while Henry B. 
Worth was chosen secretary. 

The annual reports of the society 
were read, and any lack of enthusi- 
asm at the beginning of the meeting 
was replaced by satisfaction when it 
was announced that the money had 
been raised to clear off the debt of 
the organization. 

In opening the meeting, President 
Wood spoke as follows: 

"We are met tonight to hold the 
tenth annual meeting of this society. 
This meeting should have been held 



some time ago but for several rea- 
sons it has been deferred. Things 
have not been going as well with the 
society for some time as they ought 
to go. The directors have held sev- 
eral meetings and believed before the 
annual meeting was held that certain 
changes ought to be made and cer- 
tain plans outlined for the conduct 
of this society. It is not necessary at 
this time to argue the advantages of 
having an association like this in this 
eommunity. This has already been 
amply proved. We all remember the 
enthusiasm with which this society 
was inaugurated, the interest display- 
ed in the idea by such a variety of 
people and the large membership 
that we were able to secure. Every- 
one was congratulating the community 
on the fact that the formation of the 
society had not been longer delay- 
ed. Historical documents of value, and 
sources of information in regard to 
the history of old Dartmouth were 
fast disappearing. Relics of great his- 
torical value which had remained with 



some of the old families for many, 
many years were becoming scatter- 
ed. Much work has been done and we 
can Sf&e around us in tins building 
(.he proud evidences of it. 

"But all such interest in every com- 
munity is liable at times to flag-. We 
have the ebb and flow of the tide. 
This society has had its flow and its 
ebb. There is no use of disputing the 
fact that the interest of many of those 
who did the most in the early days 
of this society has been waning and 
new people have not been sufficiently 
encouraged to take up their work and 
do their share in carrying forward 
our well recognized mission. It has 
become evident to many of us that 
certain changes should he made, new 
blood should he introduced for some 
of the offices. At one of the last meet- 
ings of the directors a nominating 
committee was appointed to bring in 
a list of officers' to be balloted for 
this evening. That committee has re- 
ported and tlte nominations will be 
read later when we come to the elec- 
tion of officers. 

"Another matter has worked against 
the sustaining of interest in our work 
and that is that the society has been 
going behind financially. We have a 
beautiful building, well adapted to 
our work ami affording every facility 
lor our meetings, for every social 
function which might be arranged 
for and for the storage and display 
of what lias now become a very valu- 
able collection. Representatives from 
other societies from time to time visit 
us in New Bedford, and grow envious 
of our good fortune as they walk 
about in these rooms and wish they 
had equal facilities. But with the ac- 
quiring of this building, the munifi- 
cent gift as you remember of one of 
our members, have come along with 
il expenses of maintenance and re- 
pairs. We have also thought it best 
to have a curator in charge and in 
attendance much of the time. All these 
expenses have been a little more than 
the annual fees paid by the member- 
ship have amounted to. The result has 
been a constantly increasing deficit; 
amounting at last to several hundred 
dollars. 

"Experience has shown that it is 
ill-advised and almost impossible to 
inaugurate a new regime and enlist 
the interest a:ad services of new peo- 
ple in a venture, about the neck of 
which hangs a financial deficit. It was 
evident to th- directors that before 
this annual meeting should be held 
and before even new plans could be 
made and new officers chosen these 
old bills should all be paid and the 
society pronounced free from debt. 
Through the liberality of some of the 



members, who have already in times 
passed showed themselves the gener- 
ous friends of the society a sufficient 
amount has been subscribed and paid 
in to entirely wipe out this deficit; 
so that tonight it is a satisfaction to 
be able to announce that we are free 
from debt and this incumbrance does 
not stand in the way of the inaugura- 
tion of a new and active career for 
the society. 

'"At the annual meeting it has never 
been the custom to have research 
papers read by the different members 
but to confine our action to hearing 
the reports from the different sections 
into which the work of the society has 
beef) divided, and then to have the an- 
nual election. These reports will now 
be read." 

The reports were as follows, all of 
which were accepted and ordered 
placed on file: 

Report of tihe Directors. 

Tonight we hold our tenth annual 
meeting and our society must needs 
record the death of the following 
members: 

Charles W. Agard, Mrs. George L. 
Clark, Walter Clifford, Anna J. Dona- 
ghy, Betsey W. Kingman, Sarah M. 
B. Potter, (life), Cynthia J. Read, 
(life), William Reynard, Arthur Rick- 
.•ison, Mary Roberts, Mary P. Rugg, 
.Marion Smith, Thomas P. Tripp, An- 
na G. Wood. 

in the deaths of Mr. Agard and 
Mis. Smith we lose two of our stanch- 
esi friends. They gave of their time, 
possessions and encouragement and 
surely we must feel there loss. 

Your secretary in such goodly com- 
pany as our president and treasurer, 
withdraws from his position, feeling 
that at i he end of a d ecu do a new or- 
ganization cannot but be beneficial; 
as a life member the period of his in- 
terest in the society's welfare is de- 
fined. 

We are fortunate in having our Mr. 
Worth to come to our aid, a member 
who has done more than anyone else 
for this society. 

Respectfully submitted, 

William A. Wing, Sec. 

Treasurer's Report. 

William A. Mackie read the trea- 
surer's report covering a period of IS 
months showing receipts of $2655.43 
and payments of $2291.19, leaving a 
balance of $364.24 with one unpaid 
bill of $ L' 9 3 . f> 3 . 

Publication Section. 

A case of maps in the society has 
a bit of history to disclose. The first 
map shows the original layouts of 



land in our present New Bedford in 

1710— of especial interest are the 
lauds of Joseph Russell, Manassel 
Kempton aud Benjamin Allen. 

The next in chronological order is 
a map of New Uedford drawn by or- 
der of the selectmen in 1795 — -by act 
of the general court. 

The selectmen being Walter Spoon- 
er William Tall man, Isaac Sherman. 

Of particular value are the layouts 
of the roads and the locations of the 
mills — in those days merely grist 
mills, saw mills and fulling" mills. 

The map of New Bedford in 1815 
by Gilbert Russell shows the resi- 
dences of that period and emphasizes 
the preference of people in those day-3 
and perhaps today, of living south of 
Union street. 

A map of the village of New Bed- - 
ford in 1S34 tells of that great in- 
crease in streets from South street 
on the one sid< — beyond North street 
on the other and west as tar north 
as Parker street. 

In 1847 New Bedford had a map 
by E. Thompson and we possess the 
copy owned by the first mayor, the 
Honorable Abraham Hathaway How- 
land presented to us by his daughters. 

It has become a place of buildings 
pictured by the artist, the Commercial 
bank on this Very site is of perhaps th'3 
most local interest to us. 

Contrasted with the map of 1913 
these simple little plans are almost 
pathetic and teach a lesson we may 
well apply of small beginning and 
quiet but steady growth. 

Respectfully submitted, 

William A. Wing, Chair. 

Photograph Section. 

We are fortunate in acquiring two 
photograph portraits from oils by 
Jarvis. They are of Dr. Foster Swift 
(1760-1835) and his wife Deborah 
Delano (1762-1824). Dr. Swift for in 
those days they were fortunate enough 
to have a Dr. Swift here to whom 
they could look for help in truth and 
reverence and admire, even as we 
have been so blessed here in our own 
day. 

This Dr. Foster Swift came to 
Dartmouth recommended by no less 
a personage than General George 
"Washington. He was instrumental in 
establishing the first medical society 
in this vicinity. The meetings being 
mainly convened at Taunton as a 
convenient centre. 

He became one of the first army 
surgeons at this establishment after the 
War of 1812. 

The very beautiful wife of this very 
handsome man, for the portraits show 
them, was of the Delano family of old 
Dartmouth, which has given more 



than one favored descendant to the 
world, 

Their daughter Mary married 
George Washington Whistler, father 
of the artist and their daughter was 
Deborah Delano Whistler, wife of Sir 
Seymour Haden. So well known in art 
musical circles in London, so our por- 
traits link us with George Washington, 
the early medical profession, the 
army, art and music: here and abroad. 
A wide circle centering in Old Dart- 
mouth. 

Respectfully submitted, 
William A. Wing. Chair. 

Museum Section. 

One of the most interesting features 
of our annual meetings have been the 
very able reports of the secretary of 
our museum section, but tonight yon 
are doomed for a great disappoint- 
ment, as you will have to listen to one 
by its chairman, which I assure you 
will be only commendable for its brev- 
ity. First, l will call your attention 
to a few of our acquisitions from: 

Mrs. Duff. 

Airs. Rebecca Ilawes, from the es- 
tate of William Read. 

Miss Sarah I low land Kelly and Mrs. 
Caroline Kempton Sherman, a sword, 
which formerly belonged to Silas Wil- 
liams Kempton, master's mate on the 
Santiago de Cuba. The sword was 
carried by him into fort Fisher, lie 
was drowned March 23, 1865. 

Late Mrs. Anthony of Fairhaven, 
portrait of her father, Captain Cox. 

Miss Church and Mrs. Frank of 
Fairhaven, gift and loans of portraits' 
and other articles formerly in the 
Church family. 

Walton Ricketson, ancient wooden 
settee which belonged to his father, 
the late Daniel R. 

Mrs. William H. Bartlett, draft box, 
bowl, etc. 

Bequest of late J. Howland, Jr., 
portraits of his father and mother. 
These are now, through the courtesy 
of Mrs. and Miss J lowland, in our pos- 
session. 

Once more we are indebted to one 
who takes a keen interest in our so- 
ciety, Mrs. Delano Forbes of New York 
and Fairhaven, the gift of five pieces 
of Chinese wood carving, of the Foo 
Chow period, representing: Goddess of 
Morning, Stork of Good Omen, The 
Wrestlers, The Warrior, The Priest. 

And now I would mention a gift, 
not to our society, but to the city of 
New Bedford, ours none the less for 
that reason, — the statue of The Whale- 
man. The gift of our first president 
and most honored member, Mr. Crapo. 
1 am sure you all join me in the wish 
that he were with us at this meet- 
ing. 



I cannot but believe that the com- 
ing year? will be one of great activity 
for our society but we must not de- 
pend entirely on our officers and our 
committee. The individual members 
must recognize his or her duty to the 
society and their opportunities. In 
the address of Isaiah Thomas, the first 
president of the American Antiquar- 
ian society in 1814, he made the fol- 
lowing suggestions. 

It will not be expected that we 
should individually devote a very con- 
siderable part of our time to the af- 
fairs of this institution, yet without 
injury to himself, every member may 
do .something for its benefit. There 
are various ways in which we may 
contribute to its prosperity. Some may 
bestow a little personal attention to 
the management of its local concerns. 

Others may devise projects by 
which its interests and its usefulness 
may be essentially promoted and oth- 
ers may collect, as convenience and 
opportunity permit articles for its 
cabinets. This programme for the in- 
dividual members, laid out a century 
ago is as applicable now as it was 
then I hope you will consider it. 
There are some to whom such con- 
siderations make no appeal, but they 
constitute a class that has no legi- 
timate place in a historical society. 

The right kind of people for us 
are those who believe with George 
Meredith "that all right use of life, 
and the one secret of life is to pave 
ways for the firmer footsteps of those 
who succeed us," and we have in this 
rejuvenated society of ours so large 
a company of such men and women 
that I cannot but feel assured that 
the Old Dartmouth Historical Society 
has nothing before it but permenancy 
and success. 

Respectfully submitted, 

Frank Wood, Chairman. 

Educational Section. 

The educational department invit- 
ed, through Mr. Keith, the teachers 
to visit the historical rooms Oct. 5, 
1912. A number of teachers respond- 
ed and since then several classes have 
spent profitable hours looking over 
the collections. 

Captain Avery met the pupils of 
Miss Loring's room at the Donaghy 
school and gave them a very interest- 
ing talk about whaling, May 26, 1913. 

Miss McAfee's, Oct. 23, 1912, class 
sent an appreciative note to the chair- 
man of the educational department, 
thanking her for their instructive af- 
ternoon. 



Miss McCarthy of the Jireh Swift 
school took her class .Jan. 28, 1913. 

April 1Z, sisters and pupils from 
St. Anthony's school. 

Miss McAfee, June 24. 

Miss Winchester from Middle street, 
as a reward for perfect attendance, 
Oct. 23, 1913. 

The New York state educational 
department sent a man to take photos 
of the rooms for use of the division 
of visual instruction of public schools 
of New York state. 

Respectfully submitted, 

Caroline Jones. 

Henry B. Worth reported for the 
research section saying that owing to 
the fact that the quarterly meetings 
had not been called for some time 
that it bad caused a cessation in the 
activities of the section, but that am- 
ple entertainment would be provided 
along the usual lines in the future. 

The following officers were elected: 

President — Herbert F. Cushman. 

Vice presidents — Rev. M. C. Julien, 
George H. Tripp. 

Treasurer — Frederic Howland Ta- 
ber. 

Secretary — Henry B. Worth. 

Directors — William W. Crapo, Wal- 
ton Ric.ketson, Fdward L. Macomber, 
(3 years); Abbott R Smith, (2 years). 

George R. Stetson spoke of the 
educational advantages offered by the 
rooms of the society to children and 
said that he was very glad to hear the 
report of the educational section and 
thought that it would impress upon 
some people the great field of use- 
fulness in getting the children inter- 
ested iri our local history. He huped 
the usefulness of the rooms might be 
extended. 

George H. Tripp spoke of the mu- 
seum as an educational factor, and 
said thai he thought that the pupils 
of the public schools here have re- 
cently taken up a study of the his- 
tory of New Bedford, and he stated 
that there was no better place to find 
out about it than right in the rooms 
of the society. 

Mr. Trip]> thought the society should 
in some way show its appreciation for 
the large amount of work done by the 
retiring secretary Mr. Wing and he 
moved a vote of thanks. Miss Watson 
and Mrs. Clement Swift spoke of the 
valuable work done by Mr. Wing and 
the society extended the vote of 
thanks. 

A vote of thanks was also extended 
to the retiring president, Mr. Wood. 
The meeting adjourned. 



Annual Meeting, March 30, 1914 



About 50 members gathered fur the 
annual meeting of the Old Dartmouth 
Historical society, held last evening. 
The meeting was a short one, 
owing to tbe fact of the meeting 
held lust December, but the president, 
Herbert E. Cushman, said that it was 
desired to get back to the old order 
of things, and the meeting was held 
according to the by-laws. 

The first order of business was the 
report of the secretary, Henry B. 
Worth, which was as follows: 
"To the members of the Old Dart- 
mouth Historical Society: 

"According to the by-laws of this 
organization, the annual meetings 
should be held in March, hut the 
meeting which should have been held 
a year ago was deferred until Decem- 
ber 3D, 1913, only three months ago. 
As .'-•iMiu as tlie present officers were 
elected it was discovered that by some 
inadvertence the annual period cov- 
er- d by the dues had been extending 
from July to July. This was an error 
as tin- period should be from one 
annual meeting to the next, or from 
April first to April first. The execu- 
tive board ordered the correct dates 
to be restored and those whose dues 
according to their receipts were paid 
up to next July, have observed the 
discrepancy. This will be adjusted 
ami hereafter the mistake will dis- 
appear. 

"Soon after the last meeting it was 
considered necessary to make certain 
repairs and changes in the building 
on Water street, which rendered 
necessary the closing of the building 
during the remainder of the winter. 

"The prt sent membership comprises 
CIO annual members and 33 life mem- 
bers, of whom William M. Butler s 
the latest addition, The fee for life 
membership is $25 and is deposited 
it) tin* permanent fund, only the in- 
come from which is used. 

"Your attention is again called to 
the number and value of the society's 
publications. These include 3 8 pam- 
phlets, comprising over 67 pages, 
with numerous pictures of houses and 
persons, together with essays and ar- 
ticles on many topics relating to the 
inhabitants of ancient Dartmouth and 
their history. These are being sold 
at a nominal price which is practically 
the cost of printing. They are in con- 
stant demand in all the libraries of 



the eastern United States where the 
local history of this section is an item 
of interest. A list of these pamphlets 
has been printed, giving synopsis of 
contents for free distribution. 

"This society in its widest activity 
is one of the most useful educational 
institutions in this vicinity. The rec- 
ords of the past are collected and ar- 
ranged, and appear in part in these 
publications; but at the rooms of the 
society are exhibits which .show in 
wood, iron and ivory what were the 
tools, implements and handiwork of 
the New Bedford whalemen. Without 
exaggeration these are the most valu- 
able Collectons in the world. The ar- 
rangement is so picturesque that it 
appeals quickly to school children, 
While a student in the art of curved 
ivory or one desiring to understand 
the process of obtaining oil and bone, 
will find the most realistic presenta- 
tion that can be discovered on land. 
Nowhere else will your annual contri- 
butions lie productive of more certain 
educational benefit." 

The report was accepted and placed 
on file. 

The report of the treasurer, Fred- 
eric II. Taber showed cash on hand 
$364.24; dues received $252, a total 
of $61.6.24. The lulls paid amounted 
to $407.30, leaving a balance on hand 
of $208.94. 

The report of tVie nominating com- 
mittee, George K. Briggs, Alexander 
McL. Goodspeed and Elmore P. Has- 
ldns was made, and on motion Frank 
Wood cast one ballot for the follow- 
ing list of officers: 

President— Herbert E. Cushman. 

Vice President — Rev. M. C. Julien. 

Vice President — George IT. Tripp. 

Secretary — Henry B. Worth. 

Treasurer — Frederic H. Taber. 

Directors, three years-— Warren 
Kempton Reed, Oliver F. Brown, Job 
C. Tripp. 

President Cushman, who wad down 
on the program for an address, 
spoke as follows: 

"Tt is rather unusual u> have two 
annual meetings so near together as 
has this society, but it seemed wise 
to the directors last year to postpone 
holding the annual meeting of 1913 
until December, when you were good 
enough to elect the present board of 
officers. 



"Since that time the directors have 
had several interesting' meetings, and 
have m:ide many plans for the fu- 
ture. It seemed better that we should 
hold Our annual meeting for 1914 
at the time fixed by the bylaws. 

"Looking back over our records, 
we find that the Old Dartmouth His- 
torical society was organized in a 
paper read by UUis L. Ho'wland be- 
fore the Unity club in Unitarian 
chapel, January 17, 1903. The form- 
al organization was in May, 1903, and 
tbe lirst general meeting June 30, 
19 03 at Grace House. It was incor- 
porated in 1905, and the work that 
has been accomplished during that 
time has been very gratifying. The 
present board of managers find it- 
self with a comfortable home, well 
equipped and well arranged, with a 
museum that is of great value. 

"This work has been done by men 
and women who have been earnest 
in their efforts to establish on a firm 
basis, this society, and we commend 
and thank them for their interest. 
No one can visit the Old Dartmouth 
Historical rooms without realizing 
how valuable a collection we have, 
and how interesting. This must be 
well cared for, and ought we not to 
feel it is simply a nucleus of a larg- 
er collection? They have done well 
to arrange for the exhibition which 
had to do with the old days when 
our city was noted for its interests in 
whaling-. We must not forget, how- 
ever, that in a few years, what is now 
being done in New Bedford, will be 
history, and we must make and keep 
in line, a record and a collection of 
that which today is making New Bed- 
ford well known throughout the 
world, its various industries and its 
activities in all directions. We so- 
licit from all, such as they have, 
which will make our exhibit stand 
high in our community. Our good 
friend, Frank Wood, who has charge 
of the rooms, will be glad to confer 
with any one who has that thought 
in mind. 

"We realize that there are in New 
Bedford probably a great many ar- 
ticles^ — probably more than in any 
other city in the United States — spec- 
imens and items that would be es- 
pecially interesting. We must there- 
fore have our friends realize that this 
institution is permanent, and that 
any such articles will be cared for as 
they would like, if they desire to pre- 
sent them to us. 

"The other day it was my pleas- 
ure to be at the rooms, and looking 
through the front windows on the 
wharves, with the oil casks and the 
whaling ships there, and looking out 
of the rear windows at the Mariner's 



Bethel, one felt that they had stepped 
out of the New Bedford of the new 
day, and into the old, and are we not 
fortunate to be the possessor of quar- 
ters located, it seemed to me, in the 
midst of that for which it stands, 
that is, the historical part of our city, 
and its historical interests. 

"One cannot go into the rooms 
without being inspired with the fact 
of how important it is to our city 
that there has been brought together 
our present collection. 

"What I have said well applies to 
the rooms and the exhibits. Do not 
forget that with these surroundings 
conies also the opportunity for the 
research work, which is accumulating 
valuable records, the educational 
work, which will awake and main- 
tain the interests of the younger gen- 
eration, and the social side, which 
brings good fellowship among its 
members. 

"1 now desire to make a personal 
appeal to every one of you. 

"It has been my pleasure during 
the last few years, to visit some of 
the old historical societies in other 
parts of our state, and of New Eng- 
land, and it ha.s been interesting to 
note the pride that the members had 
in belonging to such an institution. 
Many of these societies have been or- 
ganized many years, and not only one 
generation, but many, have had a 
part in their upbuilding. 

"We in New Bedford are fortunate 
in being among the beginners of the 
work which we are trying to do. We 
want as many people as possible to 
have a part in that work. 

"It was interesting to hear one of 
our good friends say, in the northern 
part of the state, that their fathers 
and grandfathers had belonged to 
their society, and they spoke of it 
with pride. AVe want as many of our 
own people to be able to hand down 
this same saying to their descen- 
dants. It is therefore important that 
we have as many people in our city 
who are interested in this kind of 
work, as is possible, as members. 

"In looking over the list of mem- 
bers, now about six hundred, I find 
many names missing that would seem 
to us ought to be there. The question 
is, have they been asked to become 
members? If not, would it not be well 
for us to see that they have the op- 
portunity, and are you not willing 
to do your part and help increase the 
mebership by asking at least two or 
three people during the coming year 
to ally themselves with this society? 
If every one would ask and obtain 
two or three members, we would have 
a list that would be valuable, and 
our income would be assured. The 



more people that we have interested 
In our work, the better results we can 
obtain, and we do feel that now is 
tin- time for this administration to 
Increase the membership and interest 
in mil' society, and what can do it in 
a beter way than to have people feel 
they are personally a part of it, and 
interested in it? 

"It is our purpose again to open 
the rooms on April Sth for a recep- 
tion to the members by the officers 
and directors, and it is hoped that 
all will come and renew their en- 
thusiasm and interest in the good 
work." 

George H. Tripp said that he 
noticed one interesting remark of the 
president that should be taken note 
of and that we should not dwell too 
much on the past of the city, but 
should have something to represent 
the present activities of our city. He 
spoke of several cities he had visited 
where they have industrial museums, 



and suggested that the society could 
take up this work, and have on ex- 
hibit some of tiie tine fabrics that 
are being made here- today. He said 
that he admitted it was a little diffi- 
cult to ?et the goods, but he had se- 
cured for the library some goods 
from agents in New York who said 
they could vouch for the fact that 
they were made in New Bedford. Mr. 
Tripp said that the talk about a mile 
of cloth being made a minute in this 
city, should be something to be proud 
of, but there should be some samples 
of the fabrics that could be exhibited 
and not only of the cloth, but of the 
twist drills, the glass ware, and all 
the other products made here. 

Secretary Worth spoke of the visit 
made by the school children under 
the auspices of Miss Jones of the 
educational section, and how interest- 
ed the children were in the objects 
they saw. 



10 



"The First Settlers of Dartmouth and 
Where They Located " 



By Henry B. Worth 



In colonial times when a new settle- 
ment was to be established, explorers 
were sent in advance to investigate the 
region, and determine where it would 
be most advantageous to locate the 
residential center. They would build 
some sort of rude structure tither a 
log" cabin, a stone house, or a cave dug 
in the hillside and this would " suffice 
for a habitation until they were able 
to erect separate dwellings for each 
family. This common house was also 
used for the storage of property that 
required protection. It is now pro- 
posed to indicate who were the first 
settlers in ancient Dartmouth, when 
they arrived, and the locality which 
they selected as their liist abode. 

The grant made by Plymouth colony 
to the thirty-six original purchasers 
took place in March, 1652, and no set- 
tlement hid then been formed. The 
situation at that date, in reference 
to the Indians, is important to con- 
sider. If a circle be described with 
the Fairhsiven bridge as a center and 
a radius of about twenty miles in 
length, it would pass through all the 
nearest Knglish settlements of (lint 
period. Where the Buzzards Kay 
canal joins one bay with the other was 
the village of Manomet. Northwest 
was NamasKet, which is now the town 
of Middleboro; further west was 
Cohannet now known as Taunton, and 
still further in line of the circle was 
Rehoboth and other places on Nar- 
ragansett Bay. None of these villages 
were strong enough to render any as- 
sistance to the settlers on the Acush- 
net river. An additional menace was 
the fart that within this circh was a 
line of Indian villages that would sur- 
round any settlement at Cushena. The 
shellfish at Sippiean and the famous 
fishing grounds at Apponegansett at- 
tracted the Indians to these shores in 
the summer, while the lakes and 
forests at the north furnished all they 
required for winter homes. During 
the King Philip war, in Dartmouth 
alone, one hundred and sixty Indians 
surrendered to the English, and it 
plainly appeared that the Red Men 
constituted a desperate element of 
danger in that region. 

Under such circumstances the only 
safetv for the English would be to 



flee to some stockade near the. shore, 
where they could remain until assist- 
ance arrived from Plymouth, or they 
could escape upon the sea. Appreciat- 
ing these possible contingencies, the 
pioneers generally selected as the loca- 
tion of the residential center of sea 
cot:st towns, a place, where there was 
a good spring, convenient fishing and 
where the land would provide food 
and shelter and a place in which they 
could locate their habitations, which 
could be defended against attack or 
which would furnish safety until they 
could escape to other communities. An 
ideal location would be a neck con- 
nected to the mainland by a narrow 
isthmus in order that the approach 
could easily be watched. Purcateest 
neck in Tiverton, was an early settle- 
ment and contained in a high degree, 
all the necessary requirements. Sconti- 
cut neck had no satisfactory fresh 
water supply nor land suitable for 
cultivation, and was not selected. 

A legend has been printed that in 
1652 one Ralph Russell came to Dart- 
mouth and established an iron forge 
;il IMihhi'M'h Mills. As it can bo 
demonstrated Unit Ihis event was an 
impossibility and that Balph Russell 
never appeared in Bristol county, this 
tradition may be dismissed without 
discussion. 

Preparation for a new town was ac- 
companied by activity in land trans- 
fers. Consequently, the logical course 
will be to commence with It' 52 and 
examine the recorded evidence, until 
a point is reached where there is in- 
dication that some settlement was in 
contemplation or had been formed. 
By an examination of all ancient docu- 
ments, it is clear that the inhabitants 
of Dartmouth before 1700, came from 
three well defined sources. 

1. There were the thirty-six origi- 
nal purchasers, but only three set- 
tled in Dartmouth, although the de- 
scendants of nine others were later 
among the inhabitants. None of these 
came to Buzazrds Bay before US 6 0. 

2. A vigorous persecution of 
Quakers on Cape Cod induced some of 
the Kirbys. Aliens, Giffords and Wings 
to remove to Dartmouth, but this 
crusade did not begin until 1657 and 



n 



Ihr firs! deed taken by any of these 
persons was dated 16 59. 

li. Owing to the crowded condition 
of the island of Rhode Island, the men 
of Newport and Portsmouth were 
compelled to seek homes elsewhere, 
and flnaJy a great number moved to 
Dartmouth; but the first recorded in- 
dication of this tendency occurred in 
lt'.:»7, and the first deed was taken in 

Consequently there is nothing- to 
show any English occupation before 
1659; but during that year a few deeds 
appear that indicate an approaching 
activity. Ralph Earle and Daniel Wil- 
cox of Portsmouth, purchased con- 
siderable interests in Dartmouth, 
which was the beginning of that great 
movement from Rhode Island. But 
the most significant conveyance was 
given by the proprietors to John 
Howard in which they "Do freely and 
absolutely give and grant ten acres of 
land adjoining the river, twenty rods 
wide, bounded on the north by a 
great rock near the head of the 
spring." This seems not to be a sale, 
but a transfer upon some different 
consideration, and Howard was not 
one of the proprietors. It is said 
that he had been a member of the 
household of Captain Myles Standish; 
in 1637 with others freely offered to 
go against the Pequots; later became 
an inhabitant of Bridgewater where 
he was one of the first military officers, 
surveyor of highways, and a most in- 
fluential citizen. He was the ancestor 
of tile great Howard family of Bridge- 
water. At that period a new com- 
munity in its early career always 
net ded the assistance of some execu- 
tive individual who was familiar with 
warfare among the Indians. The value 
of the services of Captain Myles 
Standish will never be over-estimated, 
and no more suitable person could be 
selected for this important seivice in 
Dartmouth than one who had been a 
pupil of the Puritan captain. Here, 
then, was a practical preparation for 
a settlement. It is not possible to 
state the exact relation of Howard to 
the new community, but he was not 
required to move from Bridgewater 
nor become a permanent resident of 
Dartmouth: and after 1003 his name 
is not found in the annals of the lat- 
ter town. His land remained in pos- 
session of his family until transferred 
by his descendants in 1708. 

It also appears that in 1660 the gov- 
ernment at Plymouth ordered their 
agent to collect the taxes of James 
Shaw and Arthur Hathaway at 
Cushena. As shown elsewhere, the 
entire amount to be collected wa<s 
thirty shillings, and the next year the 
amount was the same, while in 1662 it 
Avas seventy shillings. The tax in 1663 



is not recorded, and in 1664 tin; in- 
habitants were constituted the town 
of Dartmouth. An analysis of these 
figures supports the conclusion that 
the tax was ten shillings from each 
man, and was not based on the value 
of property. If this theory is correct, 
then there wyre three residents in 
1660 and 1661, and in 1662 the num- 
ber had increased tc seven. A.S How- 
ard never withdrew from Bridgewater, 
he was probably not the third man 
who was assessed in 166 and 1661. 
This was probably Samuel Cuthbert 
who is known to have been a resident 
during the latter date. The seven 
residents in 16 62 were Shaw, Hath- 
away, Cuthbert, Spooner, Samuel Jen- 
ney, John Russell, Thomas Pope or 
Ralph Earle. John Cooke was in Ply- 
mouth probably as late as May, 16 62. 

So having determined who were the 
first settlers and that they probably 
arrived at Cushena in the spring or 
summer of 16 60, the remaining part 
of the problem is to determine where 
they located their preliminary habita- 
tion. The hint given in the Howard 
deed will point the way to the con- 
clusion. By tracing the title of that 
land it appears to have been situated 
on the east side of the river opposite 
to Brooklawn park. The rock ledge 
in the southeast corner of the park at 
the roadside, extends under the river 
and appears again above the surface 
along the road leading to Fairhaven, 
where in several places it has been 
cut down to the road level. 

A short distance south of tho brook, 
and about three hundred feet east of 
the highway, the ledge abruptly 
terminates and at its foot, issues a 
spring as attractive and picturesque as 
when first discovered by Howard, 
Shaw and Hathaway two hundred and 
fifty years ago. Albert B. Drake, the 
well known civil engineer, states that 
it is the finest natural spring" on the 
east side of the -Acushnet river, and 
the only one that comes from the 
solid rock. Starting from a distant 
basin in the ledge, its waters never 
freeze and never cease to flow. Under 
the designation of "Wamsutta Spring," 
this water supply is utilized for com- 
mercial purposes. The region was 
diversified with convenient forests and 
land for cultivation Where Howard's 
brook .joins the river, until recent 
years was a choice natural oyster bed, 
and other shellfish were abundant and 
within easy reach. At its junction 
with the river, Howard's brook bends 
to the north and forms a neck of 
about eigh: acres. On account of the 
high ground it would be easy from 
this place to observe the approach of 
Indians, even when some distance 
away, and escape by water would be 
convenient. The locality was far 



\2 



enough up the river to be free from 
the Influence of boisterous storms, and 
there was ample water of sufficient 
depth for a ship-yard to be estab- 
lished across the river at Belleville a 
century later. 

The final step is to determine 
whether this neck was the place 
selected as the first abode of, the set- 
tlers. It was set off to Samuel Cuth- 
bert, and in lliGl conveyed by him to 
John Russell; 1GG0 Russell co John 
Cooke, and in liiHU Cooke to his son- 
in-law, Arthur Hathaway. In his will, 
dated 16?94, Cooke seemed to have 
assumed that he retained an interest 
in the neck, and this he gave to his 
daughter Sarah Hathaway and refers 
to the land as "Near the burying- 
place." By inheritance the neck 
came into possession of Antipas Hath- 
away, who in 1752 transferred "it to 
his brother Jethro, using the descrip- 
tion: "Ye aide burying point in Aeush- 
net village bounded by Howard's 
brook." 

During the periods when they 
owned this neck Ciuhbert, Russell and 
Cooke were the leading residents of 
Dartmouth, but each owned a home- 
stead farm some distance away. The 
same year that Cooke conveyed the 
neck to Arthur Hathaway the town 
of Dartmouth voted to build a town 
house east of Smith Mills at the head 
of the Sloeum road 

In an obscure corner of an old rec- 
ord in Plymouth in penmanship that 
is difficult to read, is the copy of an 
agreement executed in February, Hi (J 3, 
by John Howard and John Cooke, as 
follows: "The neck hath a way al- 
lowed to it by those appointed to lay 
out the land and it was approved by 
the company; now with the consent 
of the neighbors at Aeushena, John 
Howard and John Cooke are agreed 
that the way shall begin at a heap 
of stones and extend to the top of the 
hill, and the width shall be from the 
heap of stones to the brook; and as 
it is at present incapable for a way, 
without labor, we are to make it capa- 
ble on equal terms And there shall 
be only one foot way into the neck 
from James Shaw's stile straight into 
the neck." 

This agreement is one of the most 
suggestive documents relating to early 
Dartmouth. It was among the first 
official acts of the proprietors; a high- 
way proposed by the committee, ap- 
proved by the owners, laid out by 
Howard and Cooke, accepted by the 
Inhabitants, and then built by two 
men representing the proprietors. No 
public improvement could be estab- 
lished with more precision, and none 
has been found until modern times 
laid out with such legal formality. 
All this public machinery would not 



have been set in operation to benefit 
any private individual. At every step 
the public directed the proceedings 

and hence must have been the 
beneficiary. The inhabitants were to 
use the way in going to and from 
the neck, where they engaged in ->ome 
common concerns. It was the first 
layout of a public road before 1700. 
When Russell transferred the nek to 
Cooke the description included "A 
way which, was allowed by the pur- 
chasers and laid out by John Cooke 
and John Howard." It remains to 
determine the conclusion to which 
these facts logically lead. 

The town of Dartmouth comprised 
over one hundred thousand acres and 
was assigned by the colonial govern- 
ment to those men who arrived at 
Plymouth before 1627. As they all 
had their residences in other parts of 
the colony, it was not expected that 
they would remove to this territory. 
It was merely a dividend in land, 
which cost them nothing to buy and 
nothing in taxes to hold. For seven 
years there was no demand for the 
land and no transfer was made. Then 
purchasers appeared and the pro- 
prietors were ready to Sell. To bring 
the section into the market it was 
essential to institute some preliminary 
survey and establish a convenient 
center, so they secured the services 
of .John Howard and paid him in land. 
During the year IG59, the exploring 
party selected the locality at Howard's 
brook for the new settlement the 
place combining the required ad- 
vantages. Then it became necessary 
to provide utilities that would be 
needed. Their own habitation was 
pn bably a log or stone bou.se on the 
neck, or a cave dug in the hillside. 
The line of travel from New York to 
Plymouth was by water up Buzzards 
Bay, across the isthmus at Manomet 
where the canal is being built, and 
then by water the remaining part of 
the journey. Most if not all com- 
munication east and west from Dart- 
mouth was presumably by vessels, and 
hence a landing would be required at 
Howard's neck. Then they provided 
for a road from the neck to the great 
Indian path, which extended from 
Lakeville to Sconticut neck. The al- 
lotment of homesteads was one of 
their earliest transactions. Beginning 
at Howard's brook and extending 
north to the head of the river were 
three farms, assigned respectively to 
Samuel Cuthbert, William Spooner and 
Samuel Jenney. From the brook 
south, were the farms of John How- 
ard, James Shaw where the Laura 
Keene place was afterwards located; 
then Arthur Hathaway down to the 
south line of the town of Acushnet. 
After a considerable interval, John 



13 



Cooke's farm was on the hill where 
the Coggeahall street bridge ends in 
Kulihuvcn, and John Russell and 
Ralph Karle settled at South Dart- 
mouth. .Sometime later the north end 
of the neck was devoted to a burial 
place, but n landing place and a burial 
ground do not adequately account for 
i he layout of that road. Landings, 
burlul places and private building's or 
structures used as garrisons, would 
not occasion a road built with so 
much particularity. 

The loss of the proprietors' record 
for the iirst sixty years after the 
colonial grant and the fact that no 
town records have been pre- 
served previous to 167 3 has 
obliterated most of the early 
history of this settlement. But if 
these lost records could be consulted 
they would probably tell substantially 
the following narrative. That a town 
house and meeting house, possibly one 
building for both, was placed or: the 
neck for the use of the inhabitants, 
in which to hold its public meetings, 
civil and religious, and this would 
adequately explain the object of this 
formal layout. It has been assumed 
that the inhabitant? held their public 
meetings in dwelling-houses, and 
while this is possible it is more likely 
that a different arrangement was 
made in accordance with the prevail- 
ing custom. At that date single apart- 
ment dwellings were all that could 
be obtained, and these would not be 
convenient either for town meeting or 
religious congregations. The high re- 
spect and veneration felt by the 
Pilgrims for such institutions would 
not. permit them to neglect erecting at 
once a building suitable for public 
gatherings. A common building on 
the neck, devoted to such purposes, 
wouid account for the remarkable in- 
terest taken by the townspeople in 
that short road down the hill to the 
neck, where they could attend town 
meeting or hear John Cooke preach. 
The neck was the town Common or 
Green adapted to the local situation 
and was the temporary town center 
where were grouped all those public 
utilities that the new community re- 
quired. 

Captain Church in his history of 
the King Philip war, mentions "The 
ruins of John Cooke's house at Cush- 
net." There is a tradition that some- 
where Cooke had a garrison or stock- 
ade, and it has been asserted that this 
was a block-house which stood south 
of Woodside cemetery in Fairhaven. 
While it is possible that Cooke had 
some sort of defence on his farm, yet 
there is a reasonable doubt whether 
the place referred to by Church was 
not on Howard's neck, which was 
provided by the inhabitants as a place 



of refuge during the hist period of the 
settlement This is also possible, be- 
cause the title to the neck was owned 
by Cooke during the King Philip war. 

As long as the Indians did not dis- 
turb the settlers the homesteads were 
gradually extended in scattered forma- 
tion into different sections of Dart- 
mouth, a policy that caused criticism 
from the authorities at Plymouth and 
was the basis of all the misfortunes 
that overtook the inhabitants in the 
Indian war. Fortunately the Dart- 
mouth settlers kept near the shore, so 
that while they could not oiler any 
firm defence yet they were able to 
escape by water, and so far as definite- 
ly known only four were killed by the 
Indians. 

Until the King Philip war a ma- 
jority of the inhabitants lived on the 
east side of the Acushnet river and 
probably no change was made in the 
meeting place for public gatherings. 
During the two years occupied by the 
war no meetings of the town were 
held, and the territory of Dartmouth 
was abandoned. After the death of 
Philip, the Indians lost their war-like 
spirit and never recovered from the 
effects of that struggle. Then the 
inhabitants slowly returned and re- 
built their habitations and the next 
meeting of the town was held :n June, 
1GTS. Prom that time the population 
rapidly increased and soon became 
widely distributed. The Acushnet 
river was no longer the western limit; 
the central and western portions were 
occupied and ferries were estabPshed 
where bridges could not be built 
Soon a demand for a central location 
of the town house led to a vote of 
the town to place it "near the mills," 
that is, .Smith Mills. The inhabitants 
of Apponegansett and Acoaksett 
greatly outnumbered those who lived 
on the ease side of the Acushnet and 
easily accomplished the change which 
took place in 1GSG 

In the ordinary progress of events, 
Howard's neck could not always re- 
main the center of the town. The in- 
evitable change had arrived. The 
public uses to which the neck had 
been devoted, were transferred to 
other sections. As a place of refuge, 
it was no longer required, because 
the Indians had been forced into a 
permanent peace. Bandings were 
provided in other sections ind the 
neck was used only by those living in 
the vicinity. The town meetings were 
held at the head ot the Slocun road. 
Those who settled west of Acushnet 
river formed a great majority of the 
inhabitants; were largely Quakers and 
not in harmony with the religious 
practices of the Pilgrims on the east 
side of the Acushr.et and had their 
separate meeting house. The latter 



11 



may have continued to hold religious 
meetings at the usual place, but it 
must have been a small struggling 
body without organization and with- 
out settled minister. The only object 
of interest that remained, was the 
burial-ground, and to preserve this 
Cooke made the transfer to his son- 
in-law, Arihur Hathaway, and here is 
probably where Cooke was ' buried. 
The neck remained in possession of 
the Hathaway family until 18 54, and 
since 18 G2 with the farm on both 
sides of Howard's brook, has been 
owned by Samuel Corey. 

The situation at the neck remains 
with little change as it appeared when 
selected as a town center two and a 
half centuries ago. The road built 
by Howard and Cooke is still open and 
used by Arthur H. Corey to reach his 
residence. An old mill is standing on 
the brook, but years ago was dis- 
mantled and is in ruins. Since the 
deed of 1752, the name of Howard has 
disappeared from the locality. Manu- 
facturing industries on the river have 
driven away the shellfish that were 



so abundant along these shores. At 
the north end of the neck until plowed 
over some years ago, were found un- 
marked stones placed at intervals, the 
indication of an ancient burial place. 
The waters of the great spr:ng still 
flow unceasingly to the sra, the 
salient and determining feature that 
fixed the choice of the English in 
selecting their first home on the 
Acushnet. People engaged in New 
Bedford mills have residences on the 
east side of the river, and the line of 
houses from Coggeshall street before 
many years, will meet those rapidly 
extending south from the head of the 
river. The space between comprises 
a few farms near Howard's brook, 
whose owners still resist the flattering 
offers of speculation. Here, with little 
outward change, may be observed 
those natural advantages that im- 
pressed the English on their first visit 
to Cushena where they located their 
first residential center, and here is 
the last spot to yield to progress and 
Innovation. 










OLD DARTMOUTH 
HISTORICAL SKETCHES 



No. 40 



Being the proceedings of the meetings of the Old Dartmouth Historical 
Society, held June 17, 1914 and October 14, 1914. 



FOURTHS OF THE PAST 

by Walter H. B. Remington 

A TRIP TO BOSTON IN 1838 

by William W. Crapo 

A JAPANESE STUDENT IN FAIRHAVEN 

by Job C. Tripp 



PROCEEDINGS 



MEETING 



OF THE 



Old Dartmouth Historical Society 



OUTING AND CLAMBAKE 



HELD AT PADANARAM 



JUNE 17, 1914 



About 200 members of the Old Dart- Walter II. B. Remington, city clerk, 
mouth Historical Society participated read a paper en "Notable New Bed- 
in the outing at Padanaram June ford Fourth of July Celebrationsin the 
17, 1914, which began with a clam- Past Century," which proved to be an 
bake at 2 o'clock, and ended with a interesting review of what has nap- 
dance in the New Bedford Yacht club pened in this city to celebrate the na- 
station. tion's birthday. 



4 



Fourths of the Past 



By Walter H. B. Remington 



Mr. President, and Ladies and 
Gentlemen of the Old Dartmouth 
Historical Society: 

When your representative called on 
me, the Monday following Memorial 
Day, and requested me to prepare a 
sketch on the subject "'Notable New 
Bedtord Fourth o£ July Celebrations 
in the Past Century," I was in no 
position to refuse, inasmuch as the 
Standard of the day betore had 
featured a statement, which I had 
maue, a year previously, and had al- 
most forgotten, advocating a patriotic 
and popular celebration of the glorious 
Fourth. 1 couid see no way of getting 
out of it, and on the theory that ono 
might as wll be hung tor sheep as for 
a lamb, I readily consented, apparent- 
ly much to the surprise of George IT. 
Tripp, who made the request at the 
behest of your president. 

With my spare time occupied in the 
work incident to assistance in the 
preparation of a Fourth of July cele- 
bration of the present century, I am 
afraid that I have not been able to 
give the matter as much care and at- 
tention as it deserves, and for this 
reason I desire to offer an apology, 
at the outset, if what I have found 
fails to interest you, and to make the 
criticism that your worthy president 
ought to have known better than to 
have made such a suggestion. 

1 have been unable to rind any rec- 
ord of the celebration of the glorious 
Fourth in New Bedford until the ad- 
vent of the New Bedford Mercury. 
the publication of which was begun 
in 18U7. 

In the town records of New Bedford, 
the 8th article in the warrant for the 
annual meeting of 1790 contains a 
phrase which, when my eye caught 
it, in my search, led me to believe 
that I had found what 1 was looking 
for. In this article, the townsmen are 
cited to assemble "To do what they 
think proper relative to purchasing 
a town stock of ammunition, agree- 
able to law." It developed, however, 
that this town ammunition was not 
for the purpose of celebration, but 
for the preservation of peace, and 
the protection of the citizens in the 
case of need. Inasmuch as a similar 
article appeared, year after year, for 
several years, in the annual town 
meeting warrants. I was puzzled, at 
first, to know what became of the 
ammunition, since there was evidently 



no necessity for using it for the com- 
mon defence. It then occurred to ma 
that the ammunition was used at th'j 
annual training meetings of the militia 
and the constant need for replenishing 
of the stock was explained. 

A fairly full report, for the time, 
of the doings on the Fourth of July 
of 18 09, which was the 33rd anniver- 
sary of the signing of the Declaration 
of Independence, appears in the issue 
of The Mercury following the day. 

"In this town," says The Mercury 
reporter of that day, "the celebration 
was unusually brilliant. At an early 
hour of the day a large number of 
our fellow citizens, joined by several 
gentlemen frcm the neighboring 
towns, particularly the gentlemen offi- 
cers of the regiment, assembled at 
Mr. Nelson's, where, after a friendly 
interchange of civilities and atten- 
tions, a procession was formed, un- 
der the direction of Col. Benjamin 
Lincoln, consisting of Capt. Cogges- 
hall's company of artillery, Capt. Bar- 
stow's company of militia, the officiat- 
ing clergyman and orator of the day, 
the president and vice presidents, 
committee of arrangements, gentle- 
men officers of the regiment in uni- 
form, the municipal officers of the 
town, the citizens and strangers. At 
11 o'clock the procession moved to 
the meeting house, where, after an 
appropriate address to the Throne of 
Grace by the Rev. Mr. Kirby, an ora- 
tion, distinguished for classical purity, 
firm patriotism, and correct sentiment, 
was pronounced by Lemuel Williams, 
Jr., Esq. Th company afterwards 
participated in an excellent dinner, 
prepared by Mr. Nelson. In the even- 
ing there was a handsome display of 
fireworks prepared by Mr. Benjamin 
Hill, Jr., and several lanthorns, made 
by Mr. Arnold Shaw, very judiciously 
arranged, exhibiting the names of a 
number of American Worthies, to- 
gether with a representation of Liber- 
ty." 

The description closes with the 
statement that "the exhibition was 
truly pleasing and gave great satis- 
faction to a crowd of spectators." 

That must have been some show! 
You can look back, in your imagina- 
tion, and see the artillery company 
and the militia assembling, with true 
military pomp, at Mr. Nelson's. There 
was no discussion, at that time, as to 
whether the men who played the drum 



and fife to which the brave soldiers 
timed their martial tread were or 
were not members of the musicians' 
union. There was no walking dele- 
gate to bust up the procession be- 
cause the members of the village 
school, with tin whistles and battered 
dish pans, led the parade a few feet 
ahead of the stately figure of Colonel 
Benjamin Lincoln. And then the 
"friendly exchange of civilities and 
attentions" after the companies and 
the citizens and the strangers had as- 
sembled at Mr. Nelson's. I am unable 
to find that there was a governor of 
South Carolina present to suggest to 
the Massaehusetts men that it was a 
long time between civilities; and prob- 
ably there was no need. 

Following the dinner at Mr. Nel- 
son's, after the parade was over, there 
was the customary string of toasts, 
that to Washington being drunk 
standing, as was the courteous prac- 
tice in those days. Tf each toast re- 
quired a drink to wash it down, Mr. 
Nelson's helpers must have been kept 
busy filling .the glasses, for there were 
33 toasts, some regular and some vol- 
unteer. Most of them would oe con- 
sidered rather stilted, in their style, 
at this time, but they all bristled with 
patriotic sentiment, which was the 
proper thing, and is to be commend- 
ed. The first toast, for instance, re- 
llected the political situation. It ran: 

"The day: may the reign of vision- 
ary philosophy and the ^loom of ,vn 
unlimited embargo never again be 
permitted to shroud its glory." 

The preliminaries of the second war 
with England were going on, and the 
embargo on shipping had left its bitter 
impress on the community. New 
Bedford was a strong Federalist dis- 
trict, it will be remembered, and the 
authorities at Boston and Washing- 
ton were not conducting themselves 
in a manner satisfying to tho New 
Bedford citizens, as a whole. 

Things reached a rather high pitch 
when the time came to celebrate the 
clay of national independence in 1811. 
On that day, after the usual pro- 
cession and the oration at the Con- 
gregational meeting house, the parad- 
ors proceeded to Caldwell's hotel on 
Main street, where they sat down to 
what the Mercury describes as "an 
entertainment worthy of the occa- 
sion. 5 ' The paper further says that 
"The Hon. Edward Fope presided, 
and order and propriety marked tho 
proceedings." Quite needless to state! 

While the usual giving and tak- 
ing of toasts was going on, a com- 
mittee, headed by Colonel Benjamin 
Lincoln, was chosen to frame and re- 
port resolutions expressive of the citi- 
zens in relation to "the recent alarm- 



ing measures of our national and 
state executives." Resolutions a col- 
umn in length, denouncing the con- 
duct of the state executive and decry- 
ing the possibility of war with Great 
Britain, which it was said, in 57 va- 
rieties of ways, would be "ruinous to 
our republic," were unanimously 
adopted, after which the celebrators 
proceeded to more toasts, not forget- 
ting "The Ladies, God Bless Them." 

The Fourth of July, 1812, found the 
second war with England a grim fact, 
and the country was in such a seri- 
ous state that it does not appear, from 
the newspaper record, that there was 
much of a Fourth of July celebra- 
tion in New Bedford. 

Batriotic enthusiasm, as demon- 
strated by celebrations, seems to have 
died out on the New Bedford side of 
the river for several years. The "Cor- 
s'can Jigs" over on the Fairhaven side, 
however, were not backward with 
their patriotic displays, and proces- 
sions, and fireworks, and orations, 
with dinners at the Fairhaven hotel, 
were the order of the day. 

Finally, in the issue of The Mer- 
cury of Friday, July 4, 1823, a com- 
municant who signed himself "Obser- 
vator," and who wrote from the Fair- 
haven side of the river, dipped his 
pen in gall and wormwood and wrote 
after this style: 

"Among the general preparations 
throughout the country for the cele- 
bration of the anniversary, why is it 
that the respectable village of New 
Bedford is alone silent and inactive > 
Are not the inhabitants Americans, 
descended from the sons of the fathers 
of '70, and can they let such an oppor- 
tunity pass without manifesting, in 
some measure, that they inherit the 
spirit and feelings of their fore- 
fathers?" 

Evidently the shaft went home, for 
tho respectable village of New Bed- 
ford woke up, the next year, 18 24, and 
Tho Mercury historian says, "the day 
was noticed with more than the usual 
spirit." 

I am of the opinion that the elder 
Lindsey took the day off, that Fourth, 
and that a printer named "Grouch" 
set up the remainder of the celebra- 
tion description, for the story con- 
tinues: 

"While we find much to gratify us 
in the celebration of the day, wo 
must enter our protest against the 
ringing of bells. It ought to be en- 
tirely discarded on such occasions. 
We hear this ding-dong three times 
a day during the week, and three 
times three on Sundays. Let that 
suffice." 

It appears that the young men of 
the town did not forget this editor- 



ial complaint the next year, and they 
evidently believed that Mr. Lindsey 
penned the protest. For the Mer- 
cury's account of the Fourth of July 
celebration of 1825 goes on to say: 
"After a day which ended with a 
splendid ball, at which grace and 
beauty mingled in the mazy dance, 
the town was serenaded by. a band of 
music which continued until the 
dawn of the 5th." 

Instead of grumbling, this time, 
however, the Mercury editor did the 
graceful thing. "Perhaps nothing 
can be more grateful," he wrote, "af- 
ter nature has partaken of her restor- 
ative sleep, than to be awakened 
from the late slumbers of night by 
a melodious serenade." That is what 
I assume to be the retort courteous. 
The fiftieth anniversary of the 
birthday of the nation was celebrated 
in New Bedford July 4th, 1826, by 
public festivities and impressive cer- 
emonies "in every way worthy of the 
momentous occasion," to borrow the 
Mercury's phrasing. An extensive 
procession was formed and proceeded 
to Rev. Mr. Dewey's meeting house, 
where prayer was offered, the Declar- 
ation of Independence was read by 
Russell Freeman, Esq., and an ap- 
propriate and animated address was 
pronounced by Thomas Rotch, Esq., 
to a crowded and highly satisfied au- 
ditory. An ode, prepared for the oc- 
casion, was sung, and at the conclu- 
sion of the exercises the procession 
inarched to the town hall where 
about 200 citizens sat down to a 
sumptuous dinner provided by Mr. 
Cole. John Avery Parker, Esq., pre- 
sided, and toasts all patriotism and 
a yard long were drunk. There were 
so many of these toasts that I am 
inclined to take with a grain of salt 
the editor's description, in a final 
paragraph summing up the events of 
the day. He wrote, "Sobriety, good 
order and good feeling pervaded 
throughout the celebration, and we 
may safely say that not the slightest 
untoward incident marred the gener- 
al enjoyment of our citizens." Good 
feeling, undoubtedly, but with the 
long list of toasts, sobriety must have 
down out of the town hall windows 
early in the evening unless our fore- 
fathers were made of different stuff 
than the modern New Bedford citizen. 
The first Fourth of July celebra- 
tion after New Bedford became a city 
occurred on the 5th of July, 184 7. 
The steamers Massachusetts and 
Naushon, from Nantucket and Ed- 
gartown, arrived in New Bedford at 
an early hour, deeply freighted with 
some 17 00 passengers, "including a 
larger proportion of the fairer crea- 



tion," to quote the newspaper ac- 
count, which continues, "Groups of 
lively and animated faces were mov- 
ing in every direction, and altogether 
our beautiful city presented in every 
part a scene of gaiety and rational 
enjoyment never, perhaps surpassed. ' 
A procession led by the local fire 
companies, together with fire com- 
panies from Fairhaven and Nantuck- 
et, marshalled by General J. D. 
Thompson, and including the New 
Bedford Guards, under Captain Seth 
Russell, with divisions of Sons of 
Temperance from Dartmouth and 
other surrounding towns, paraded 
through the streets. Exercises were 
held in the North Christian church, 
with an oration by J. A. Kasson, who 
later became famous as a writer of 
treaties. Of Mr. Kasson's oration, 
the Mercury says: "The oration was 
listened to by a numerous assembly, 
and it is warmly eulogized for its 
purity of language and elevated mor- 
al and patriotic sentiment. We had 
intended to publish a sketch of this 
masterly production, but have no 
room today." There was room in the 
paper, however, for a column of 
Fourth of July oration delivered by 
Edward Everett, in Boston, and it 
may be presumed that in the eye of 
the editor, the Edward Everett pro- 
duction was more masterly than that 
of Mr. Kasson. 

Of course, there was a burst of 
fireworks in the evening, attended by 
a great concourse of people. 

It is interesting, to me at least, to 
compare the cost of this celebration, 
which was paid for from the city 
treasury, with the cost of the cele- 
bration which we propose to have 
this year. The total cost of the cel- 
ebration in 18 47 was $546.36. There 
were 16,00 people in New Bedford 
at that time, as appears from the 
figures in the Municipal Manual. 
That would make the cost of the cel- 
ebration 3.4 plus cents for each in- 
dividual. It is proposed to spend, 
this year (if we can get the money) 
$3 000 at the outside. There are 111,- 
000 people in New Bedford accord- 
ing to the latest census figures. This 
means that the celebration will cost 
2.7 cents plus for every individual. 
So it seems, that while the cost of 
living is popularly supposed to have 
advanced, the cost of Fourth of July 
celebrations has shrunk. I do not 
know whether this condition can be 
traced to the tariff or not, but I do 
know that the copper cent of 1S47 
was considerably bigger than the cop- 
per cent of 1914 and for this reason 
it may be fairly argued, I assume, 
that the figures which I have quoted 



(and you know that figures never lie) 
show that we are getting more for 
our money in the way of celebrations 
today than our fathers did when New 
Bedford was an infant. 

Just to show you that things have 
changed in other respects, I will read 
to you from the statement of the 
5th of July expenses as shown in the 
finance report of the city covering 
that year. 

The first item is: 
Lewis Boutelle, 72 dinners $72.00 

It seems that "junket" feeds are not 
the novelty that some of our re- 
former politicians would sometimes 
have us believe. The report con- 
tinues: 
Citizens Brass band $136.00 

Evidently the bands didn't blow 
their heads off for nothing in those 
days. 
L. A. Mace, ringing bell $1.50 

This is about half the current price 
for ringing bells, but at that time a 
day's wages for the ordinary man 
was about half what he receives now, 
so the difference is not great. 

Lewis C. Allen, policeman $3.00 

Shubael G. Edwards, policeman. 3.00 
William Q. Russell, policeman.. 3.00 
Marshall B. Bird, policeman... 2.00 

With the exception of Bird, the po- 
licemen fared better than they do to- 
day, assuming that they did the reg- 
ulation day's work. 
Lewis L. Bartlett, ringing bell 

and cleaning church $5.50 

The janitor question does not seem 
to be a new one, after all, and it ap- 
pears, that the janitor was worthy 
of his hire then, as he is today. 
Thomas B. White, amount paid 

for fireworks $194.00 

New Bedford Guards, music. 50.00 
Hiram D. Wentworth, hack.. 8.00 

The hack was probably for the com- 
mittee on fireworks, who could not 
be expected to walk, of course, with 
the burden of responsibility for the 
success of the day upon their shoul- 
ders. 

In the account of the Fourth of 
July celebration of 1S48, The Mer- 
cury reporter took occasion to do a 
little eagle screaming on his own 
hook. 

"If the Fourth of July is now cele- 
brated with something less of bois- 
trous hilarity than in former years," 
he said, "it has at least lost nothing 
of the sentiment of grateful veneration 
for the wisdom and patriotism of the 
illustrious statesmen of the Revolu- 
tion whose firmness and valor 
achieved for us the glorious heritage 
of freedom and prosperity that we 
row enjoy. They sowed the seed, 
svh:le we gather the fruit; they plant- 
ed in tears and should we not reap 



with grateful hearts? From 177G the 
course of the republic has been con- 
tinuously onward and upward. .We 
had then 13 colonies and four mil- 
lions of people. We have now 3 
Mates and t\venty millions of free- 
men, and with corresponding im- 
provement in the social condition of 
the masses. Long may the Fourth 
be cherished, and while it continues 
to be observed as a great national 
festival we shall have little fear for 
the republic." 

That is the sentiment which is well 
worth repeating today. With the mil- 
lions of people who have come from 
other shores to become a part of our 
great country, many of them ignor- 
ant of the hardships and struggles 
from which our country has resulted, 
and careless of the principles in- 
volved, it is not amiss, once a year, at 
least, that the eagle should scream 
a little, just to make an impression 
on the minds of these foreigners. No 
American community is too small, nor 
too large, to give one clay in the year 
to pressing home the lessons which 
the history of our country teaches. 
The object lesson which the display 
of patriotism, demonstrated by Fourth 
of July enthusiasm, furnishes to these 
people is well worth the price, and no 
truly enthusiastic American can af- 
ford not to do his share. "Do it now," 
is a good motto, to be applied to 
Fourth of July as well as to busi- 
ness. If there is one within the reach 
(J" my voice who hasn't contributed his 
part to the coming Fourth of July, 
cither in money or in service, I ask 
him to think, for a minute, what this 
country would be without that which 
Fourth of July stands for; and when 
that thought has sunk in, let him ask 
himself if the individual, or the com- 
munity, or the country, can afford to 
let the Fourth of July go by without 
recognition. 

To go back a little to The Mer- 
cury's account of the 184S celebration, 
there may have been a little reason 
for the editor's patriotic words, pre- 
sumably to offset something of th > 
spirit of commercialism which it ap- 
pears, from leading between the lines 
of the story of the celebration, had 
begun to show itself. This portion of 
the story is not found in the news- 
paper, but in the city's financial state- 
ment of the cost of the celebration, 
which was under municipal auspices. 

This statement shows that the Bos- 
ton Cornet Band was engaged at a 
cost of $19G.37, to which must be add- 
ed $20, paid to Sihon Packard for 
"boarding band," there was a $400 
display of fireworks, and S. B. Rob- 
bins received $24 for 2 1 dinners. 
While the day was supposed to be in 
celebration of the event which en- 



sured free speech, the Fourth of July 
speech of that year was not entirely 
free, since there is an item in the ex- 
penditure account of "Amount paid 
orator, $25." The most interesting 
thing in the items of expense, how- 
ever, is the charge "William Hall, ex- 
penses after music, $8.00." 

I can imagine the committee on 
audit of that day, as they gathered 
to approve the monthly bills, two or 
three weeks aftqr the effects of the 
celebration were worn off. William 
Hall's bill is read, and some member 
of the audit committee, who was nut 
on the Fourth of July committee, 
pricks up his ears. "What's that?" he 
asks, and the bill is read again. "What 
does that mean?" he asks, aghast. 
"Oh, that," answers one of the audit 
committee, who was also on the 
Fourth of July committee, "that's all 
right; you see, after the music, the 
committee had to have a bite to eat, 
etc.; we had been working all day, 
looking out to see that the boys didn't 
fire the set pieces before evening, and 
none of us had a chance to get any 
supper, so after the fireworks we went 
over to Hall's and had a snack. Of 
course, if the committee doesn't think 
it was all right, I will pay the bill 
myself," — and more at length. And 
at last, after talking about it for half 
an hour, the bill is passed and or- 
dered paid. Times have not changed 
much, after all. 

We now come to the celebration of 
1851, which was so novel and suc- 
cessful as to deserve special notice 
from The Mercury. 

"The usual municipal procession 
was dispensed with," reads the ac- 
count, "but instead of fat aldermen 
(they will pardon us for mentioning 
what everybody knows) instead of the 
usual parade of council in carriages, 
we had the dear children, all march- 
ing as proudly as if they had been 
soldiers in earnest. The boys dressed 
in their best, and the girls, who would 
have looked unexceptionable dressed 
in their worst, paraded in a style 
which would have done honor to vet- 
eran troops." The parade was led by 
John F. Emerson, principal of the 
High school, and each school repre- 
sented bore an appropriate motto. The 
High school led the procession. "The 
notable feature of this department was 
a car in which appeared The Muses, 
appropriately dressed and bearing the 
proper emblems. The Charles street 
grammar school appeared with a 
young and beautiful personage who 
had been duly elected and installed 
as "Queen of the Pageant" together 
with her maids of honor, all members 
of the High school, seated in a splen- 
did barouche elegantly decorated with 
wreaths of flowers. The Market 



Street Primary rode in a young mass 
of youthfulness and innocence upon a 
finely decorated van. The Grove Gram- 
mar school carried the motto "Get 
good and be good.." The Charles 
Street Intermediate carried a banner 
on which was inscribed, "We are des- 
tined to fill our places," and so on. 

Engine Company No. 6 did escort 
duty, and afterwards dined at the 
Parker House, after which they ap- 
peared in a procession with blazing 
torches, accompanied by two bands 
of music, and proceeded to the house 
of the mayor, where they were greet- 
ed by a handsome and complimentary 
speech. There was the usual display 
of fireworks, viewed by the "immense 
concourse of spectators" which the re- 
porter of the period was so fond of 
describing. In summing up the feat- 
ures of the day, The Mercury says, 
"Although not marked by as usual 
pomp and circumstance as may have 
attested previous occasions, it was 
nevertheless one of the most pleasant 
and satisfactory which we recollect." 

The festivities of the next year, 1852, 
were marked by an incident which for 
a time threatened to sadly alter the 
plans made for the celebration. In 
the first place, it was the hottest day 
of the season, and the number of 
visitors had never been exceeded on 
the New Bedford streets. While \he 
parade was forming, an alarm of fire 
was spread. The fire was on the roof 
of the extensive hardware establish- 
ment of Taber & Co., and was caused 
by fire-crackers, or course. When the 
alarm was given the fire companies, 
which composed the important feature 
of the procession, immediately left the 
line and proceeded to the fire, pell 
mell, followed by the throng. 

"Their numerous guests," says the 
story, "while watching the efforts of 
the New Bedford boys to show h^>w 
they put out fires, also lent their own 
exertions to repress the raging ele- 
ment. The brakes of No. 7 were 
manned entirely by the Pioneer com- 
pany from Providence, who showed 
that they knew well how to brake 
her down. A member of the Warren 
Company of Charlestown exhibited 
a feat by climbing through a bow 
window of the building onto the roof, 
which for hardihood and daring could 
not be surpassed. In the heat of the 
moment it could not be expected of 
our gallant firemen that they should 
act in a perfectly cool manner. They 
knew that there was a fire, and they 
knew, too, that it was in a very dan- 
gerous locality. Their sole object was 
to crush it, and they did so very ef- 
fectively. The fire was thoroughly ex- 
tinguished in about 2 minutes." Af- 
ter the fire there was a great to-do 
to get the procession together again. 



The Mercury jokes a little as to the 
fact that a Fourth of July procession 
was never known to start on time, 
and the fact that this procession was 
about an hour and a half late did not 
detract from its interest. The only 
thing that marred it was that the 
engines, which had been handsomely 
decorated, as was the custom, appear- 
ed stripped for business, but you may 
be sure that this did not. take from 
their appearance in the eyes of the 
true firemen. This procession, by the 
way, contained a carriage with a 
group of Revolutionary soldiers, the 
oldest 93 years of age. Captain Tim- 
othy Ingraham was the chief mar- 
shal. 

The celebration of July 4, 1855, 
was interrupted by a fire which in- 
terfered with the firemen's trial. This 
fire caught in the stable of George 
Howland. at the corner of Walnut and 
Seventh streets, and before it was put 
out it burned several other stables 
with their contents. 

"Various causes have been assigned 
for the fire," said the Mercury's ac- 
count. "Crackers ought to bear the 
blame, for they were fired in close 
proximity to the stable which first 
took fire. Another report is that the 
coachman was smoking in the stable 
that morning, and that his pipe is 
answerable for the consequences. Un- 
fortunately, editors have to take facts 
as we find them, or we should de- 
clare for the crackers. We wonder 
not that so many buildings are 
destroyed annually, but that any es- 
cape. But those most interested in 
knowing the cause incline to believe 
that the tobacco was guilty, which 
we are very sorry for." 

This Fourth was made notable by 
the iaying, at sunrise, of the corner- 
stone of Liberty hall, the old theatre 
building which occupied the site of 
Ihe present Merchants bank building, 
and where, before, an older Liberty 
hall had been built and burned. Jo- 
seph Dearborn, Esq., made a brief 
ond spirited address, and Rodney 
French, then mayor, laid the corner 
stone. Under the stone was placed 
a copper box which contained, among 
other things, "An address delivered at 
the consecration of Oak Grove Ceme- 
tery by James B. Congdon, Esq." not 
a too appropriate phamplet, it would 
seem, to place under the corner stone 
of a play house. This was not the 
only joke tucked away under the 
Liberty Hall corner stone, for the 
box conlained "a line set of artificial 
teeth made by Dr. Ward." Included 
in the documents in the repository 
were the transcripts of several 
speeches made by the statesmen of 
the day, — N. P. Banks, Anson Burlin- 



game, W. H. Seward, Charles Sumner 
and among them, T. D. Elliot's 
speech on The Nebraska Bill. "From 
the exceedingly political character of: 
the deposit," said the editor, "we can- 
not infer much for the dramatic pros- 
pects of the hall, but when the corner 
stone of its predecessor was laid, the 
anticipations were less Shake 
spearian." 

You may have noted, as I did, that 
the Mercury's descriptions of Fourth 
of July doings contained a drift of 
pessisism. The secret is explained 
when we come to know the editor's 
ideal of what a real Fourth of July 
should be, and make comparision with 
with what the real Fourth of July 
usually was. In writing an editorial 
which was printd on the Fourth of 
July, 185G, the Mercury's ideal is so 
clearly expressed that I cannot re- 
frain from quoting it here, although, 
perhaps, it is not exactly a part of 
the story. This editorial is headed, 

WHAT TO DO TODAY, 
and reads as follows: 

"We don't wish to interfere v. 5 th 
any preconceived plans for celebrat- 
ing today on the part of our readers, 
but we can tell them one or two 
things they can undertake, if it 
seems to them agreeable. 

"Those who prefer seashore enter- 
tainments may take \he Eagles Wing 
for Newport, or theSpray for Horse- 
neck beach. Mr. Nye, who keeps the 
hotel at the latter place is well quali- 
fied to make the day satisfactory 
down there. 

"But whether people go forth to 
make demonstrations or remain at 
home, it is best to take things easy 
and keep cool. After the boys have 
spent all their money for fireworks 
and let them off, they should not cry 
for more powder. And all manner of 
rowdyism ami ugly dissipation should 
be avoided, as utterly beneath the 
notice of a reasonable man. 

"On the whole, those who have 
friends in the country, who live in old 
farm houses or new villas, where the 
air is pure, and green trees and fields 
of sweet smelling grass and clover 
abound, where strawberries and cream 
are not in a minority, and quiet and 
comfort can be secured, — we say, on 
the whole the pleasantest thing for 
the dusty and parched citizen is to 
visit these country friends on the Na- 
tional Holiday and so get rid of the 
noise and confusion of the town. If 
there is any better way of eelebrat- 
ing the Fourth of July than this, we 
have not heard it particularly allud- 
ed to. 

"Them in the evening, we can all 
return and witness the fireworks, so 
liberally provided by the city fathers, 



10 



and conclude in the end that we are 
about the greatest Yankee nation on 
earth." 

This is the prophesy. Look at the 
fulfillment, as it appears on the next 
day's page: 

•Celebration of the 4th of July be- 
gan with a comfortable rain much 
needed by corn and potatoes but not 
by boys and girls. There have been, 
during the last 07 years, or since 17 SO, 
thirteen rainy Fourth of Julys, and 
this might have been added had not 
the elements proved kindly at about 
1 i>. m., when mere patches of blue 
sky made their appearance. During 
the night of the 4th, some enterprising 
calithumpians were on hand, and 
discoursed hideous music and peals 
of crackers in various localities, but 
on the whole silence reigned,. At 
about 3 a, in. the wind chopped 
round to the north and again ob- 
scured the sky; we had more rain, 
next a clear sunset, and no fireworks 
by the city. Liberty Hall, the engine 
houses and ships in port displayed 
flags, und in spite of the moist 
weather, the young people did a good 
business in crackers." 

It seems a little cruel that after 
such a sweet dream of strawberries 
and cream, and peaceful quiet spent 
in green meadows, that the editor 
and all the rest of the people should 
have been doomed to spend a rainy 
Fourth within doors, with the mo- 
notony broken occasionally by the 
horrible noise of the calithumpians 
ami peals of lire crackers. There is, 
after all, some excuse for the bitter- 
ness which may yet be traced, after 
hair' a century has passed in some 
of the writings of the man who 
carved tin; notches in history with 
tin pen which was mightier than the 
sword. 

Von have recently read, in the Sun- 
day Globe, Mr Peases's allusion to 
the celebration of 18 65, when the re-, 
turned soldiers from the Civil War 
were publicly welcomed by the people 
and 3000 school children were inline; 
of the celebration in 1SGS, when the 
Wamsutta Base Ball Club defeated 
the Onwards, by a score which in 
these days would lead one who read 
about it to think it was a cricket 
match; (49 to 13).; of the centennial 
celebration in 187G, at which William 
W. Crapo delivered the orarion, tell- 
ing the story of New Bedford and the 
whaling industry so well and com- 
pletely that no-one has had the 
temerity to try to better it. 

In my recollection and yours, are 
the celebrations when we were boys 
and girls, with their noise, and heat, 
and balloon ascensions, and proces- 



sions, and whaleboal races, all of them 
paid for from the city treasury, and 
some of them, it must be confessed, 
loaded down with second hand 
patriotism. You are familiar, through 
recent publications of the story, as to 
how Councilman Charles W. Jones, 
when a boy, was caught in the grap- 
ling anchor of a balloon, as it as- 
cended from the Common and when 
the rope was cut, dropped through 
the trees, saved by their branches 
from instant death, so it is not 
necessary to repeat these things. Of 
course, our enthusiasm has somewhat 
dimmed, since those days, and we 
view the events from a different angle 
but nobody can take the memory of 
these Fourth of July celebrations 
from us. And as we grow older, and 
our children and grandchildren call 
for the unearthing of these memories, 
they will come back again, fresher 
and fresher as the years go by. 

So much for the Fourth of Ju.y 
of the past century. The story has 
been but imperfectly told, because 
there was not lime, with the demands 
of the day, to read between the lines 
and analyze the words which will re- 
main as the record forever. Through 
it all,, however, there stands out 
from the printed page, in type whicli 
is magnified as the years go forward, 
the patriotic sentiment of the men 
and women who enjoyed their 
pleasures and mourned their sorrows 
fifty and a hundred years ago. 

The reading over of these records 
teaches its own lesson. In spite of 
the pretty annoyance brought by the 
music of the calithumpians, and the 
hideous clanging of the bells, and 
the dangerous nuisance of the firing 
of the powder crackers, there stands 
out the underlying love of country 
which cannot be hidden. These men 
and women were not content to let 
the spirit of the day die. Their 
varied modes of attracting attention 
to the lessons of the day by the dif- 
ferent celebration in vogue from time 
to time, were all calculated to make 
an impression on the boys and girls 
of the day, lest they forget They 
kept the patriotic feeling alive, at 
some inconvenience to the individual, 
perhaps, but in the interest of the 
good of all. 

The New Bedford of that day was 
not the New Bedford of today. Then 
the Yankee stock predominated It 
is true that the whaleships brought 
men of many nationalities to New 
Bedford, but they did not come to 
stay, and after a brief shore respite 
they went their ways, most of them 
never to return. Vast colonies of 
foreign people did not exist as they 



11 



-l?~ 



do today, when more than half of our my belief is shared by many. This 

population is either foreign born or year, we are trying to see what ean 

born of foreign parents. be done to rouse public spirit by an 

]f it was worth while to celebrate observance of the holiday in which 

Fourth of July in those days, for the representatives of all the nations 

purpose of keeping alive the spirit of which go to make up New Bedford's 

'76, is it not more than worth while diverse population shall have a part, 

that we, today should make our best and 1 fell confident that when the 

efforts to keep the lessons of the last rocket bred on the Fourth of 

holiday before the people? July 1914 has spread its meteroric 

It is my belief that New Bedford splendor on the midnight sky, that 

cannot afford to let a single Fourth we all shall feel that he have done 

of July pass without some public ob- something to make better Americans 

servance. And I am glad to say that of the people of New Bedford. 



PROCEEDINGS 



MEETING 



Old Dartmouth Historical Society 



HELD OCTOBER 14, 1914 



To Boston by stage in 18 38 was pic- 
tured Wednesday afternoon, October 
14, 1914, by William W. Crapo before 
a large audience of members of the 
Old Dartmouth Historical society at 
the rooms of the society on Water 
street. Though Mr. Crapo was only 
eight ye/irs old at the time of the 
trip he has remembered almost every 
detail. His account of the journey 
and his experiences in Boston could 
not but carry one back there on the 
lumbering stage and in the quaint 
city of culture in the early half of the 
last century. 

This was Mr. Crapo's first visit to 
Boston. He went with his father. 
The trip took a day and ihe route was 
by the way of Bridgewater and Ran- 
dolph. In the evening Mr. Crapo 
attended a play in which he remem- 
bers a huge man, dressed as an Indian 
who strode in and said: 'You have sent 
for me, 1 have come! What are your 
commands." 

The almost Arabian Nights tale of 
Nakahama Munger, a Japanese boy 
who rose from a shipwrecked boy to a 
prince of the flowery kingdom was 
told by Job C. Tripp, who went to 
school with the boy in Fairhaven. Mr. 
Tripp said that the boy finally decided 
to go back to Japan and after sailing 



most of the way in an English ves- 
sel, made the remaining 400 miles in 
a whaleboat. 

President Cushman made a brief 
report, m behalf of the secretary, 
slating that since the first of the year, 
2';u names had been added to the 
membership list. He said that 500 
more were desired, and appealed to 
each of the present membership to 
help in securing them. Since June, 
7 80 people have visited the rooms, 
330 of them coming from out of town. 
During the summer, 500 of the so- 
ciety's members visited the rooms, 
which President Cushman said 
showed that it was wise to keep the 
rooms open every day. 

He announced that the entertain- 
ment committee had not yet made up 
its winter program, but that one 
event had been decided upon — an ex- 
hibition of old-fashioned costumes. 
This will be given on Nov. 3, from 
3 to 6 o'clock, and it was announced 
that anyone who would loan old- 
fashioned costumes, capes, wraps, or 
caps, won kl be of great help. 

Following a delightful rendition cf 
"Ye Banks and Braes of Bonny 
Doon," by Miss Edith Drescott, Presi- 
dent Cushman announced that at the 
conclusion of the program, old- 
fashioned refreshments would bo 
served in the colonial room, although 
he jokingly declined to go into de- 
tails as to what the refreshments were 
to be. 



15 



A Trip to Boston in 1838 



By William W. Crapo 



Mr. Cushmun introduced William 
W. Crapo with a description of a par- 
lor same in which one of the party 
starts the telling- of a story, and at 
a certain point tosses a soft ball to 
one of the others present, who must 
take up the story and carry it along-. 
"1 will toss the first ball to Mr. 
Crapo," he said, and suited the action 
to the word by tossing a frilly bouquet 
to ihe latter, whereupon, Mr. Crapo 
began his remarks. 

The speaker said that he would 
tell the story of his first trip to Bos- 
ton. "It was made in 1838," he said, 
"and 1 was a lad of eight. At that 
time, communication by Boston was 
by means of the stage coach. The 
raihoad to Taunton was not then con- 
structed. The stage route was owned 
by Elias Sampson, and the stages 
started from here and from Boston, 
every week-day. His stable was locat- 
ed on the north side of Union street, 
at the head of what was then Third 
street. Third street started from the 
south end, and went north to Union. 
Ray street started from the Acushnet 
road, and went south in a line with 
Third street, stopping at Elm. After- 
ward both streets were joined, with 
the name of 'Acushnet avenue.' 

"Close by the entrance to the stable 
was a small wooden building, which 
was called the stage office. A person 
wishing to travel by the stage, went 
to the office and placed his name on 
the book, with the place of his resi- 
dence. Then he was booked as a 
passenger for Boston the next morn- 
ing. The stage was a huge vehicle, 
containing three seats for three per- 
sons each, so that nine people could 
ride inside; and there was also ac- 
commodation on the outside. The 
stage, drawn by four horses, left the 
even before davlisrht. The driver 
started out for his passengers, and 
when he came to a house he blew a 
stable in the early dawn; in winter 
horn loudly as a notification to the 
passenger. When all the passengers 
had been picked up, the stable-boy, 
who had accompanied the driver to 
assist with the baggage — the driver 
never leaving his seat on the box — 
left the coach, and it started on the 
"journey to Boston. 

"The first stopping-place was at 
Sampson's Tavern, which had a beau- 
tiful location, looking out upon Assa- 



wampsett pond. The stop was for a 
change of horses, and to enable the 
passengers to have breakfast. The 
breakfast at the tavern was a famous 
feu lure, as, after a ride of fourteen 
miles in the cool, crisp air, over roads 
that were by no means smooth, the 
passengers had keen appetites. We 
had ham and eggs, beefsteak, sau- 
sages, potatoes, brown bread, biscuits, 
Johnny-cake, and buckwheat cakes 
ami molasses. I will not say that 
these were all the things that were 
served, but I will say that it was a 
meal fit for a small boy or a king. 

"Bieakfast completed, fresh horses 
were obtained and refreshed passen- 
gers took seats. We went to Boston by 
way of Bridgewater and Randolph, 
changing horses at the relay stations; 
and reached Boston in the afternoon. 

"We stopped at the Elm Street Tav- 
ern, the favorite hostelry for New 
Bedford people, as it was kept by a 
Mr. Dooley, who for several years 
was u clerk in Coles Tavern here. 
The latter hotel was located on the 
east side of South Water street, be- 
tween Commercial and School, and 
was a favorite on account of its loca- 
tion near the wharves, making it con- 
venient for people arriving from the 
Vineyard or on coasting vessels. An- 
other New Bedford hotel of the time 
was the Eagle hotel, on the site now 
occupied by the Star Store. 

"Having reached Boston, you may 
have some curiosity to know why I 
made the trip. For several years there 
had been an agitation in this part of 
our county for a shorter road to Bos- 
ton, and after several years' agita- 
tion, the new road, which was sim- 
ply a cut between two angles, was 
granted by the county commissioners. 
The distance of this road, or how 
much was saved, I do not know. The 
contract for its construction was given 
to Jonathan Tobey, a well-to-do farm- 
er, who owned considerable real 
estate at what is now known as Sis- 
sons. 

"When the road was completed, a 
dispute arose between Mr. Tobey and 
the county commissioners, as to the 
amount of payment under the con- 
tract. Mr. Tobey was very stubborn 
and would not yield on his claim; 
and the county commissioners being 
equally stubborn, the dispute con- 
tinued for a year or two. At last, Mr. 



16 



Tobey seeing that a suit must be 
brought, changed his residence and 
went to Little Compton, for the rea- 
son that he believed he could not 
obtain justice in Bristol county. 

"At that time my father was town 
clerk, and also a land surveyor. Mr. 
Tobey had employed him to measure 
distances and compute the excavat- 
ing and filling which would be neces- 
sary under the terms of the con- 
tract. When the case was ready for 
trial, my father was summoned to 
appear before the federal court in Bos- 
ton, as a witness. He had a theory 
that a great deal could be learned by 
travel, and that even to a boy it was 
an advantage to see other places and 
people. For this reason, he took me 
to Taunton and Plymouth with him, 
when convenient; and when he was 
summoned to Boston, he thought it 
was a grand opportunity for me to 
go. 

"The case was ready for trial in 
the morning, and my father, fearing 
that I might get uneasy and ramble 
about the streets and get lost, took 
me to the court house with him. This 
was quite a novel experience for me. 
Or the bench, the first thing that at- 
tracted my attention was a man with 
a biack siik gown. No other man in 
the room had on a black silk gown, 
and it was explained to me that the 
gown was an emblem of his judicial 
authority. That man was Justice 
Storey of the United States supreme 
court. The only other individual of 
the court that attracted my attention 
was a man who sat at a small desk, 
with a semi-uniform, and a mace, 
who I was told was the marshal. 

"The attorneys were Daniel Web- 
ster, who appeared for Mr. Tobey and 
Levi Woodbury, for the county com- 
missioners. Mr. Woodbury served in 
President Van Buren's cabinet. 

"Webster impressed me not only by 
his fine figure, but also by his blue 
swallow-tail coat, ornamented with 
bright brass buttons. He seemed to 
ask most of the questions, and do 
most of the talking. I knew nothing 
of the proceedings, but the novelty 
was enough to keep me reasonably 
quiet. Later, in that same federal 
court, I was frequently in attendance, 
but Storey, Webster and Woodbury 
were not m the court, my contem- 
poraries being Thomas M. Stetson, 
Robert C. Pitman, Edwin L. Barney, 
Adam Mackie and these of that gen- 
eration. It is possible that I may be 
the only living person who has seen 
Justice Storey on the bench, and 
Daniel Webster presenting and argu- 
ing a case before him. 

"In the evening, my father took 
me to the Federal Street Theatre, then 



the largest and most popular play- 
house in New England. When we en- 
tered, I saw a large room, brilliantly 
lighted by sperm-oil lamps and sper- 
maceti candles. On the main floor 
were benches, where a large portion 
of the audience was seated; this was 
the pit. Around the walls was a bal 
cony, where the nabobs and aristo- 
crats had seats; while in the gallery 
above the balcony were the large 
boys, clerks and laboring people 
found places. Most of the noise came 
from that gallery. 

"The play was 'Matamora,' and the 
star was Edwin Forrest, the great 
tragedian of America. The play 
treated of an early incident in Ply- 
mouth county, an Indian chief being 
accused of stealing cattle and destroy- 
ing crops. The government of the 
colony was in the hands of the elders 
of the church, and the Indian chief 
was summoned before them. There is 
only one scene of the play that I can 
remember. There was a table at the 
back part of the stage, at which sat 
a group of grave, austere men, the 
judges. In strode Matamora, a giant 
of a man, wearing Indian costume 
and a headgear ornamented with a 
profusion of feathers. He shouted in 
a voice of thunder: 'You have sent 
for me, and I have come! What are 
your commands?' That is all that I 
can remember; but I have no doubt 
that when I reached home I told my 
mother everything I had seen and 
heard. 

"The thought of this trip leads to 
a comparison between past and pres- 
ent. In those days when a merchant, 
a refiner of oil or a manufacturer of 
candles, had occasion to visit Bos- 
ton on business, he occupied one day 
in making the journey; the next day 
ho spent in transacting his business; 
and the third day he came home. Now, 
when I go to Boston, I take the S:35 
train in the morning, arriving a little 
after 10; discuss the business mat- 
ters for which the trip is made; take 
the train at 12:30, and arrive home 
at 2:25 in the afternoon — six hours 
instead of three days. The secret 
of how so much can be done in a 
short time is this — I never go shop- 
ping. 

"This rapidity of motion has en- 
tered every branch of human activ- 
ity, especially in business life. We 
have hau the Stone Age, and the Iron 
Age. We must call this the Auto- 
mobile Age. The slogan of the au- 
tomobile is speed, and the automobile 
inoculates with the spirit or the whirl- 
wind. The old stage coach was bet- 
ter. The auto has merit and I favor 
progress; but the auto is not perfect. 
The old coach is far ahead in the ele- 
ment of safety. 



17 



"Speed is not the synonym of prog- 
ress. When New Bedford had a 
population of 8Q00 or 9000, the people 
began to think that they ought to 
have better and speedier communica- 
tion with Boston. They saw that 
Taunton had built a railroad to Mans- 
field,- and they said that certainly New 
Bedford could build one to Taunton. 
Joseph Grinnell was the master spirit 
of the enterprise, and a charter was 
obtained, the money subscribed and 
the road paid for. In those days, a 
bond was not considered as paying a 
debt — and today some railroads' bonds 
are not held in very high esteem. The 
new railroad ran two trains a day, 
at 7 a. m. and 3 p. m. Soon there 
came movements for improvements on 
the line. The old wood-burning lo- 
comotives were discarded, and the 
link-and-pin coupling which was a 
menace to the brakeman gave place 
to a safer method. The air-tight 



stove, which used to be located at 
one end of the car, keeping that end 
at a suffocating temperature, while 
the temperature was Arctic at the 
other end, was also superseded, and 
we now have reasonable heating fa- 
cilities. There was real, substantial 
progress." 

In contrast to that method of prog- 
ress, Mr. Crapo cited the career of 
Charles S. Mellen, and his scheme 
for the unification of the railroads of 
New England. 'The trouble," he said, 
was speed — undertaking to do in twe 
or three years a work which, if car- 
ried along for twenty years, would 
have resulted in success. 

"After coming to the Old Dart- 
mouth society and seeing what our 
forebears have done for progress, we 
should not stop the work that they 
left off. We must go on; and in do- 
ing it, let us build upon the founda- 
tion they left us. 



18 



A Japanese Student in Fairhaven 

By Job C. Tripp 



After Miss Drescott had sung, 
"Dooh Lomond," Job C. Tripp was in- 
troduced. Mr. Tripp told the ro- 
mantic story of Nakahama Munger, a 
Japanese boy who attended a private 
school with him in Fairhaven, over 
7 years ago. Nakahama, together 
with five other Japanese boys, sur- 
vivors of the wreck of a Japanese 
junk, were rescued by Captain Will- 
iam H. Whitefield of Fairhaven from 
a rock in the China Sea, where they 
had subsisted for CO days upon sea- 
birds that Nakahama killed, and rain 
which fell in the clefts of the ruck. 
The other boys were landed at the 
Sandwich Islands, but Captain Whit- 
f eld, who had taken a great fancy to 
Nakahama, brought him to Fairhaven, 
and entered him at the school. Mr. 
Tripp described Nakahama as very 
polite and kind-hearted, and very 
studious. 

Captain Whitfield was a member of 
one of Fairhaven's three churches, 
and he took the Japanese boy into 
his pew with him. Finally, one of 
the officers of the church said to the 
captain:: "We have a pew for Negro 
boys, and would like it if your boy 
would sit there." The captain, who 
never argued, simply bowed and went 
out. The next day, he went to an- 
other church and hired a pew. After 
a while one of the deacons informed 
him that that chureh had a pew for 
Negro people. Thereupon the cap- 
tain engaged a pew in the third 
church, and from that time on, no 
one ever objected to the Japanese 
boy's sitting with him. 

Nakahama learned the cooper's 
trade and became very efficient. One 
day, he announced that he was going 
back to Japan. Captain Whitfield 
advised him to remain, but he per- 
sisted, and the captain secured him a 
chance to work his passage to the 
Sandwich Islands on board a New 
Bedford whaler. There he found the 
Japanese boys who were his com- 
panions years before. Nakahama 
purchased a whaleboat, and the cap- 
tain of an English vessel bound for 
a port in China agreed to let the 
rarty work their passage to a point 
400 miles from the Japanese coast, 
where the whaleboat was launched, 
and Nakahama, who had mastered the 



£?rt of navigation, took command. In 
seven days they had reached the coast 
of Japan, where they were held pris- 
oners until they had given good reu- 
se ns for entering the country. Estab- 
lishing the truth of their story by 
Nakahama's successful translation 
into Japanese of Blount's Navigator 
resulted in their release, and Naka- 
hama was permitted to see his father 
arid mother again. 

Nakahama was given a government 
position, and rose in favor until the 
time of Commodore Perry's visit to 
Japan, for the purjjo.se of securing 
the opening of the port of Tokio to 
the United States. The mikado was 
prejudiced against foreigners, on ac- 
count of the disorderly conduct of the 
sailors of other nations who had been 
in Japan, but Nakahama assured him 
that Commodore Perry and his men 
were gentlemen, and prevailed upon 
the mikado to receive the commodore. 
Nakahama acted as interpreter dur- 
ing the interview, which resulted in a 
treaty with the United States. Sub- 
sequently Nakahama was placed at 
the head of a commission of seven 
Japanese students to visit European 
nations and make similar treaties with 
them. 

Coming to New Vork, Nakahama 
had three days there before sailing 
for Europe, and he took the oppor- 
tunity to visit Fairhaven. He went 
to the home of Mrs. Whitfield — the 
captain having died — and when she 
saw Nakahama she burst into tears, 
as did the Japanese, so affected were 
they by the meeting. He remained in 
Fairhaven that day, and to every one 
of his old acquaintances he met, he 
presented a Japanese gold coin. Mr. 
Tripp expressed regret that on that 
day he was out of town, and failed 
to obtain one of the coins. 

Nakahama's European mission was 
so successful that the mikado made 
him a prince of the empire. Mr. Tripp 
displayed a portrait of the Japanese 
in the costume of a prince. 

Following Mr. Tripp's talk, Miss 
Drescott sank "Oh, Dear, What Can 
the Matter Be," and the meeting 
closed with the singing of "Auld Lang 
Syne. ' The speakers were extended 
a vote of thanks for their addresses. 
In addition to Miss Drescott's vocal 
selections, Edmund Grinnell who play- 
ed her accompaniments, rendered 
Mozart's Minuet, with variations. 



19 

The company adjourned to the col- garet Price served cider from an 

onial room, where the old-fashioned earthern jug; and doughnuts, apples, 

dainties promised by President Cush- and popcorn were also served, 

man were dispensed. In a corner of The refreshment committee com- 

the room, Miss Mary Bradford poured prised Miss Edith Tripp and Miss 

coffee, from a beautiful old-fashioned Margaret Price, assisted by Miss 

urn; while Mrs. William H. Snow pre- Pauline Hawes and Miss Marguerite 

sided at the centre table. Miss Mar- Walmsley. 






I f 




OLD DARTMOUTH 



HISTORICAL SKETCHES 



No. 41. 



Being the proceedings of the Old Dartmouth Historical Society, held 
in their building, Water Street, New Bedford, Massachusetts, on 
January 2, 1915. 



THE MILLS OF NEW BEDFORD AND VICINITY 
BEFORE THE INTRODUCTION OF STEAM. 

Presented by Henry B. Worth. 







The Cummings Mill about 1894 

Located on the site where JOSEPH RUSSELL established a mill before 1704 and for 
whom the place was named RUSSELLS MILLS. 



THE MILLS OF NEW BEDFORD AND 
VICINITY BEFORE THE INTRODUC- 
TION OF STEAM 



PRESENTED UY 



HENRY B. WORTH 



AT Till' UUARTERLY MEET INC Oh' 1 



OLD DARTMOUTH HISTORICAL SOCIETY 



1.1) I N llll I R KIM I DINl 



WATER STREET, NEW BEDFORD, MASSACHUSETTS 

JANUARY 2, 1915 



'The Cloth Aiills of New Bedford stone buildings on Front street, a few 
and Vicinity Before the Introduction yards north of Union, built by Joseph 
of Steam," was the subject of an ail- Tuber in 1^38 and used by him for 
dress delivered l»y Henry B. Worth many years for the manufacture of 
at the quarterly meeting of the < >ld pumps and blocks. This engine is still 
Dartmouth Historical society, held stored in the stone buildings." 
Saturday afternoon in the rooms of Air. Worth's investigations, so far 
the society on Water street. The as his address was concerned, re- 
speaker was greeted by a large audi- Iated to incidents of local history oc- 
ence of members and their friends, eurring before the year 1838, and are 
who at the (lose enthusiastically gave included in the second article on 
him a rising vote of thanks. "The Mills of Old Dartmouth." 

Mr. Worth explained that 1S38 was On motion of K. I '. Husk-ins a ris- 

the .sear of the introduction of steam, ing vote of thank's was extended to 

"according to two fully investigated him at the close of his address. The 

articles which appeared years back, audience gave him ;i most flattering 

in which the assertion was made reception. 

without reserve and never disputed. II. 10. Cnshman^ president of the 

Th<- earliest steam engine used in society, presented the following me- 

Xew Bedford was installed in the mortal, which was adopted: 



IN MEMO RI AM. 
Rev. Matthew C. Julien, Vice 
President of the Old Dart- 
mouth Historical Society, Died 
December 19, 1914: 
It is lifting that we should 
pause today out of respect to 
one of our oldest and most hon- 
ored members, who has been 
called from his earthly pilgrim- 
age. 

Frorn the beginning, no one has 
shown a more earnest interest 
in this society than he. His 

courage was always of the or- 
der that made one feel that he 
must do his best to have the so- 
ciety reach its greatest achieve- 
ment. That was his inspiration, 
and lie made others feel it. 

The work that one does never 
ends when his life is changed, 
and the members of this society 
feel that the influence of Rev. 
Matthew C. Julien will be appre- 
ciated for years to come. 

Let us take up the work that 
he began and continue it suc- 
cessfully, according to his high 
ideal. 

On motion of Cleorge H. Tripp, it 
was voted "that the secretary of the 
old Dartmouth Historical society be 
instructed on behalf of the same to 
write to Miss Sarah E. Seabury and 
express to her its appreciation of the 
bequest made to it under the will of 
her sister, Caroline O. Seabury. 

At the close of the meeting Anna 
and Walton Ricketson presented to 
the museum three rare gifts, a silver 
pitcher and two jrold watches. 

With the silver pitcher goes the 
following earn: 

SILVER PITCHER. 

Formerly belonged to Daniel 
Ricketson 1st, who was born in 
Dartmouth 8th mo. 19th 1745- 
O-S-and married Rebecca Russell, 
daughter of Joseph Russell 3d 
mo. 31st 1768-N. S. 

Presented to the Old Dart- 
mouth Historical society by his 
great grandchildren, Anna and 
Walton Ricketson. 

Jan. 2d 1915. 



The cards with the watches fol- 



low 



COED WATCH. 

Formerly owned by Joseph 
Ricketson, son of Daniel Ricket- 
son 1st. 

Presented to the Old Dart- 
mouth Historical society by his 
grandchildren, Anna and Walton 
Ricketson January 2d 1915. 



COLD WATCH. 
Formerly belonged to Daniel 
Ricketson. historian. Presented to 
the old Dartmouth Historical so- 
ciety by his children, Anna and 
Walton Ricketson, Jan. 2d 1915. 

With the Joseph Ricketson watch 
is the following clipping from an old 
newspaper with an interesting his- 
tory: 

"Daniel Ricketson and son, grand- 
father and father of our historian, 
Daniel Ricketson, merchants in Bed 
fcrd village in the early years of th" 
century, sent a ship to London laden 
with a cargo of oil. Thence she went 
to Bremen and took on a cargo of 
iron. While in the North sea she 
sprang a leak and went to Grenock, 
Scotland, for repairs. While these 
( perations were in progress war was 
declared between the United States 
and England. The vessel was seized 
by the British government and the 
crew sent to Dartmoor prison. When 
the ship lay in London docks, the 
captain (Sawdey by name) purchased, 
;'t the request of the junior member 
or the firm, a erold watch with an old- 
fashioned double case, which cost at 
the time twenty to thirty pounds 
sterling, regarded a great price in 
those days. This watch the captain 
kept during his imprisonment and en 
his return brought it to our histor- 
ian's father, Joseph Ricketson, which 
was all that was ever received from 
ship or cargo. The case was twice 
brought before the English court of 
admiralty for adjustment, but with- 
c ut success. One of the crew was 
Samuel Parker, of Acushnet, who 
died twenty years ago at an advanced 
ape." 



MILLS OF OLD DARTMOUTH. 



In a colonial settlement the first 
necessity was food and the second 
shelter, and for each a mill was re- 
quired; one to transform corn and 
grain into Hour and the other to pre- 
pare the forest for purposes of con- 
struction. The mill was, therefore, one 
of the principal institutions of every 
New England village, and was coeval 
w'lh the meeting-house. 

Streams of water and the winds fur- 
nished the only power which the col- 
onists were able to control, and the 
selection depended on which was most 
convenient and available. Wind mills 
seem to have been devoted exclusively 
to grinding corn and grain because 
the power was uncertain and of less 
strength. They were adopted only 
where water was not available, as on 
the Is'and of Rhode, Island. 



Dartmouth was extensive in terri- 
tory and its inhabitants were scat- 
tered over the entire region. There 
were twenty villages, but no town 
centre. The tendency was to accom- 
modate every neighborhood and to 
utilize all available water power. 
Great lumber swamps covered the 
north part of the town. Hence the 
number of mills in the town was con- 
siderable, and yet it is not generally 
known how numerous. It is certain 
that there have been at least 9 9 sep- 
arate mills, previous" to the introduc- 
tion of steam, of which 11 were wind 
mills. Beside those which ground corn 
and grain and others that sawed lum- 
ber, there were mills that manufac- 
tured iron in various stages, and full- 
ing and cording mills. 

The story that Ralph Russell Start- 
ed an iron mill at Russells Mills in 
1652 is erroneous in every partic- 
ular, having no historic foundation. 
Iron mills that manufactured the 
crude material into mercantile prod- 
uct were located near some deposit 
or' bog iron. These were called bloom- 
erics. Other iron mills known as 
forges formed the pig iron into 
articles for use in the arts. Russells 
Mills was not adapted to either 
branch. 

The value of a mill privilege de- 
pended on the amount of fall and the 
extent and continuity of the stream. 
Owing to the level character of Dart- 
mouth, desirable mill locations were 
infrequent, and the best would be 
selected first. 

The settlement of Dartmouth took 
place in the spring or early summer 
of 1660 by three families at Howard's 
Brook, on the east side of the Acush- 
net river, in the south part of the 
modern town of Acushnet. The num- 
ber of inhabitants increased to seven 
families in 1662, and in June, 1664, 
the residents were suiliciently numer- 
ous to receive the grant of a town 
government. The territory had been 
owned by thirty-six proprietors for 
twelve years. 

Destruction of the early records by 
fire, has obliterated the evidence of 
the mill development before the estab- 
lishment of the town. But the lirst 
official ace of the town after its in- 
corporation was to make a contract 
June 30, 1664, with Henry Tucker 
and George Babcock to build a mill. 
Tlhese men had resided in Milton, 
then a part of Dorchester, and the 
men of the Babcock family were mill- 
ers for several generations. The ar- 
rangement provided that the con- 
tractors for building the mill should 
receive a share of land which was 
1-34 of the territory of the town. The 
proprietors completed the transfer in 



16C4 ■ by a. committee comprising 
Hathaway, Hicks, Russell and Ralph 
Albn. According to the record of this 
transfer, Tucker and Babcock had 
already completed the mill, but 
where or how long before is 
noi definitely stated. Town meeting 
notices in 1681 were to be posted "at 
the mill," and this is the earliest date 
preserved in the records. Ample ev- 
idence proves that the location was 
at Smiths Mills, which was about five 
miles from the first village. It can- 
rot be proved how much before 168 1 
the mill had been erected, nor what 
-kind of a mill was built. If one was 
erected before 167;") it is certain that 
it was destroyed by the Indians, in 
the King Philip war. In the descrip- 
tion of his famous march through 
Smiths Mills in 1676, Captain Church 
does not mention any mill at that 
place. The title to the mill property 
vested in George Babcock, and his son 
Return in 17 02 mortgaged it and in- 
cluded an old grist mill and a full- 
ing mill. In 1706 the farm and mill 
property was acquired by Elishib 
£?mith and he soon built a saw mi'l 
on the same spot now occupied by 
the Hawes mill. The grist mill was 
on the east side of the east outlet and 
north side of the way, and later was 
called an oil mill. In 1806 Benja- 
min Cummings, Isaac Howland, Jr., 
Gideon Howland and Abijah Packard 
acquired the entire privilege. The 
Howlands sold their interests to the 
Cummings in 1823. Then the Cum- 
mings built the stone grist mill now 
standing. Five mills have been op- 
erated at this place, a fulling and a 
grinding mill on the north side of 
the road and on the south side a cot- 
ton, saw and grist mill. The stream 
until recent times was known as the 
"Mill River." 

Benjamin Crane came to Dartmouth 
in the autumn of 1710 to survey all 
private and public land in the town. 
Before his death, which took place 
some eleven years later, he nearly 
completed the work and in his notes 
are references to mills then in exist- 
ence; and while some of them may 
have been established at a previous 
time, the dates in Crane's notes arc 
the earliest that can be authenticated. 
Windmills existed in Dartmouth 
near the date of the Revolution, and 
the survey of the town in 1795 shows 
that most of them were still standing. 
Unlike water mills, they seem to have 
been erected and used by farm owners 
where they were located more like 
barns and other structures, and they 
are seldom mentioned in the records. 
Consequently it is difficult to fix the 
date of their origin or determine by 
whom they were owned. In 179 5 one 



stood on the southwest corner of the 
Mattapoisett and Seontieut Neck 
roads, on land once owned by the 
Pope family and in 177 7 conveyed lo 
the Aldens. Another built" in 17GI b> 
ltiehard Delano in b'airhaven Village 
at the southeast corner of Main ami 
Union streets, was purchased in 17'J.; 
I>y Isaac Wood; and soon after moved 
away. Jn 1806 a wind mill stood on 
land of Richard Wood south ol 
oxford and was owned by Enoch 
Uundall and sold to Joseph Tripp. 
It must have been on the east side 
of Main street, and was not forth* r 
mentioned. A picture exists of an 
old wind mill, located on the lot north 
of Fort Phoenix reservation, which 
was standing 1S40 to 185,0, ami is re- 
membered by a few of the older in- 
habitants. There is no reference to 
it in the records, and no way to de- 
termine by whom built. 

Rowland's History of Acushnet 
states that a mill of the same style 
was situated at the Parting Ways, but 
it is not mentioned in the Records. 

On the west side of Main ami north 
of Cooke street, on the north edge 
of Oxford was a wind mill on the 
Taber farm, which burned down in 
IS.') 7. 

In New Bedford there were three 
wind mills. One owned by Abraham 
Russell stood in line of Union street, 
west of County, not far from Orchard 
street, and was standing in 181-0. Gil- 
bert Russell had a wind mill on the 
northwest corner of Sixth and Rus- 
sell streets which he sold to be moved 
away in 1S21 to build his new house. 
It was moved to the Xoel Taber road 
and not long after was demolished ae- 
c < rding to Kicketson. 

The third stood on the north side 
of Mill street, east of County street, 
and was on land of the Kemptons. 
Mill street was named from the struc- 
ture. 

According to the survey of 1795 a 
wind mill stood on the hill west of 
the head of Apponegansett. No other 
reference to it can be discovered, 
and it is not known on whose land 
it was located. 

In the Padanaram village a wind 
mill was built by David Thacher on 
the northeast corner of Middle :u.tl 
School streets soon after IS 00. It was 
owned later by Captain Isaac Win 1- 
ch-n and Isaac Smalley, and was pur- 
chased in 1859 by Michael Baker who 
removed it to some other locality ami 
it was soon after demolished. 

Jn 17 9 a a wind mill stood at AVes:- 
port Point on the site of the Meth- 
( oist church; was in operation about 
]>2'2 when John Sowle was the miller, 
and was probably built by Isaac Wood. 
These eleven mills were all equipped 



lor grinding corn and grain and were 
p'aced where there was no available 
water power. 

It is difficult to ii\ the date when 
• he first steam engine was installed 
in this section. A steam-boat was on 
the route between New Bedford and 
Nantucket in the summer of ISIS, but 
this experiment was followed by ten 
years before another steamer appear 
ed. In 1828 the regular line between 
Nantucket and this eity was Started 
which has continued without inter- 
ruption to the present time; but it !s 
not so simple a matter to fix with 
eertainity the advent of the first en- 
gine on land. It has been asserted 
in two prominent newspaper articles 
within twenty years that the first en- 
gine was purchased by Joseph Taber 
in 1838 and installed in his stone 
pump and block Junker's shop on 
North Front street. This date has 
been assumed as the time when stem 
was introduced in this section for 
ma n ui'acturing purposes. 

s-'o far as information can be ob- 
tained, Hax was never used in cloth 
manufacture in this vicinity, al- 
though there have been preserved 
spinning wheels which have been de- 
sinned as "Max wheels." Previous to 
1M;U cotton was not used. The only 
materia] used for that purpose was 
shecps' Wool. 

Three processes were employed in 
manufacturing woolen cloth. At first 
it was necessary to clean the wool by 
combing and form it into rolls about 
twelve inches long and one inch in 
diameter. This was called carding, 
and required dexterity rather than 
phvsieial strength; consequently this 
process was performed exclusively ny 
hand previous to 1811, and no mills 
were devoted to this part of the manu- 
facture. In November, IS 11, at 
White's factory in Acushnet, card'ng 
machinery was set up, and years lat- 
er at Russells Mills Robert Cifford 
had a carding mill which was in op- 
eration until the Civil war. These are 
the only enterprises which were de- 
voted to that branch of manufacture, 
except that of William Cordon, Jr., 
and one at the Head of Westport, 
mentioned herea ft er. 

The second stage of cloth manu- 
facture was the spinning of the card- 
ed rolls into yarn or thread. This 
was simple and easy, and like the pro- 
cess preceding it required skill rather 
than physical power; consequently it 
was performed mostly by women in 
their homes, and there were no milks 
devoted to spinning of yarn or thread. 

'i he third stage was the manufact- 
ure of yarn into cloth. This in- 
volved physical labor, and while hand 



!..i.ins were operated by men and etrned in making cloth in any of its 
women there were several mills where stages. The nt-eos of the people were 
it was done by machinery operate'.! largely supplied by hand labor in the 
by water power, and these were three processes of manufacture, 
tailed "fulling mills." How early In 17U0 machinery had been in- 

snch mills were established in Dart- vented by Englishmen to carry on 
month cannot be stated with certain- successfully the manufacture of cut- 
ty. Jn 1702 Return Babcock more- ton, and this was first introduced in 
gaged his mill privilege at the vil- America at an experimental station, 
kige later known as Smiths Mills and in 1789 at East LJridgewater where 
included a fulling mill which was lo- the processes were demonstrated. The 
cated <>n the north side of the high- first cotton mill was built in 1700 in 
w;ty. This privilege had been devi-l- Overly, Massachusetts. 
< |.ed nearly forty years previous, and Depending on the land records .is 

mills were located at that point in a guide the first positive refereneo 
i«;si, but it cannot be asserted when to a cotton mill in either of the towns 
the cloth mill was started. The full- comprised in ancient Dartmouth is 
ihg null is last mentioned in 1775. "dated November 27, 1811, when Will- 

In 17<i2 when the selectmen of iam White, 2d, blacksmith, conveyed 
Dartmouth laid out the Potomska to Joseph Whelden, William White, 
nail over the river at Russells mills', 
it passed the fulling mill of Joseph 
P. ussell near the ruins of the Cum- 
mings mill. This may have been es- 
tablished at an earlier date. It was 
on the west side of the river and 
finally came into the possession -of 
Giles Russell who conveyed the same 
in 175)3 to Klih'i Russell, clothier. 
Later owners of fractional shares 
were: Henry Smith, Henry Tucker, 
John Hull, Joseph Estes, Benjamin 
ll. Tucker, and between 1833 and 
1M2 the different interests were ac- 
quired by r.enjamin Cummings who October 2 1th, 1811, Joseph Pierce 
altered the fulling mill into a shingle •' ol,i to William White, 2d, "one-half 
, n jU of the grist and saw mill," but the 
In 1711 Ebenezer Allen had a full- < ieed c ?" tJ1 inetl ! \° mention of any cot- 
uiff mill on Destruction brook north- ton .. ™ l }}__ ox \ . c * ,nlln f machinery; eon- 



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the subject. 



west of Russells Mills on the farm 
that was owned in recent years by 
i'.lihu I lowland ami conveyed by him 
James Allen, 2nd. This mill 



fluently during the next month, if 
these deeds ean lie relied upon a;. 
conclusive, the cotton factory was 

established. 



wned later by' John Whiteley and What raises some doubt whetlu 

Ulen Howland. and discontinued dur- lh, » w ; ,s tho h V Ht » "» £ he , l:,n -'!^: In 



ing the ownership of the lattei 



deeil given in 1 s ;i 7 by William 
Rotch, Jr., conveying the mills on the 



A map of Xew Bedford, dated west side of the Acushnet river a' 
!.!i,., and on tile in the state house, , ls h ea d, which deed includes "an 
describes a fulling mill located north- ,,i,] cotton mill." This may have been 
e;,st of the Quaker meeting-house at an old building where cotton was 
Acushnet where for many years has manufactured, or it may have re- 
been the ('ashman saw mill. In 1750, ferred to the early manufacture estab- 
uben Joseph Talicr sold the farm to lished many years before. William 
his sou Ama/.iah, this was a Fulling Rotch. Jr., owned mills elsewhere and 
.Mill. had capital to engage in any such 

On tin- west side of the Westport enterprise, but there is no way to fix 

river, north of the bridge, at the the date when this cotton mill was 

Head of Westport, in 1S42, was a established. It had certainly been 

cluster of mills devoted to different discontinued in 1 S 3 7 . 

lines of manufacture, and among ,\h bearing upon this question an 

them was a cloth mill. They were all advertisement in The Mercury in 

destroyed by fire, and a modern saw June, ISIS, is of value. William Gor- 

mill took their places. Humphrey don, Jr., announced that he had taken 

Howland, Ephraim Thompson and the new building between the grist 

Pardon Gilford started the carding and paper mills and had good ma- 

and fulling mill in 1811. ehinery to card merino and native 

So far as the records sive inform*- wftol. Possibly this was the building 

Pen these seven mills comprised all which was later called the old Cotton 



the woolen mills in Dartmouth con- 



Mill. 



The enterprise at White's Factory 
under the ownership of Captain Whel- 
den and the Whites continued until 
February first, 1X14, when Whelden 
sold his interest in the property which 
then included a dye-house. In 182!» 
the stone cotton factory had been 
erected. During the ownership of 
William White, blacksmith, which 
began in 17IVJ only a saw and grist 
mill were operated at this dam. The 
cotton mill was there in 184f> when 
the property was sold to Thomas. 

The probable reason why Captain 
Whelden sold his interest in 1814 is 
that he desired to be associated with 
different men, because he immediately 
formed a co-partnership with Jireh 
Swift, Jr., Job Cray, Loum Snow and 
Jonathan Swift, and conveyed to them 
in 1814 interests in the real estate 
containing' a cotton factory, saw mill 
and grist mill. This property was lo- 
cated on the Acushnet river half a 
mile north of the White's factory road 
and was purchased by Whelden short- 
ly before he formed this partnership. 
From the north a brook in recent 
years called the Morse Brook and 
formerly known as Deep Brook, join- 
ed the Acushnet river. A short dis- 
tance above and below the junction 
of these streams was a crossing- over 
the river, and at each was a mill 
privilege. Capt. Whelden purchased 
both, discontinued the northermost, 
and at the lower- dam erected the 
stone mill which is still standing. This 
enterprise was very successful for a 
number of years. In 1843 it was 
transferred to Thomas Wood; in 1854 
to Sylvanus Thomas, and in 1866 to 
the city of New Bedford as part of 
Us water- system, when all the mills 
connected with the same were 
abolished. 

In 1806 Benjamin Cummings, Isaac 
irlowland, Jr., Gideon Howland and 
Abijah Packard formed a partnership 
and purchased the mills and mill 
privilege at Smith Mills. At a later- 
date they built a cotton factory on 
the lot now occupied by the store and 
post-office. It is a tradition that this 
\\<\s star-ted soon after the War of 
1X12, but the Cummings ownership 
continued for- a great number- of years 
arid there is no way to fix the date 
except that in 1816 they advertised in 
the Mercury for a man to run the cot- 
ton mill. When Packard sold out to 
the others in 1823 the cotton mill was 
included. This building was taken 
down in 1874, but the cotton manu- 
facture had ceased years before that 

elate, 

In 1812, Ephraim Macomber had 
a saw mill at Westport Factory, and 
he transferred the same to John 



Mason of Swansea, Joseph Strange of 
Taunton, and Job White._oX--We.st- 
port. Two years later- William Clif- 
ford sold a large tract to the same 
individual described as The Westport 
Cotton Manufacturing company, and 
the owners thereupon transferred 
shares in the enterprise to twenty- 
eight different persons. These interests 
were all gathered together in 1817 
by Bradford and Daniel Howland, and 
sold by them in 182 1 to Samuel Allen. 
The stone factory was erected in 
1828. Hater- owner-s of this property 
were John Avery Parker and William 
II. Allen and it was finally acquired 
in 1855 by William B. Trafford, Au- 
gustus ('base and Elijah A. Lewis. 

These three owners have conducted 
the mill at Westport Factory and the 
enterprise half a mile below pur- 
chased by them at the same date, 
with great financial success. This 
mill at Westport Factory is the only 
one of those established before the 
introduction of steam that is still be- 
ing operated, and this only in part 
by- water power - . 

So in the territory of Old Dart- 
month there were seven mills in 
which wool was manufactured in dif- 
ferent stages of construction. The 
last of these in active operation was 
the carding mill of Robert Gifford at 
Bussells Mills which was located at 
the edge of the river in the north 
part of the village. Fifteen years ago 
the building had completely fallen in- 
to decay and on the floor- was a heap 
of machinery in ruins in the same 
position as left by the miller- over- 
thirty years before. A few yards away 
was the cinder- bed which showed the 
location of the iron forge that was 
con d noted a few years after the Revo- 
lutionary war- by the men from 
Bridgewater. 

The Wamsutta mills started in 
operation in 1847. The live cotton 
mills which had existed irr Old 1 >art- 
niouth previous to that date have all 
been abandoned except at Westport 
Factory. This change was due not only 
to the competition of steam as a mo- 
tive power-, but more because the in- 
crease of population required a larger 
supply to satisfy the demand, and 
the limited capacity of the local water 
mills was not sufficient to enable them 
to do a paying - business while so many 
larger mills operated by steam and 
by the unlimited water power of the 
Blackstone and Merrimac rivers were 
sending to market the great products 
of their machinery. 

While Fairhaven had four wind 
mills, it could only provide power for 
two water- mills, and one of these was 
a tide mill. The creek called Herring 
river, in recent years diverted and its 
bed transformed into a park, crossed 



Main street north of Spring. On the 
west side of the street was the mill 
which was operated by the tide-water 
(lowing from this creek. The mill 

I uilt about 1792 during - the time. when 
Stephen Nye owned the land, and the 
shares of the mill were later owned 
by Jethro Allen, Thomas Delano, Isaac 
Leach, Elgit Hatch, Z. M. Allen, Isaac 
Wood, John Alden and in 1844 was 
acquired by Dr. Jeremiah Miller whose 
heirs in 1873 sold the mill to William 
N. Alden. In 1X83 it was purchased 
by AVarren Delano who conveyed the 
same to the town for a park. 

The other water mill was on the 
Naskatucket brook a few yards north 
of the Mattapoisett road. The stream 
extended through the ancient farm 
of Bettice Jenney, and this section 
passed to his son Cornelius. In 1 7 ."» 7 
the latter conveyed to George Babcock 
land on the east side of the brook 
"Near the old saw mill ram." Al- 
though apparently the site of an earl- 
ier mill, yet this is the first mention 
of the fact. Shares in the mill were 
owned by Abel House, and others; it 
was acquired in 1795 by Joseph Da- 
mon, but was abandoned before the 
memory of persons now living. 

In the region comprised within the 
town of Acushnet there were no wind 
mills because there was water power 
in abundance although not of the 
first class, and here were sixteen mill.-,, 
some of them important in the indus- 
trial history of the town. Beside grist 
mills and saw mills there were cotton 
mills, iron mills, paper mills and tan- 
neries. 

In the south-east corner of Acush- 
net is a branch of the Mattapoisett 
liver, and near the spot where it 
crosses the New Boston road, is the 
Doty or Ellis mill. The farm where 
it stands was conveyed in 1825 by 
Jacob Kenney to William Ellis, and 
in 1832 the later had a saw mill at 
that place. No earlier mention of a 
mill can be found. When the Ellis 
heirs sold the farm in 1872 to Perez 
S Doty, there was a shingle mill, a 
box-board mill and an upright-saw 
mill. All the other mills of Acushnet 
depended upon the Acushnet river or 
its tributaries. Here was the first cot- 
ton mill and the first iron mill in the 
town of Dartmouth. Beside the water 
power of some value, this region was 
supplied to considerable extent with 
natural resources. Forests of useful 
woods were accessible; a bed of iron 
near Deep Brook and down the river 
a convenient market in the two arrow- 

Fairhaven. Sach advantages naturally 
:— .".t: : .z: the esiablishment of an un- 



usual number of industries on the 
Acushnet. 

The northern-most mill site in the 
town was ;it the place where the road 
irom Bong Plain village extends west 
across the Acushnet river. Originally 
set off to .lames Sampson, he sold 
the same in 1715 to a brewer in New- 
port named Anthony Young who 
Duilt the dam and started to build a 
saw mill, and in 1.716, before comple- 
tion, he sold the property to .lames 
Tisdale. About 17 35 it was purchased 
by George Brownell, and called 
•'Hrownell's mills." Bater it was 

Known as "Hunt's Mills," being owned 
Dy Daniel Hunt. It was acquired by 
Nicholas and Nathan Davis and oth- 
ers of that family before the Revo- 
lution, and during their ownership the 
power operated a saw mill and a grist 
mill. Ansel White became the owner 
in 18 18, and he and his descendants 
held the property until it was pur- 
chased in 1866 by New Bedford as 
part of its water system and then 
the mills, saw, grist and shingle, were 
demolished. 

Where the middle Bong Plain road 
crosses the Acushnet river in 174 7 
was Bennett's mill. Thei Samson farm, 
south of Long Plain, in 1731, was pur- 
chased by Bobert Bennett who, in 
1736, conveyed the same to his son 
Jeremiah, "with the saw mill there- 
on." This is the earliest reference, 
and the mill is not mentioned after 
1747. 

A mile south of this point where a 
stream joins the Acushnet from the 
northwest, known two centuries ago 
as "Deep brook," was the most im- 
portant mill centre in Dartmouth both 
on account, of the capital invested and 
the variety of industries engaged. 

On Deep Brook, sometimes called 
Morse Brook, and near the place 
where it crosses the middle Bong 
Plain road was the earliest iron mill 
in the town of Dartmouth. Half a 
mile north is the tract called the Deep 
Brook cedar swamp, and adjoining it 
was the iron ore lot comprising 3 
acres. This deposit furnished raw ma- 
terial for the iron works. The land 
and capital was supplied by Stephen 
West, dr., and he secured the services 
of James Fuller and Christopher 
Turner, and when the forge had been 
erected in 173 8 West conveyed to each 
an interest in the mill. Stephen Taber 
acquired extensive tracts in that re- 
gion, and finally purchased all the 
shares in the Iron Works and con- 
ducted the same for years, and the 
property passed t. 1 tits sou Jacob. The 



,fter 1600, and 

rritt mili were contin 



?hi 



m 1 1 1 



10 



Both above and below the mouth 
of Peep Brook was a bridge over 
th,e Acushnet river, and mills were 
established at both crossings. At the 
upper bridge Peter Taber in 1768 
had a saw mill, and this descended 
to his son Amos who sold the site 
in L S 13 to Joseph Whelden who 
abolished the mill. VVhelden's reason 
for this purchase was that he pro- 
posed to establish a cotton mill at 
the other crossing, and it was neces- 
sary for his purpose to discontinue 
the tipper mill. Whelden seems to 
Have been a man of energy, and on 
the sea ranked as a master mariner. 
At the other crossing' on the east side 
of the river was the Thomas Taber 
farm and here was a saw mill and 
possibly a grist mill which were pur- 
chased by William Tallman and in 
INI 4 by .Joseph Whelden. Here was 
located the stone cotton mill and the 
other two were also operated until 
years later. 

Hall' a mile below the Whelden mill 
is a public way joining the Long Plain 
lends and known as the White Fac- 
tory road because where it crossed 
tile Acushnet river were established 
the mills owned by William White 
and bis sons. An old deed in 1. 7tij 
from Jireh Swift to his sons Jireh ami 
Silas conveyed one acre "where they 
i ropose to set a mill." They united 
with George Babcoclc and George an 1 
Benjamin Spooner, and built a saw 
mill and a grist mill. The owners of 
these mills transferred the property 
in 1 7 S :i to Moses Washburn, and in 
17'.)!) William White purchased the 
same. In November, 1811, William 
White conveyed a half interest to 
Captain Joseph Whelden, the convey- 
ance included a cotton factory, grist 
and saw mill and house with cord- 
ing machinery. At the same date 
White transferred to his sons frac- 
tional parts, and later William H. an 1 
Gideon Allen became the owners. 
Then Sylvanus Thomas and William 
1<\ Dow purchased the property, an 1 
in 18fi3 sold it to Samuel B. Hamlin. 

In 1S2 1 the mill owners on this 
liver attempted to obtain authority to 
connect the Acushnet river with the 
Middleboro ponds to improve the 
water power. The Mercury intimated 
that opposition was expected, and the 
subject was not mentioned again. 

The water privilege at the Head of 
the Acushnet river was taken by 
Seth Bope. Thomas Tobey, John 
Thomas and Jonathan Hathaway, 
Stephen Wood and Samuel Hunt be- 
fore 1711, and at that date furnished 
power for a saw and grist mill. Na- 
thaniel Shepherd and Stephen Taber 
were part owners, and in 17">0 Colonel 
Samuel Willis acquired a large in- 



terest. The saw mill was on the w«'St 
siue and the grist mill on the east 
side of the river. About 171)8 th • 
entire property came into possessio-i 
of William Botch, Jr., and Edward 
Wing, and their ownership continued 
for nearly forty years. In IS 27 
Charles W. Morgan purchased th- 
Botch ami Wing interest on the west 
side of the river in the saw mill, dJ 
cotton factory, including the paper 
mill which in ISIS was altered by 
William Cordon, Jr., into a carding 
mill. This was later purchased by 
Jonathan B. Lund and in 1877 by the 
Acushnet Saw Mill company, com- 
posed of Jonathan C. Hawes ami N". 
H. Wilbur. At the east side of the 
l iver, between the road and the dam, 
was originally a grist mill. After the 
death of Colonel Willis this land was 
owned by various persons among 
whom was Jethro Hathaway. At one 
time Simpson Hart had tan works on 
this lot. In 17S!) Hart sold a small 
lot on the load to Isaac Terry to car- 
ry on a blacksmith shop. Terry 
erected a structure called a forge. The 
north part of the lot in 1817 was 
si Id by Edward Wing to Nathaniel S. 
Spooner and the latter in 1 S38 bought 
the entire lot between pond and road. 
Judge Spooner's purchase include. 1 
•the old foundry." At the road ho 
built a grist mill which was operated 
some years after his death. 

Between Bunds corner and Balls 
corner a brook Hows from the Hawes 
ice pond eastward to the river near 
I lie saw mill. In 1X1!) the water 
power had been utilized and was 
owned by Philip Spooner. Shadraeh 
Davis purchased the property in IS:'", 
and he built a shingle mill. It wis 
later owned by Augustus Harrington 
who had a tannery on the brook. In 
recent years Thomas Hersoni used the 
mill for a soap factory. 

Northeast from the Quaker meeting 
house at Head of the River, and som° 
distance east of the Bong Plain road 
is a mill site that has always been 
connected with the farm and has been 
i.he location of a mill probably years 
before any record evidence of the tact 
has been preserved- In 1795 on an 
ancient map it is marked as a fulling 
mill, and at that date the farm wis 
owned in the Taber family. The mill 
passed to Thomas Wood and in IS 7-1 
Jabez Wood sold to Moses Douglass 
and he transferred the mill to Em^ry 
Cushman. It was operated as a saw 
mill and has been discontinued. 

On the east side of the river half 
a mile south from the Parting Ways 
a small brook, once known as How- 
ard's Brook, crosses the road and 
flows through the Cory farm, which 



11 



was formerly the homestead of 
Stephen Hathaway. The little grist 
mill was there in L854, hut how much 
earlier cannot be settled. It was dis- 
mantled soon after the Civil war. • 

All of tlie.se numerous mills con- 
nected with the Aeushm-'t river an-l 
its tributaries have been abandoned 
except two. The Taher mill at !)<-«•;> 
Brook and the saw mill at the Heel 
Of the Illyer are all that remain. 

The mills of Xew Bedford have been 
small and unimportant. Attempts 
were made to utilize a few insignifi- 
cant brooks, but with indifferent suc- 
cess. 

The northernmost mill is on the Skiff 
road, southwest of Sasseciuin pond in 
llobhomoek swamp on the Mealy 
brook. The first mention appears in a 
deed from John Taher and Valentine 
Bradford to Thomas Spooner in ISL'7 
and it was called the Mealy Brook 
Saw mill. It remained in the Spooner 
family until recently. 

On the farm of Benjamin Hodman 
mar the location of the Xew Bedford 
(\ pper works a small brook enters the 
river and near the shore Rodman had 
a .mist mill as shown on a map pub- 
lished in 1.834; about the date of the 
organization of the Wamsutta mills in 
;S47 the mill must have been discon- 
tinued, for while thme are references 
to the mill pond, the mill is not men- 
tioned and the mill pond seems to 
have been used as a water supply for 
water boats in the harbor. 

Daniel Ricketson mentioned a grist 
mill on Arnold street operated about 
INL'U by water but he neglected to 
state by whom it was owned. Xo men- 
lion appears in the records. 

On the Hathaway road, near the 
ledge, a brook crosses the highway and 
here in 1816 was a mill. A deed of 
that tlate says the mill right was given 
10 Gideon Shepherd, William Flathu- 
v/ay and Asa Smith. 

Nothing further appears in the land 
records. 

In the southwestern part of Now 
Bedford was a brook called Tripp's 
brook, now utilized as a sewer, which 
flowed down Crapo street to the cove. 
The brook started in swampy ground 
north of oak Grove cemetery, and 
extended southeasterly over a course 
that can be followed by reference to 
the map of 1834. It crossed Cottage 
street a few rods north of Allen street 
and on the west side of Cottage street 
was Tripp's inill which was built by 
William Russell or his son William 
about 1821. It was in existence in 
1837, and in 1 S4 2 was purchased by 
Thomas R. Swift and William Mason. 
James A. Tripp purchased the mill 
in 1860. At this date it was a saw mill 



and before and laid- a grist mill. 
During Tripp's ownership the mill 
was discontinued. This brook flowed 
eastward near the Ronney street 
church in line of Sherman street un- 
til it reached a point at the head of 
Crapo street when it flowed down the 
hill and continued its course to 
('larks cove. On the north side of 
(irinnell street Caleb Russell built a 
mill before 1780, and it later passed 
to his son Seth and Caleb Jenney. 
in L 84 4 the different interests in the 
mill were purchased by Henry II. 
Crapo, and the mill abolished. 

Allen's mill, and more recently 
Turner's mill, have been well known 
names at Plainville. The enterprise 
has been a saw mill and was estab- 
lished in 1 ("7:i by Jethro Allen, John 
Tinkham and Nathaniel and Simpson 
Spooner. Later owners were Philip 
Allen, Thomas Allen, David C. Wil- 
son and Rlbridge (1. Turner. 

On the east side of Purchase street 
near the rink was a brook that start- 
ed west of County sireet, and it still 
bubbles its way along and can be 
heard in a culvert at the crossing of 
County and Smith streets, and the 
stream was in si.L;ht until modern 
times east of Purchase street. The 
mill was owned and operated by 
Gideon Howland as late as 1821. 

As might be expected from the 
streams in the modern town of Dart- 
mouth, there would be a considerable 
number of mills. On these rivers 
and tributaries were 23 water mills, 
live of which at Smiths Mills haV3 
already been described. 

Kim street, Padanaram, extends 
from the library to the Town house, 
and near its north terminus it is 
crossed by a brook which rises in 
the swamps northwest of Bliss' cor- 
ner. At this crossing was a mill 
which was operated within thirty 
years. This stream was called How- 
hind's and Allen's brook. In 1766 the 
farm was purchased by the rich 
trader, John Wady, who lived at "he 
Head of Apponegansett,' and the 
brook is described as Allen's or How- 
land's brook "on which yoused to 
stand a saw mill." In 1780 Wady 
owned two mills, the other has not 
been identified. This mill was later 
owned by Ira Sherman, Bliss and 
Smailey and Moses Tucker. 

The mills south of Smiths Mills, 
on the Chase road, near the junction 
of the road from Cedar Deli is an 
ancient site on the John Barker farm 
and was known as the Barker mill. 
It was in operation in 176S and re- 
mained in possession of the Barker 
descendants over a 'century and been 
operated in recent years. About tWD 
miles west of Braleys station, on the 



12 



lino between Freetown and Dart- 
mouth, is ;i region culled Quonapog. 
At this point the Noquochoke river 

crossed the line and in 1774 a large 
tract was laid out to Nathaniel Bab- 
bitt and he established a forge on 
the town line. Babbitt's forge passed 
into the hands of the Crapos. Then 
I'eter Crapo and his associates built 
two other mills a short distance 
south of the forge. The Quonapog 
mills at one time were largely con- 
trolled by Mallchi White and later by 
the Collins family, and in modern 
times were owned by Gilbert N. Col- 
lins. The iron industry was changed 
to a saw mill soon after the Crapos 
became owners. 

On one of the Noquochoke branches 
about one mile north of Hixville on 
the east side of the road is a mill 
buill in 1 700 by Judah Chase. A few 
years later it was sold to Ebenezer 
and Stephen Andrews, and was called 
"Andrews' Mill." Jn recent years 
the mill was owned by Thomas and 
William Collins. 

About a mile east of Hixville vil- 
lage on the road to Faunce corner 
where the highway crosses the Noquo- 
choke river was a mill which in 1710 
was called the "new saw mill." The 
enterprise was started by John Rus- 
sell, Samuel Cornell, William Sowb 1 , 
William Sherman, John Kirby and 
Josiah Merrihew. In 1770 Noah Al- 
len conveyed to Henry Wilbor and 
for years it was known as Wilbor's 
Mills. In IS] 4 a grist mill was on 
the same site. It was owned in 1858 
by Gershom and Edward Wordell. 

A most important group of mills. 
11 in number, was located near the 
the village of Russells Mills, five on 
the Pascamansett river and four on 
Destruction brook which joins the 
river a short distance below the vil- 
lage. The brook rises in Destruction 
swamp north of Gidleytown and 
where it crosses the road to Mix; 
bridge Packard's saw mill was built 
a short time previous to 1791. The 
farm was bought in 1788 by Joel, Noah 
and Eliphalet Packard and while 
principally concerned at Russells 
mills, they built the mill at Gidley- 
town and after operating it a few 
years, transferred it to Benjamin Gid- 
ley. It remained in that ownership 
a number of years and is mentioned 
for the last time in 18 2 3. Half a mile 
south on the same stream was White- 
ley's fulling mill, already described. 

From Russells Mills a road ex- 
tends west to Slades corner and where 
it crosses Destruction brook is the 
mill owned and operated by James 
Allen. This is one of the ancient 
mill sites of Dartmouth and one of 



the best and is the only mill now op- 
erated at Russells Mills. 

in 1711 it was known as Ricket- 
son's mill. It passed through the 
hands of Matthew Wing, Jonathan 
Ricketson, David Akin, Daniel Rus- 
sell, Nicholas Howland and was in 
the Howland family over a century, 
until 1876 when Flihu Howland sold 
to James Allen. Both saw and grist 
mills were operated at this place. 

At the west side of the road from 
Russells Mills at Horseneck, near 
the mouth of Destruction brook, was 
the grist mill which in 17 77 Daniel 
J lowland, Jr., sold to Peleg Slocum, 
and in 1801 conveyed to Henry Smith 
when the mill was discontinued be- 
cause across the river Smith already 
owned mills that later were known 
as the Cummings mills. 

Russells Mills was so named from 
the fact that Joseph Russell had mills 
at the point where the road to Potom- 
ska crossed the river. In 17 04 the 
locality is described as Joseph Rus- 
sells Mills. On the south side of the 
river was a grist mill, and on the 
north a fulling mill. John Russell 
owned the farm on the west side and 
on the east side of the river was 
owned by Joseph Russell. At the 
death of John his farm went by will to 
John, son of Joseph, and at the death 
of Joseph in 1730 he gave his farm 
to his son Benjamin. His will con- 
tains a curious provision, that the 
son John had the right to build a 
dam further up the river for a saw 
mill or a fulling mill but not for a 
grist mill, and at the same time Ben- 
jamin at his dam should not set up a 
fulling mill; neither should "damnify" 
the other in their exclusive privilege. . 
In 1786 Benjamin Russell sold his 
farm to Henry Smith whose daughter 
Cynthia married Benjamin Cum- 
mings and the farm and mill site on 
the east side of the river are still 
owned in the Cummings family. 

West of the Cummings mill where 
the river approaches the Horseneck 
road at land of Wood a mill was 
operated by an undershot wheel. In 
IS 08 the property was owned by Ben- 
jamin Allen. It cannot be proved when 
the mill was built but in 1867 it was 
purchased by Cynthia S. Cummings 
from the Allen heirs and then dis- 
continued. It was operated by Deacon 
Daniel Macomber. 

About an eighth of a mile above 
the Cummings mill, John Russell or 
a descendant built a dam across the 
river. The old restriction created by 
Joseph Russell that no grist mill 
should be built at this dam was not 
regarded, and in 178 Giles Russell 
had such a mill at this place. This 
individual had an unusual opportun- 
ity which he wasted in prodigal fash- 



13 



ion. The farm given to John Rus- 
sell was largely increased hy pur- 
chase, so that his son Daniel pos- 
sessed a very extensive domain, 
reaching from the river helow the 
village to the woods north of Rus- 
sells Mills and to the northwestward 
reyond Gid ley town, and west beyond 
Allen's mill. The west half Daniel 
pave to his son Stephen, and the east 
half to his son Giles. In his short 
life the whole of this fine property 
was sold hy the latter and apparent- 
ly squandered. What was done at 
the upper dam in large measure is 
the history of Russells Mills. The 
road to this dam is a private way on 
the north side of the village through 
premises once owned by Robert Gif- 
ford. Where this road reaches the 
river was a cinder bed and the ruins 
of a carding mill as late as 19 00. The 
cinder bed was the spot where was 
located the only iron mill that was 
e\er built at Russells Mills, and its 
origin is as follows. In 1789 Giles 
Pussell had a grist mill at this dam. 
He made a contract with Benjamin 
llowland, Noah, Joel and Eliphalet 
Packard to erect a forge to make iron 
on the west side of the dam whereon 
the grist mill of Russell stood. The 
forge was built but could not have 
been a prosperous venture. Giles 
Russell was not an owner. Howland 
sold his interest in 179 3 and two of 
the Packards had conveyed to the 
third. The forge is not mentioned 
after 1797. Before 1815 the property 
was owned by Abraham Russell, Jo- 
seph Tripp, Alden Macomber and 
Philip Dunham and included also a 
grist mill. In ISIS it was purchased 
by Warren Gifford and in 1840 owned 
by Robert Gifford. These mills were 
abandoned soon after the Civil war. 

Half a mile northeast from West- 
port Factory and on the Noquochoke 
river a mill was built about 1767 bv 
E'eazer Pratt. It was later owned 
by Lemuel and Henry Freelove, and 
in 1814 when the cotton industry was 
established at Westport Factory 
Pratt's mill was purchased by the 
owners of the cotton mill, and dis- 
continued. The mill was in the town 
of Dartmouth. 

Within the limits of the town of 
Westport are several mill sites where 
good power is furnished and at dif- 
ferent periods ten water mills have 
been conducted and at the present 
time four are still in operation. 

In the north part of Westport where 
the Bread and Cheese Brook crosses 
the road from Hixville to Fall River, 
was a saw mill built by Phineas Wor- 
dell and others about 1782, and whs 
owned in that family when it was last 
mentioned in a deed in 18 33. 



A mile and a half south of the 
Narrows on the west side of the San- 
ford road is a region once called 
Cranberry Neck. Here was a sa^v 
mill built by Jonathan Borden be- 
fore 1S17, and it was being operated 
in 1S77. 

Half a mile south of Hix Bridge on 
the west side of the river a mill was 
located on the Lawton farm before 
IS 54 and was operated by George 
Lawton until recent years. 

Across the river and farther south 
on the Wing farm near the Dell was 
a small mill in 17 95, but it has not 
been operated for a number of years. 
Its power was the brook that flows 
through the Dell. 

Northwest of the Head of Westport 
is the Mouse Mill Brook. The shingle 
mill had been built before 1841! and 
has been operated in modern times 
by George H. Gifford. 

The earliest mill in Westport was 
established at Adamsville before 1700 
by Philip Tabor. In 17 59 there was 
a grist and saw mill, and the same 
are still in operation. Among the 
modern owners are Tsaac Washburn, 
.John Church and Philip Gray, Jr. 
The last Taber who owned the prop- 
erty left it to his grandson, Philip 
Davis, who sold it in 1799 to Stephen 
Crandall and it then passed out of 
possession of the Taber family. Be- 
fore that date, for a century the vil- 
lage had been known as Taber's Mills, 
and soon after 1800 it was given its 
present name of Adamsville. 

An important group of mills in 
Westport was located on the river 
between the Head and Westport Fac- 
tory, and comprised four sites on 
oaeh of which have been built sev- 
eral mills. The southernmost is on 
the west side of the river half a 
mile north of the Head. The land 
was laid out in 1714 by Crane to the 
"saw mill men," and known as George 
Lawton's mill. Among the later 
owners were Jacob Chase, William 
Gifford, Isaac Macomber, Adam Gif- 
ford and Stephen Howland. About 
18 70 it was acquired by Alden T. 
Sisson. In 1S42 there was a grist 
mill, saw mill, fulling mill, and iron 
mil] where they made ploughshares; 
all were burnt, and the present saw 
mill built. 

The "saw mill men" in 1711 were 
George Lawton, John Tripp and Ben- 
jimin Waite. They received layouts 
that included the two mill sites, one 
on the west side and the other on 
the east side of the Forge road from 
the Head north to Westport Factory. 
The mills located at the dams were 
known as Tripp's or Waite's mills, 
and after 1796 as the William Rotch 
mills as he had acquired the entire 
property. When he purchased the 



u 



mills there was a saw mill and grist 
mill on the east side of the road, and 
a forge on the west. After holding 
Mie property fifty years, Hotch sold 
it to Anthony Gifford. At' one time 
t lit' forge was operated to manufac- 
ture hoes, and Gifford had a rule 
factory in one of the mills east of 
the road. In 1S~>4 Gifford sold the 
property to William 13. Trafford, and 
alter that time the property was 
owned by Trafford, Chase and Lewis, 
the owners of the mill at the Fac- 
tory. The smith mills were once 
called the Star mills, and also the 
Lower mills. 

The most pretentious among the 
Westport mills is thai which is lo- 
cated at Westport Factory. The 
earliest mention of a mill at this 
n'ace is contained in the deed of 
F/phraim Potter in iT'J.". in which 
lie conveyed one-third of the mill 
which either he or his fa I her, Step- 
hen, must have built during the pre- 
ceding twenty years. The saw mill 
or- the west side of the river was op- 
erated by Timothy and Fphraim 
Macomber until 1S12 when the prop- 
erty was purchased by John Mason 
of Swansea, Joseph Strange of Taun- 
ton and Job White of Westport who 
were described as "the Westport 
company," During the next two 
years these men purchased extensive 
tracts along the river and were de- 
rcribed as "the Westport Cotton Man- 
ufacturing Company" ami also "the 
Westport Mechanics Factory." Re- 
side, the cotton manufactory which 
has already been described their 
property comprised a saw mill, corn 
mill, and three houses. The stone 
building was built in 1828, and the 
ether mills discontinued. 

So before the advent of steam, 
there were over ninety water and 
wind mills in the region comprised 
in the old town of Dartmouth. Avail- 
able water power in every section of 
the town was utilized. Among the 
natural resources none was rejected. 
The development was ki<"i<Iv stimu- 
1,1. .I by tie wliitllnr, iiml Mhlpbulhl 



ing industries in New liedford and 
Fairhaven. The greatest activity was 
reached during the period from IStou 
to 1S1T>. Then steam became the 
ureal motive power, and the mills of 
( Id Dartmouth one after another 
were discontinued until in DJ15 only 
12 remain: in Fairhaven not any. 
in Acushnet '-', in New Bedford 1, in 
Dartmouth f>, in Westport 4. 

At the same time it cannot be 
said that steam alone was the sin- 
gle cause that destroyed so many 
thrifty enterprises. The fanner in a 
Dartmouth village could carry his 
nags of grain to mill and later re- 
turn with the Hour. This arrange- 
r.ent was satisfactory and conven- 
ient until the village became a city, 
and then the increased population re- 
quired the western wheat-field and 
the western mill. The fulling mill 
could supply the wants of a region 
like Kussells Mills, but the Tucker 
mill that advertised to weave cloth 
in 18 12 would make small progress 
in 1.915, even in that locality in sup- 
plying the modern demand. 

A century's increase in population 
built up the competition that closed 
these little mills. But the mill busi- 
ness itself even a century ago, start- 
ed in operation a destructive force. 
\ majority were saw mills, and their 
work was to transform into lumber 
the trees that were taken from the 
pine and cedar swamps of Dartmouth. 
Kvery swamp that was denuded of 
its trees remained dry a longer per- 
iod each year, and the brooks that 
started in those regions lessened in 
volume and sometimes disappeared. 
Si the process id' conducting the mill 
not only depleted the natural re- 
seurces but impaired and ultimately 
destroyed the water power itself. 
Steam began as a competing power. 
but quickly assumed the enormous 
task that wind and water were un- 
able to perform, and finally became 
the substitute when loss of forests 
has almost destroyed the abundant 
power ihiM the Knr.li.'di found when 
lliey Hi:. I Ciiiiui hi I >.i i I hi mi I h. 



MARDI GRAS 

By Blanche Brace, of the New Bedford Evening Standard. 



S-sh! Rustle of history's page, t-uon. And some of them were in 
Tackle of advance notice that a so- green, with great collars of tulle lluf- 



pioii. 


And some 


green, 


with great 


fing a 


round their 


saucy 


little yarn 



cial event is something that may be fing' around their white throats, and 
absolutely enjoyed, tinkle of glee from saucy little yarn puffs Punctuating 
the land where the fairies blow their tall hats. There were pink Pier- 
bright colored bubbles into human be- nas. and blue-white Pierrots, and 
ings, and laugh to see their utter b'ack-erimson Pierrots, and purple- 
llght-heartedness! All these you yellow Pierrots, and orange and even 
heard with the lilt of the music of un exceedingly charming polka dot 
the Mardi Gras party given by the Pierrot. They dispensed confections 
<Hd Dartmouth Historical society at ;Mlc i confetti, did the Pierrots, but 
the Duff building last night, with Miss, chiefly color and delight. 
Mary Hayes as chairman. Thl . ))iL , na ij oi tne Duff building 

It was unkiue. It combined the W;IS no longer the big hall of the 
paradoxical power of being a page in Dut £ or any other building. It wa:i 
history and a society innovation at .suddenly a eay street corner of some 
the same time. It had all the dignity romance land in flower time, with rev- 
pertaining to one of the oldest forms dlers all about. From corner to col- 
or entertainment known to the world, lier of the r0 om, <nd interlacing back 
and all the fascinating frivol of the : - a in to the center, ran lacy lengths 
newest one known to New Bedford (lt ; |)a p. blue bunting, hung with crim- 
;md most other places in the United son poinsettias. with silver leaves 
States. From the yesterday country dangling below. The lights of the 
of things as they were, and the to- chandelier in the center looked out. 
morrow land of them as we wish they just cTinilv enough through a vast 
could be, it came, and the 400 guests sheaf of foliage and of flowers. Bas- 
present in the large hall of the Duff kots of flowers dangled with just the 
building, were no more mere human true Mardi Gras profusion here and 
beings, but Pio Peter Pans. For you mere. The music came from a sum- 
couldn't be grown up at the Mardi mer ar bor that had been the stage, 
Gras party. You had never heard of ;ilK | there was a motto of ferns be- 
higher education and indigestion, of hind which the fairies and the queen 
cubist art or artistic Cubans. \ ou 1 the carnival concealed themselves, 
were a creature of sheer, incarnate [ n keeping, too, with the real Mardi 
Sloe. Gras spirit, were she refreshment and 

Before you stepped into the big hall favor booths on either side of the 

ei the Duff building, you had checked stage, and the gay costumed ladies 

your outer wrap of super-civilization who presided over them. It lends a 

and boredom for safe keeping in the great deal to the spirit of enehant- 

oressing room. And you stepped di- ment when you purchase your cap 

reetly into a country of enchantment, from an houri clad in the trappings 

all poinsettias, and Pierrots, and pirou- (,f oriental lands, or your ice from a. 

citing. A happy band of harlequins sprite in silken shepherdess attire 



claimed you at once as their long- 



Mrs. Frank A. Mosher had charge of 



lest brother, and you wondered vague- <he fa vors, ^ and Mrs. Fred It. Fish 
ly how you had lived without them ""d John S lowland dispensed re- 
all these years, the while you danced. 'J'eshments. rho ltttter included be- 

YVho would not don a fool's cap ^^es the caps already mentioned, bal- 

when with it he can put on care-free- ^JVLi^, ^ e£ ' toy windmills, 

ness and mirth? It was wisdom to be . h V v' ?"' n" 1 '** 7 nfetl J 

foolish, and last night you were clever * h " "™ ( ? *i lei s f lI }l'"\} n ?? a ?? ot 

enough to realize that great fact. So ^« P^J ^^^52 

was everyone else. On every hand you ()I . (h( , West< But fl ■ t 

saw the caps which were the badge fet(i< it raatte red little, for 

of their knowledge. Cocked red hats >S|)il . it of adventure and 

patriotically edged with white stars equally there 

upon a background of blue, gay pink And there was nothing more Mardi- 

caps, chanticleer caps that all but Grasy than the fortune-tellers' tent 

crowed out their happiness to be at j n the opposite corner of the room, 

the Mardi Gras party, and the tall in charge of Miss Alice MeOullough. 

various colored ones of the Pierrots. The tent was draped in the hangings 

For the beautiful Pierrots were of the Far East, or the rugs that 

everywhere, a rainbow group, with Hiawatha himself wove, as someone 

their tall crooks shepherdessing the else opined. There- was a spirit of 

crowd into the true spirit of the ocea- mysterday and breathless Sphinxdom 



s or 


eon- 


the 


higl 


joy 


wa t 



16 



about the corner before you even en- 
tered the mystic place, where Miss 
Cathcart sat revealing; that which is to 
be, in a way to strike creepy little 
thrills to the stoutest heart. 

About 8 30 the general dancing be- 
gan, a pretty sight with gay Pierrots 
frolicking with staid gentlemen in 
conventional evening attire, and maids 
of France making merry with cap- 
clad tangoists. The balcony was quite 
crowded with delighted spectators, 
and a little group of the spectators 
that was as pretty as anything at the 
Mardi Gras was the one in the cor- 
ner, where the children sat during - 
the early part of the evening, some 
of them in caps and some in im- 
mense hair bows, with big, admiring 
eyes almost starting from their heads, 
as they watched the revels. 

There was a little hush about 9:30 
whieh proclaimed that something- 
was about to happen. The floor was 
cleared of bright colored bits of pa- 
per and confetti and the archestra 
struck up iLii alluring and joyous 
march. Then, led by Harry L. Pope, in 
a wonderful Mardi Gras costume over 
which the roses bloomed in profusion, 
and Miss Elsie Snow, in the red and 
black attire of a joyous little gipsy of 
France or Spain, began a joyous pa- 
rade around the hall. Behind, the 
Pierrots fell into line, skipping along 
like mischievous elves, beating time 
to the music with the butts of tneir 
shepherd's crooks. The audience 
broke into applause with the first 
few rounds of the hall, and again as 
the revellers paid homage to Presi- 
dent Cushman of the Old Dartmouth 
Historical society, and Mrs. Cushman. 

Again the ring was formed about 
the dance floor, and the two leaders, 
Miss Snow and Mr. Pope, performed 
a beautiful Spanish dance. In its 
grace and carnival spirit the dance 
was as cleaver and as much in keeping 
with the spirit of the Mardi Gras as 
any of the outdoor ones that profes- 
sional dancers perform on similar oc- 
casions upon the chief street corner 
of New Orleans at the pageant time. 

And then came the supreme mo- 
ment of the evening, the moment that 
was to reveal the queen of the Mardi 
Gras, and the veiled prophet. Miss 
Snow and Mr. Pope ended their dance 
by the stage steps, and stood waiting 
ihere to welcome the king and queen 
of the harlequinade. Down the steps 
then came masked, the queen in the 
black bolero and short red skirt, the 
white stockings and small black slip- 
pers of the real Mardi Gras, the 
veiled prophet in black velvet cos- 
tume, half caballerq and half Pa- 
risian, rich with gold braid, and gay 
with red sash. The masks were re- 
moved, revealing in the prophet and 



the queen if. Harrison Nye and Miss 
Viola Midgeley of Providence, already 
well known in New Bedford for their 
unusually clever and artistic dancing. 

In the joyous abandon of the Mardi 
Gras the two dancers excelled any- 
thing that they had done on previous 
occasions. Without losing any of the 
perfection of technique which makes 
their dancing a joy to watch, they 
seemed to gain in gayety of spirit, so 
that the spectators not only marveled 
but smiled to see them. They began 
with the tango, and later in the even- 
ing also danced the hesitation, the 
fox trot and the maxixe. 

At 1 1 (/clock tne real revel of the 
Mardi Gras began, and those who 
thought that they bad been merry 
during the earlier part of the evening 
learned for the first time what real 
gayety meant. As light-hearted as 
bubbles they danced on, and the con- 
fetti that flew heie and there was no 
more care-free thai n themselves. ThM 
original Mardi Gras meant fat Tues- 
day, but there could have been no un- 
due avoirdupois about revellers who 
fox-trotted with such whole-hearted 
hilarity as did the guests of the Mar- 
di Gras last night. 

At last, of course, the dance ended. 
The caps bad to be taken off, and the 
revellers had to reclaim the outer 
wraps of civilization and boredom, 
which they had checked in the dress- 
ing rooms. But the Mardi Gras will 
live in the memory of New Bedford, 
as it has lived in the pages of history. 
It was a unique social achievement, 
and those in charge may congratulate 
themselves with having dispensed a 
bit of the elixir of human happiness 
which wiii gladden the atmosphere 
for a long time. 

The event was in charge of a spe- 
cial entertainment committee: Miss 
Mary S. Hayes, chairman; Miss Dorris 
Hough, Miss Elsie Snow, Mrs. John 
S. Howland. Mrs. Fred II. Fish, Miss 
L.ouise Allen, Miss Mildred James, 
Mrs. Frank Mosher, Miss Alice Mc- 
Cullough, H. L. Pope, S. J. Besse, 
Miss Anna Tripp, Miss Margaret 
Yorke. 

The ticket committee comprised 
Miss Haves, W. T. Bead and Arthur 
D. Delano. 

The Perrots were the following: 

Miss Marguerite Walmsley, Miss 
Pauline Hawes, Mrs. J. F. Knowles, 
Miss Margaret York, Miss Mary Dex- 
ter, Miss Hayes, Miss Fllen Stetson, 
Miss Alice McCullough, Miss Kath- 
erine t lough, Miss Edith Snow, Misj 
Mildred James, Mrs. Frederick 
Browne, Miss Hlise Vinal, Miss Anne 
Oswall, Miss Florence Taber. Miss 
Marion Briggs. Miss Marion Vincent, 
Miss Ethel Wilcox, Miss Alice Shaw, 
Miss Dorothy Williams. 




OLD DARTMOUTH 



HISTORICAL SKETCHES 



No. 42. 



Being the proceedings of the Old Dartmouth Historical Society, held 
in their building, Water Street, New Bedford, Massachusetts, on 
April 19, 1915. 



THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE NEW BEDFORD 
WATER SUPPLIES. 



Presented by Robert C. P. Coggeshal 







PURCHASE STREET PUMPING STATION, 1870. 



THE DEVELOPMENT OF 

NEW BEDFORD WATER SUPPLIES. 



R. C. P. "COG'GESHALIi 



A supply of good water was a a well of delicious water which exist- 

- . , .,■ „ ,, ,•/!, ,..,,i ),., mlv ed in Hose Alley in 1S15 and which 

factor always considered l» oui supplie . d that neighborhood. The town 

ancestors, in determining a. location pumiJ j n City Hall square and the 

for permanent settlement. Good inverted cannon fountain on Hodman 

pprlng water was always preferred, street at Water street, were liberally 

patronized and gave satisfaction to 

but it' not found, shallow wells were th(jjl . users 

sunk' from which water was obtained At the opening- of the last century 

by buckets raised by poles or pulleys the science of delivering wholesome, 

liberal, and reliable supplies of water 
or by long balance poles. t(( congest ed districts was little under- 
The accumulation of organic mat- stood. The appliances and methods 
ler, due to increase in population, necessary to accomplish this result 
gradually polluted such waters. This had not then been developed. The 
was especially true in congested dis- average well was unsatisfactory. It 
t ricts, where such supplies also be- might be dry when needed, or unsafe 
came insufficient. In every commun- for domestic use at other times. The 
ity the waters of certain wells were growing agitation for more water end 
preferred because they were thought that of better quality was making it- 
to be superior in quality. Citizens self felt. Private water supply corn- 
would sometimes reject the water of panics began to organize to improve 
their own wells, and travel long dis- conditions. It later developed that 
tances to obtain the better water. the majority of these enterprises were 
Certain wells were known as "tea based more upon the health of the 
water wells" because it was thought investors' pocketbooks than upon any 
that better tea. could be brewed anxiety concerning the physical well- 
therefrom, being of their patrons. Such corn- 
New York had its famous "Tea panics were content to do as little as 
Water Pump Garden" situated at possible. Their plants were crudely 
what is now the junction of Chatham constructed and clumsily operated, 
and Roosevelt streets. This was a The nearest supply was taken in pref- 
famous resort in Revolutionary times, erence to going a longer distance to 
Where tea and stronger beverages get something better. Their capacity 
could ))c obtained. The streets in its was limited at best and growing tree 
vicinity were often obstructed by the roots completely filling the log pipes 
vehicles of the rich and fastidious, would put off the supply. The cus- 
waiting their turn at the pump. The tomers were dissatisfied and constant 
place finally became so congested that friction between company and taker 
the New York common council in became rampant, generally result- 
1797 ordered "the spout of the pump ing in a short life for the com- 
to be sufficiently raised and length- pany. 

ened to permit pedestrians to pass I am now going to relate the story 

beneath it." of the Manhattan Company of New 

Jn the early days of our own city, York City. Its promoters induced the 

certain wells came to have a good citizens of that city to believe that 

repute. Leonard 13. Ellis has told of their whole concern was to supply 



DEVELOPMENT OF NEW BEDFORD WATER SUPPLIES. 



them with pure and wholesome water, 
while all the time they were inwardly 
conniving to accomplish something 
very different. 

Until very recently anyone happen- 
ing to pass the northwest corner of 
Heed and Centre streets in the city of 
New York could observe through the 
windows of the building located there, 
a large cast-iron water tank which 
was supplied with water from a large 
well beneath, by means of a steam 
pump. This interesting relic has 
existed for over one hundred years, 
and its former use is practically tor- 
gotten by everyone except the owners, 
the Manhattan Water Company. Due 
to a curious legal fiction, that com- 
pany must continue to maintain the 
semblance of a water plant in order to 
keep its charter, which is an exceed- 
ingly valuable document since under 
a "joker" clause it has built up the 
great Rank of the Manhattan Com- 
pany of New York City. The tank was 
removed last June (1914), but the 
Water Company will continue the 
maintenance of pump and well. 

The granting of this charter to the 
Manhattan Company establishing a 
water supply to the City of New York 
was an historic event and thereby 
hangs a tale. 

Corporate Banking in New York 
City began with the organization of 
the Bank of New York by Alexander 
Hamilton in 17 84. For fifteen years 
this bank, together with the New York 
branch of the first Lank of the United 
States, were the only banks doing 
business in either the City or State of 
New York. With Hamilton and the 
Federalists in control of the legisla- 
ture, new bank charter's were un- 
obtainable. This monopoly of bank- 
ing facilities in the City and State was 
of great strategic value to the political 
party in control, and naturally aroused 
jealousy and resentment among the 
members of the opposition whose 
leader was Aaron Burr. 

In 1798, New York City suffered 
from a severe yellow fever epidemic 
which was attributed to the poor 
water supply. Upon the assembling 
of the legislature in 17 99 an associa- 
tion of individuals, among whom 
Aaron Burr was the moving spirit, 
applied for a charter for the purpose 
of "supplying the City of New York 
with 1)111*0 and wholesome water." 
W r ith a capital of $2,000,000, the 
project was an ambitious one for 
those days. Burr used his influence 
as a member of the assembly in per- 
suading that body to feel that as there 
was a great uncertainty as to the 
probable cost of the proposed water 
works system, permission should be 



granted the company to invest all 
surplus capital in other directions. 

The eighth clause of the charter, 
which attracted but little attention at 
the time, was really the most impor- 
tant one. It reads as follows: 

"And be it further enacted, that It 
shall, and may be lawful for the said 
company to employ all such surplus 
capital, as may belong or accrue to 
the said company, in the purchase of 
public or other stock, or in any other 
monied transactions or operations 
not inconsistent with the constitution 
and laws of this State, or of the 
United States, for the sole benefit of 
the said company." 

Availing itself of the powers con- 
veyed by the above clause, the Man- 
hattan Company formed a powerful 
bank, which was the real object of the 
incorporators. Only enough was done 
in the matter of introducing water 
necessary to hold the charter. 

It is evident that the legislature ex- 
pected the Manhattan Company to 
obtain an ample and satisfactory 
supply from the Bronx River or some 
other stream from the wording of the 
charter which grants the Company the 
right "to erect dams, or other works 
across, or upon any stream or streams, 
of water, river or rivers, or any other 
place or places, where they shall 
judge proper for the purpose of rais- 
ing such stream or streams, or turn- 
ing the course thereof, or of making 
use of such streams, rivers, or places 
for constructing or working of any 
necessary engines, or to construct, dig 
or cause to be opened any canals or 
trenches whatsoever for conducting of 
such stream or streams or any other 
quantity of water from any source or 
sources that they may see fit." 

Instead of obtaining an ample sup- 
ply from the Bronx or some other 
stream or streams the Manhattan 
Company proceeded to sink a series 
of large wells at the location stated at 
the beginning of this story. At that 
time this was a thickly populated lo- 
cation totally unfit to produce whole- 
some and pure water. The water was 
pumped from these wells into a res- 
ervoir located on Chambers street 
from whence it was distributed in 
hollow logs of small bore generally 
through the city south of City Hall. 
The company laid about 2 5 miles of 
pine log pipe of different sizes and 
supplied about 2,000 houses. 

T herewith present to you a sample 
section of one of these log pipes. This 
was rescued from a street in lower 
New York some years ago by Andrew 
Snow of South Dartmouth, who was 
then living in New York and by him 
presented to f the speaker. 



DEVELOPMENT OF NEW BEDFORD WATER SUPPLIES. 



The quality of the water was ex- 
ceedingly poor and caused constant 
irritation and complaint. Cartoons is- 
sued at the time indicate that "Pure 
Manhattan" and very muddy' and un- 
inviting water were regarded as syn- 
onymous terms. The citizens of New 
York endured this nuisance for over 
thirty years, during which time con- 
stantly increasing agitation resulted 
iu the introduction of the Croton 
Supply in 1842. Shortly after the 
Manhattan Company closed its 
activities and practically retired as a 
water distributor. 

Boston had its Jamaica Pond 
Aqueduct Company which flourished 
several years previous to 1848. This 
Company led the waters of Jamaica 
Pond into Roxbury and Boston, using 
for that purpose pitch pine logs, none 
larger than a four-inch bore. The 
extent of their operations did not 
exceed fifteen miles of distribution 
logs. As can well be imagined, this 
supply was neither satisfactory nor 
adequate, and with the advent of the 
much superior Cochituate supply the 
business of this company vanished. 

In 1799 the Massachusetts general 
court passed an "act enabling pro- 
prietors of aqueducts to manage the 
same." This act was a long docu- 
ment in 12 sections regulating the 
business of furnishing water sup- 
plies. This was followed by the ap- 
pearance of many aqueduct com- 
panies throughout the state. Most 
of these were insignificant affairs and 
the majority have long since been 
forgotten. One case of this very 
kind is identified with our own city 
and no one living today seems able to 
give much information as to the ex- 
tent of its activities. It llourishe 1 
between 1803 and 1822. The books 
of records, dividends, stock transfers, 
with a few scattering papers have re- 
cently been rescued and are now de- 
posited in the Free Public library. 
These documents have little to say 
regarding the plant, its actual cost 
and manner in which it was operated. 
In the absence of the treasurer's ac- 
counts 1 am unable to give any state- 
ment whatever regarding- receipts and 
expenditures, neither can I give a 
list of the streets in which logs were 
placed, the number of service sup- 
plies, or the rates that were charged. 
With the help of these papers and 
stray bits of information 1 have 
woven the following story: An as- 
sociation was formed in Bedford vil- 
lage in 1803 for the purpose of fur- 
bishing a water supply. The paper 
soliciting subscriptions to the stock 
was dated July 14, 1803. It states 
that the said subscribers associate 



"For the purpose of conducting the 
water from the southwest part of the 
village of Bedford through the most 
convenient streets to the four cor- 
ners, so-called, and from thence to 
such parts of the village as shall be 
thought best. Do agree to take the 
number of shares as set against our 
names, and no more. That the as- 
sociation shall consist of fifty shares 
and when the whole number of 
shares shall be subscribed, do agree 
to pay such installments thereon as 
a committee (which shall be ap- 
pointed for that purpose) shall assess 
from time to time. 

"And having assumed the name of 
the First Aqueduct association, do 
further agree that the business shall 
be transacted by that name, that 
each share shall be entitled to one 
vote provided, however, that no per- 
son shall have more than five votes. 

"And there shall be annually ap- 
pointed a treasurer and committee 
who shall assess such sums of money 
as shall be wanted for the purpose 
aforesaid, and who shall have power 
to make contracts in behalf of the 
association, viz: for purchasing a lot, 
digging a fountain, procuring and 
sinking the logs, to make contracts 
with such people as may wish to take 
the water, and keep the aqueduct in 
repair and to examine the treasurer's 
accounts.'' 

The stock must have been quickly 
taken for upon the next day the first 
meeting of the association was held, 
with Charles Russell as moderator, 
Joseph Ricketson clerk, and Jona- 
than Allen treasurer. A committee 
of six was appointed with full power 
to attend to all duties stated in the 
last paragraphs of the subscription 
paper given above and, in addition, 
they were directed "to assess such 
sums of money from time to time as 
may be wanted for this purpose, pro- 
vided such sums shall not exceed, in 
the whole, twenty-live dollars per 
share. 

We can only surmise as to just 
what they did. They must have 
made a contract with Caleb Jenne 
(one of the stock holders) to dig 
the fountain (well) and very shortly 
there was some sort of disagreement 
for at a meeting held a month later 
a vote was passed allowing Caleb 
Jenne sixty dollars over and above 
the agreement made with him by 
the committee, whereupon the com- 
mittee in charge "prayed for dismis- 
sion" which was promptly granted 
and a new committee appointed. 

Caleb got the best of the first com- 
mittee but that did not end his 
troubles for two months later his 
work is very sharply criticised. The 



DEVELOPMENT OF NEW BEDFORD WATER SUPPLIES. 



association then voted: "That in 
their opinion Caleb Jenne did not 
build the fountain walls in a suf- 
ficient manner and that he shall build 
the western wall (which has now 
fallen down) at his own expense." 
'\ he standing committee was directed 
to repair the damage and "keep an 
account of the expense and 
when Caleb Jenne shall have paid 
the amount of said expense he shall 
be discharged from all further de- 
mands." 

Caleb must have been terribly slow 
in effecting a settlement, for two 
years later the directors are in- 
structed to "call upon Caleb Jenne 
to fulfill and complete his contract." 
This is the last mention of the mat- 
ter but 1 doubt whether Caleb Jenne 
e\>r finished that job. 

That the fountain was finally fin- 
ished, log pipes installed, and water 
delivered to customers is attested to 
by an article which appears in the 
Columbia Courier of July 4, 1 8 G . 
After a brief description of a slight 
lire occurring in the house belong- 
ing to John Gerish, it goes on to say: 

"As every person who was at the lire 
must have been sensible of the great 
deficiency in the number of leather 
'.mckets, and as their great utility is 
so very apparent, the inhabitants are 
requested to call on Joseph Ricket- 
scn, who has opened a subscription 
for the purpose of obtaining an ade- 
quate supply. 

"As one means of obtaining a 
plentiful supply of water in case of 
lire, we would respectfully suggest to 

I he v.rli-ri iiii-ii Ihi' propriety of plac 

I I ik ••midiu-iui a (hydrants) tit proper 
distances from each other in the 
pipes belonging to the First Bedford 
Aqueduct corporation. This meas- 
ure is authorized by an act of this 
state respecting aqueducts." 

Joseph Ricketson's subscription pa- 
per for obtaining a new supply of fire 
buckets appears among the aqueduct 
papers in the Free Public Library. 
There were twenty-seven subscribers 
agreeing to furnish a pair of buckets; 
sixteen subscribers one dollar each; 
four subscribers two dollars each; one 
five dollars and James Arnold and 
William Rotch, Jr., subscribed 
twenty dollars each. 

Whether or not any connections for 
fire protection were made with the 
aqueduct as suggested by the news- 
paper article just read 1 have no 
means of knowing. 

On February 25, 1804, the associa- 
tion was incorporated into a body poli- 
tic by the name of the First Bedford 
Aqueduct association as authorized by 
the laws of the commonwealth. Here- 
tofore it had been known as the First 



Aqueduct association. Soon the direc- 
tors have trouble trying to deal with 
people conniving at their neighbors 
and others, taking water from their 
pipes who have not purchased that 
privilege. 

So it appears that people actually 
stole water in those good old days. 
That practice has not jet gone out 
of fashion. The directors attempted to 
stop this by making rules and estab- 
lishing fines, but judging from com- 
plaints made in later meetings, Lhey 
never wholly succeeded. 

In 1807 the directors purchased a 
second lot adjoining the first and ex- 
cavated the second well. 

In 1811 complaints are made by the 
directors that many persons who take 
the water- make great waste of it, and 
that others have refused or neglected 
to pay therefor. Resolved — That it 
shall be the duty of the directors for 
the time being to inform the pro- 
prietor and occupant of the house of 
the neglect, and if neither will agree 
to pay the amount due, and where 
water is wasted, engage to make an 
economical use of it, that they shall 
immediately cut off the log leading to 
such premises. But when the contract 
has been made with a tenant who has 
removed, or is about to remove from 
the premises, that the director may 
in such case let the logs remain, pro- 
vided the new tenant or proprietor 
shall engage to pay for the water; and 
further it shall be the duty of the 
directors to agree with all that shall 
engage to lake the water that tb«>v 
i. In, II pay lor I lie lime Nov may <n 
KMM" without any abatement even 
should the water fail for any part of 
the year, or should it at any time be 
necessary to draw off the water for 
the purpose of repairs. 

On February 29, 1812 the directors 
are authorized to use the money in 
the hands of the collector and treas- 
urer for the purpose of digging a new 
fountain or any other method of ob- 
taining more water and should the 
sums beinsuffl cient, to make an assess- 
ment on the proprietors. 

The third well was finally dug and 
some sort of a scrap occurred, for at 
the next annual meeting a new set of 
directors was elected and authorized 
to call upon the former directors for 
a settlement. 

It was the custom of the treasurer 
to report the cash balance on hand 
at each annual meeting, whereupon 
the directors would either vote a divi- 
dend or would direct the income to 
be used for repairs. After 1814 this 
balance is not given and the last an- 
nual meeting appears to have been 
held in 1819. On April 8, 1822, the 



DEVELOPMENT OF NEW BEDFORD WATER SUPPLIES. 



last record states that Gideon How- 
land, Jr., Peter Barney and Abraham 
Sherman, Jr., be a committee to dis- 
pose of the lots of land belonging to 
the association. This was done and 
the final dividend on the capital stock 
was paid September 28, 1822. 

It appears that this association was 
a mutual association of proprietors, 
divided into fifty assessable shares in 
which the association has the right to 
sell any share for non-payment of as- 
sessment. The assessment was first 
limited to twenty-five dollars per 
share, but this limit was cancelled with 
the incorporation of the association in 
1804. Whether or not assessments ex- 
ceeding twenty-five dollars per share 
were ever made we do not know but 
the directors had the right to do so. 
1 think it probable that an assessment 
was made in 1812 when the third well 
was constructed, for in 1814 one share 
was attached for failing to pay assess- 
ment and afterwards transferred to 
the association. 

When the affairs of the association 
were closed in 1822 the capital stock 
was valued at $1,335.25 and $27.25 
per share was paid to the stockholders. 
The association paid six dividends ex- 
clusive of the final stock dividend as 
follows: 

180G — $4 per share. 
1808 — $5 per share 
1809— $2 per share. 
1810— $2 per share. 
1814 — $3 per share. 
1816 — $3 per share. 
The project proved to be a poor 
investment. This fact, together with 
the final failure of the supply, caused 
the abandonment of the scheme. 

The fountain lot, so called, meas- 
ured 2 3 1*» feet north from Walnut 
street on west side of Sixth street ami 
102 feet west from Sixth street on the 
north side of Walnut street, and con- 
tained Si) rods. They were acquired 
from Abraham Russell in two pur- 
chases, the first January, 1805, the 
second February, 1807. The amount 
paid was $1073.25. This land is now 
owned and occupied by Dr. Kirby am! 
Dr. Whitney. The fountains were 
three large wells connected together 
and covered by a low triangular root' 
parallel with Sixth street, with end 
facing upon Walnut street (Standard, 
Aug. 2<i, 18H8). From this reservoir 
the log pipe extended easterly in Wal- 
nut street, and it is presumed that 
they finally supplied the region of 
the "four corners,' so called. The logs 
were suplied and bored by Benjamin 
Taber at his water-power mill at the 
Head of the River. The water de- 
partment has occasionally come across 
remains of these logs in past excava- 



tions. Many dwellings that were so 
situated that water could be carried 
to them by gravity, were supplied 
from this source. When the enter- 
prise was new it hid fair to be suc- 
cessful, but the. supply proved inade- 
quate to meet the growing demandb, 
The simple machinery was too crude 
and perishable and finally the deliv- 
ery of the log pipes became ob- 
structed by the roots of trees with 
which the streets were lined. A tiny 
hole in the log would attract a fibre 
of root which would force its way 
through to the water under whose 
nourishment it would grow until the 
pipe was filled and the flow of water 
completely cut off. 

When the affairs of the association 
were finaly wound up in 1822 the 
wells were filled with stone, but the 
springs therein continued for many 
years to supply the fire reservoir at 
the northwest corner of Walnut and 
Sixth street. The springy condition 
of the land in this location exists to 
this day, in spite of all the drains 
that have been placed in that region. 

The following is a complete iist oi 
the 3(i stockholders of this company, 
of whom 31 were original stockhold- 
ers, at various times during its ex- 
istence: 

Jonathan Allen, Gideon Allen, 
Aqueduct association, Uriah Browneli, 
Peter Barney, Joshua Raker, Bedford 
Pank, Caleb Congdon, Allen Case, 
Jonathan Card, Cornelius Grinnell, 
Isaac Howland, Jr., Peleg 1 lowland, 
Gideon Howland, Jr., Joseph How- 
land, 2d, William Howland, Stephen 
Hathaway, Caleb Jenne, Jr., William 
James, Matthew Myrick, Silas Parker, 
Abijah Packard, Daniel Rieketson <*i 
Son. Gilbert Russell, Charles Russell, 
Davis Russell, Elihu Smith, Gideon 
Shepherd. Abraham Shearman, Jr., 
Daniel Taber, Benjamin Taber, Jr., 
Francis Tatter, Barnabas Taber, Gard- 
ner Taber, Taber's wharf. Sands 
Wintf. 

In the early days there was a nat- 
ural water course having its origin in 
a cedar swamp west of the County 
street court house, according to Thom- 
as M. Stetson (see Ellis's History, 
page t)3). It trickled eastward, cross- 
ing County, Eighth, Sixth streets, Li- 
brary square, Pleasant street, near 
the north line of the Hates & Kirby 
property. A short distance east of 
Pleasant street it touched the south- 
west corner of the historical "ten 
acre lot" purchased of Joseph Roteh 
from Joseph Russell in 17 65. Contin- 
uing easterly parallel with the south 
line of the 'ten ;<cre lot,' it gave 
name to the 'fountain lot,' so called 
(J. V. Spare (Dry Good Co.) because 



DEVELOPMENT OP NEW BEDFORD WATER SUPPLIES. 



of the numerous boiling springs of 
excellent quality which appeared here. 
The brook now acquired the char- 
acter of a 'little spring brook" and it 
is so described in the deed of the 
'ten acre lot.' The "fountain lot" (Note: 
Please observe that there were two 
fountain lots in the village, the othe.* 
being the aqueduct supply at Sixth 
and Walnut street) justified the es- 
tablishment of Willard Sears' tannery 
to the south. The brook continued 
easterly, crossing- Purchase street and 
Acushnet avenue. Here it was aug- 
mented by the entry of a little water 
course from the north (see Leonard 
map). 

Further on it turned abruptly to 
the south and crossed Union street at 
the present location of .1. & W. It 
Wing's store. Here was a street 

bridge, and Daniel Ricketson tells us 
of leaning upon the railing of this 
bridge to watch the surging water be- 
neath. It then continued to the cor- 
ner of Second and Spring streets, 
where it passed through a sizable pool 
and thence eastward in what is now 
Spring street, where it entered the 
river a short distance east of Water 
street. This water course at Library 
square and at the fountain lot was 
developed by the town for fire pro- 
tection and other uses as will be seen 
later. 

Some time previous to 1838. a 
sizable fire reservoir had been con- 
structed by the town upon this foun- 
tain lot. This reservoir extended into 
Purchase street as far as the curb- 
ing of the west sidewalk. 

A store building occupied by Sam- 
uel Bennett (1840-50) stood directly 
over the water and the reservoir ex- 
tended west of the building. The New 
Bedford directories. 1838-52, include 
a list of the public tire reservoirs. 
Concerning the one under considera- 
tion it says: 

"One on Purchase street near the 
First Congregational church, under 
the building occupied by Samuel Ben- 
nett. (The directories locate Samuel 
Bennett at 41 Purchase street). Two 
engines can have access to this reser- 
voir on Purchase street, and two or 
three on the platform in the rear. 
The entrance to the rear is on Pur- 
chase street through the premises of 
Willard Sears." 

When the speaker was recently en- 
gaged in laying the water main in 
Purchase street incidental to the 
widening of that thoroughfare he un- 
covered the open end of this reser- 
voir beneath the westerly sidewalk. It 
was then filled with earth. 

Mr. Crapo is authority for the state- 
ment that a log pipe connecting with 



this reservoir ran north and east in 
Purchase, William and Rodman streets. 
< »n its passage it furnished supplies to 
the fire reservoir at the northwest 
corner of William and Second streets, 
and the continuously running inverted 
cannon fountain on the south side of 
Rodman street, east of Water. 

In March, 1855, Joshua B. Ashley, 
chief engineer of fire department, re- 
ports that he has thoroughly repaired 
this Purchase street (fountain lot) 
reservoir. In 1857 Mr. Ashley reports 
that: 

"The property of Purchase street, 
a few rods south of William street, 
on which a reservoir formerly was 
located, and from which the 
reservoir on the corner of Wil- 
liam and Second streets was sup- 
plied, having changed hands, the city 
was deprived of its use, and it be- 
came necessary to find some other 
supply to take its place. Accordingly, 
a well was dug on Cheapside, from 
which, as a head, pipes were laid dcwn 
William street to the reservoir at 
Second street and also down Union 
street to the new reservoir corner of 
Fourth sireet. which will contain 
2 600 barrels. This was filled from the 
head alone in 32 1-3 days during the 
dryest season of the year, and the 
stream has been constantly running 
since, the over supply being led into 
the supply sewer. The water from the 
roof of Ricketson's block has also 
been led into this reservoir." 

This was the time that the late 
George Tappan purchased the foun- 
tain lot, and proceeded to erect the 
present building thereon. He named 
it China Hall and it retained that 
name for many years. How the water 
gushing forth from the bubbling 
springs was finally disposed of I do 
not know. 

Regarding the well on Cheapside 
which Mr. Ashley says has been dug. 
In some way this was a connection 
with the huge reservoir in City Hall 
square near Sixth street. It was fed 
by the springs of the brook which 
we have been considering. The. speak- 
er has been in this reservoir more 
than oncf. It consisted of three cir- 
cular connecting walls, each about 10 
to 12 feet in diameter. Thus it was 
about 30 feet long and held from 10 
to 12 feet of water. The famous town 
puitip entered the central well. This 
reservoir was probably constructed 
shortly after the building of the city 
hall. It docs not appear in the direc- 
tory list of 1841, but it does appear 
in 1815. It has been claimed by older 
citizens that this reservoir yielded an 
unfailing supply, but this is inac- 
curate. It was completely exhausted 



DEVELOPMENT OF NEW BEDFORD WATER SUPPLIES. 



In the fiercest portion of the great 
tire of April, 1859, and in 1909 when 
abandoned and filled up, prior to the 
placing of foundations of stack room 
of public library, it was pumped dry 
in less than an hour. 

The reservoir on Purchase street, 
south of Union, constructed by Mr. 
Ashley to replace the "fountain lot" 
reservoir, was abandoned and partially 
tilled up about the time of the erec- 
tion of the Institution for Savings 
building. This filling was completed 
about a month ago with the relaying 
of the electric car tracks in Purchase 
street. The controlling valves men- 
tioned in Mr. Ashley's report of 1857 
by which the surplus supply was led 
into the public sewer, was rescued by 
the speaker a few weeks ago, in re- 
laying the water main in Union 
street. 

Thus all traces of the water course 
which at (.lie time was a feature of 
the town and village have now 
vanished. 

The New Bedford Steam Mill cor- 
poration was incorporated in 1846 
with George Hussey as president and 
Samuel Hodman, treasurer. This was 
a cotton mill enterprise located at the 
northeast corner of Hillman and 
Water streets. In a few years it was 
changed over to a flour mill. To ob- 
tain a supply of boiler water for this 
industry a log pipe was laid in Hill- 
man street connecting with the springs 
at the tire reservoir in that street 
west of Purchase street, and deliver- 
ing at the boilers of the mill. 

Previous to the advent of the city 
water supply the water boat owned by 
Benjamin Rodman was in evidence 
throughout the city water front when- 
ever a vessel was seeking a supply of 
water. As 1 remember, it was a sloop 
of clumsy model with the word 
Water, in large letters, upon thf main 
sail. The water was delivered through 
a rotary pump, the operation of 
which resembled the turning of a 
grindstone. This boat received its sup- 
ply at the head of the dock between 
the George Howland and Samuel Rod- 
man wharf. 

The land at the southeast corner 
of Hillman and Second streets was 
formerly the property of Samuel Rod- 
man. There was a large carpenter's 
shop located on this corner and facing 
Second street. This was occupied at 
one time by Ezra Clark. Just south 
of this shop was the pump which 
delivered the water at the cap \oz of 
the dock from whence it flowed into 
the tank of the water boat. One Wil- 
liam H. James operated this pump in 
Benjamin Rodman's interest. The 
neighbors declared that he became 



enamored with the poetry of motion 
both vertical and circular and that 
once having established a natural 
rythm in late afternoon he would 
go fast asleep and never miss a stroke 
until he woke up, which sometimes 
was the dawn of the following day. 

The late fifties found the business 
of our city in a seriously depressed 
condition. The day of the highly 
prosperous whaling voyage was over. 
The development of the oil wells in 
Pennsylvania had delivered a stag- 
gering blow to this once thriving in- 
dustry. Added to this came the great 
financial panic of 18 57 the effect of 
which was keenly felt for many years. 
Then followed the depressing days of 
the Civil war period. Yet it was right 
here amidst all these demoralizing 
conditions that the agitation for a 
public water supply had its birth. 
There was a class of bright young 
men who believed that a revival of 
material prosperity could be obtained 
only through new enterprises. Manu- 
facturing seemed to be the one indus- 
try which should be developed. Manu- 
facturing, however, required water 
and that was lacking. They decided 
that this barrier must be removed and 
an agitation was fostered to that end 
which finally resulted in bringing the 
desired element to our doors. The 
controversy continued through all the 
Civil war period. The heavy tax pay- 
ers as a rule were opposed and the 
younger element in favor. Mr. Crapo 
says "that a proposition to expend 
several million dollars today would not 
excite such a bitter struggle." Mr. 
Crapo was a progressive in those days 
and was occasionally addressed as 
"Water Works Crapo" by those not 
in sympathy with his position. 

The first public: movement in rela- 
tion to the introduction of water into 
the city was made by the late Fred- 
erick S. Allen, when he introduced an 
order in the city council on March 8, 
18GU, which passed both branches of 
the city government calling for 
the appointment of a commit- 
tee "to consider the practicability 
and expediency of introducing a per- 
manent supply of fresh water into the 
city and report some plan, with the 
probable cost of doing so, and that 
said committee be allowed six months 
to report thereon." This committee 
was appointed. 

Let me state right here that from 
this date on a joint committee from 
both branches of the city council has 
been annually appointed. A complete 
list of these committees appears in an 
appendix to this paper. 



10 



DEVELOPMENT OF NKW BEDFORD WATER SUPPLIES. 



In July, the committee reported 
that they had visited several localities, 
but in the absence of surveys were 
unable to present estimates of cost. 
They were allowed three hundred dol- 
lars for further research. On Decem- 
ber 21, they reported that the exam- 
ination had been continued by William 
F. Durfee and George A. Briggs un- 
der the direction of Captain Charles 
11. Bigelow, and that the results would 
appear in Captain Bigelow's report. 

The subject was then referred to 
the next city government. Mayor 
Isaac C. Taber in his inaugural ad- 
dress of January 7, 1861 said, "that 
the introduction of water involving, 
as it does, so much importance in 
the sanitary, economical, and business 
interests of the city. 1 should be un- 
willing to leave the subject without 
urging it strongly upon your attention 
with the hope that at an early date 
the subject may be resumed and car- 
ried through to a successful consum- 
mation." 

Another joint special committee was 
appointed on January 17th. (See ap- 
pendix). This committee consumed 
most of the year in its investigations. 
The report was dated December 21, 
1SG1. Jn addition to the main report 
which is signed by Isaac C. Taber as 
chairman, it contains the reports of 
Captain Charles H. Bigelow, engineer, 
and George A. Briggs, city surveyor. 
Captain Bigelow was a United States 
engineer and was then in charge of 
construction of fortifications at Chirks 
point. 

Their reports indicate that all -avail- 
able drainage areas between Sniptuit 
pond on the east and Watuppa pond 
on the west, including the Middleboro 
lakes, had been visited and examined. 
Captain Bigelow has something to say 
in regard to all the places which he 
visited; but he declares his preference 
for a storing reservoir in the Aeush- 
net valley near the Ansel White Mill 
dam, with an aqueduct with regular 
descent along the west bank of the 
Acushnet river to a receiving reservoir 
in the north part of the city; thence 
by pumping to a distributing reservoir 
somewhere on Windmill Hill, from 
thence to be distributed through the 
streets of the city. 

Windmill Hill is now known as Mt. 
Pleasant street. How many present 
remember the old windmill that stood 
there in the early sixties? As I re- 
call, it was of the type similar to 
those which are still to be seen in 
Portsmouth, H. I. It was located on 
the west side of Mt. Pleasant street, 
a short distance south of the French 
cemetery. Captain Bigelow's report 

i 



contains a table of level notes in which 
he gives heights in various locations 
in the city, such as the underpinning 
of city hall, water table County Street 
Methodist church, underpinning of 
William G. Taber's fence, southeast 
corner of County and North streets, 
sill of windmill, Nash road at railroad 
crossing, surface of Hong Pond, etc. 
These heights are interesting now, 
because of the fact that they refer to 
a zero of mean high water in New 
Bedford harbor. This was a result 
of a long series of observations of tide 
levels. The datum then established 
by Captain Bigelow has since been 
the basis of all city engineering opera- 
tions. To Captain Bigelow must be 
given the credit of pointing out the 
possibilities of the Ansel White pond 
reservoir location. In fact, the en- 
tire system as he then outlined it was 
practically the same scheme as was 
later developed by Mr. McAlpine and 
Mr. Briggs. 

Mr. Briggs's report was upon the 
gauging of the streams and the results 
of calculations as to quantities of 
water that may be collected under 
stated conditions. The committee's 
report takes Captain Bigelow's esti- 
mates as a basis and adds to it de- 
tailed estimates for installing distri- 
bution mains. Captain Bigelow died 
here shortly after making this report. 
In his inaugural address of January 
tl, 1802, Mayor Taber recommends 
delay because of the "present dis- 
tracted condition of our country, and 
the constantly repeated calls upon our 
city for relief and the comparatively 
large outlay by the city for the en- 
couragement of enlistments and the 
defence of our harbor." 

A few days later an order was 
passed authorizing the mayor to peti- 
tion the general court for authority 
to introduce water into the city, and 
a committee (see appendix) was ap- 
pointed to take charge of the matter. 
There was no other movement of 
any importance during 18ti2. Mayor 
Taber died in Septmber, 18G2, and 
George 1 lowland, Jr., was chosen to 
Jill the vacancy. 

In January 5, 18 63, Mayor George 
Howland, Jr., presented a discourag- 
ing aspect of the subject in his in- 
augural address. Mr. Howland at this 
time was bitterly opposed to the pro- 
ject. He told Mr. Crapo that if the 
introduction of water became an as- 
sured fact he, with most of the com- 
munity, would never, never have it 
introduced into their homes. 1 now 
quote a few paragraphs which un- 
doubtedly reflected the opinion of the 



DEVELOPMENT OF NEW BEDFORD WATER SUPPLIES. 



11 



majority of the tax paying citizens 
ui that time. 

"Were we not already supplied, so 
far as sanitary or culinary purposes 
are concerned, with as good and ' as 
pure water as any community can 
require, the subject would present 
itself to my mind in a very different 
aspect. 

"Who among us for his own per- 
sonal or domestic use, would if water 
were distributed through our streets, 
introduce it into his private premises? 
Probably very few if any; the only 
purposes for which we want it then, 
as it seems to me, is for manufac- 
tories and the extinguishment of fires." 

He then inquires, "What assurance 
have we that our own capitalists will 
embark in new ventures or capital 
will come from abroad to establish 
new branches of industry among us 
if the contemplated plan is consum- 
mated ?" 

We shall see a little later a reason 
which may have had an influence in 
favor of Mr. How land's revisal of 
opinion, in regard to the pure water 
that was being supplied from the 
residential wells throughout the city. 

His discouraging remarks, however, 
did not dampen the ardor of those 
who were pushing the matter. 

A few days after Mayor Howland's 
address, the Rev. William J. Potter 
gave a pulpit view of the business 
interests of our city, in which he 
said: "To start business requires 
personal effort, labor, assiduity and 
the utmost physical and mental 
activity. Folded hands will not do 
it; sleeping brains will not do it; 
waiting for something to turn up will 
not do it; for to those who so wait, 
nothing will ever turn up. Nothing 
but mould and poverty and death." 
After an analysis of the many sug- 
gestions that had been made in the 
direction of securing an improved busi- 
ness condition, he refers to the water 
question at considerable length. I 
quote one paragraph: 

"If it be said that water is wanted 
before new business can be further 
introduced the reply is: Ten miles 
north of us are vast sleeping ponds, 
which are only waiting to be touched 
with the spirit of the age, in order 
to fly into steam and be set to lifting 
trip-hammers or turning spindles. 
They are sleeping now like our city 
in violation of the law of the nine- 
teenth century." 

This sermon was distributed 
throughout the city in printed form 
.and its logical conclusions attracted 
a great deal of attention. 



Early in the month of January, 
1863, the city council committee was 
appointed (see appendix) to make sur- 
veys, obtain estimates, to inquire into 
the feasibility and cost of the opera- 
tion, and to obtain the necessary au- 
thority from the general court. Three 
hundred dollars were placed al the 
disposal of this committee. 

The professional services of City 
Surveyor George A. Briggs, and Pro- 
fessor George I. Chase of Brown uni- 
versity, were engaged to make the 
necessary investigations. 

The act, for supplying the city of 
New Bedford with pure water, was 
passed by the legislature on April IS, 
18(!3. It provides for commissioners 
to construct the works, gives power 
for the taking of lands and water 
rights, authorizes the issue of bonds, 
gives authority for the city council 
to organize a department with full 
power for management, and makes 
it the duty of the council to estab- 
lish water rates. It contained a 
referendum clause, to the effect, that 
all its provisions would be void unless 
accepted by the voters within one 
year. 

It was desirable that the reports of 
the experts should be' distributed to 
the voters in printed form, previous 
to the taking of the vote. Meanwhile 
the experts consumed the larger part 
of a year with their investigations, 
and their reports were not printed 
for distribution until March, 1SG4. 

Professor Chase's report concerned 
the physical properties of the Acush- 
net valley; the results determined bv 
the chemical analysis of samples of 
water, and the influence likely to 
be exercised by decaying vegetation 
on margin and bottom of reservoir 
site. He also reports on samples 
taken from several wells within the 
city limits all of which were found 
to be inferior in every way to that 
of the Acushnet supply. 

One of these samples was taken 
from the well supplying Mayor 
George Howland's residence on Sixth 
street. He was so aggressive in op- 
posing the introduction of water and 
was so positive of the purity of his 
well that Mr. Crapo Anally prevailed 
upon him to allow Professor Chase 
to collect a sample for analysis so 
that a comparison might be made 
Mr. Howland consented and this was 
done and Mr. Howland was visibly 
embarrassed when Professor Chase 
reported the well to be overloaded 
with chlorine and the water to be 
of a very suspicious quality. Here- 
after Mr. Howland had little to say 
concerning the introduction of water. 



12 



DEVELOPMENT OF NEW BEDFORD WATER SUPPLIES. 



His aggressive opposition ceased and 
when the water finally flowed through 
his street he promptly applied for its 
introduetion into his house. 

Mr. BHggs's report was devoted to 
estimates of cost based upon proposi- 
tion of a storage reservoir to be lo- 
cated as later constructed, from which 
a briek conduit was to bring the water 
to the city by gravity, leaving out all 
calculations for pumping and distribu- 
tion. He also reports adversely upon 
the proposition for obtaining a supply 
from the Burgess swamp, situated 
west of Cedar and north of Kempton 
street. 

The distribution of these reports in 
printed form to the voters was short- 
ly followed by an acceptance of the 
legislative act for supplying the city 
of New Bedford with pure water. 
This vote was taken on April 14, 
18(14. Yeas 781, nays 594. 

The work had now so far progressed 
that its final accomplishment seemed 
assured. This was the view which 
Mayor Howland expressed in his in- 
augural address of January, 1804. 

No progress was made during the 
year 1804, other than the appoint- 
ment of the city council committee. 

In the inaugural address of January 
2, 1805, Mayor George Howland, Jr., 
very briefly alludes to the subject, he 
tails attention to the acceptance of 
the act by the voters in the previous 
April, and adds: 

"The act is therefore within the 
control of the city to be carried into 
effect at such time as the city coun- 
cil may determine." 

The full city council, together with 
Mr. McAlpine and other invited guests 
made a visit to the location of pro- 
posed storing reservoir and the Mid- 
dleboro ponds, in April, 1 8 G 5 . There 
were some happenings upon that trip 
that have never been forgotten. A 
heated discussion occurred between 
Luiiiii Snow and James B. Congdon as 
to capacity of the How at the Ansel 
White dam, Mr. McAlpine's state- 
ments were questioned by Mr. Snow 
and upheld by Mr. Congdon. All this 
afforded amusement for the others. 

Mr. Carpenter had been previously 
commissioned to provide a dinner for 
the party at his tavern in Dakeville, 
bordering on Assawamsett pond. 
(This was later the TCben Berry place.) 
ID- took great pains in providing an 
attractive spread. After the entire 
company were seated at the table, a 
silence came over the group out of 
respect to a number of Friends who 
were of the party. Just at this mo- 
ment, Mr. Carpenter, who was stand- 
ing at the opposite side of the table 
from the kitchen door which was 



open, yelled in stentorian tones to 
Mrs. Carpenter, who was within the 
kitchen, inquiring in language strong- 
ly emphasized by profanity, what she 
had done with the chicken fixings and 
other things. The effect w r as that of 
a bomb, George F. Kingman says that 
he immediately grabbed Mr. Carpen- 
ter and told him to stop all such talk. 
Some were terribly shocked, others 
amused. It is said that one good 
Friend lost his appetite with that 
blast, but my good friends George F. 
Kingman and David B. Kempton al- 
ways declared that it had an appetiz- 
ing effect upon them. 

On July HO, 1805, a joint committee 
of the city council was appointed to 
make further investigations (see ap- 
pendix). This committee entered 
upon the work in a most vigorous 
manner. They retained the services of 
Hon. William J. McAlpine, an hydrau- 
lic engineer of national reputation, to 
be assisted in his work by Professor 
George 1. Chase and George H. Briggs, 
city surveyor. The report of the com- 
mittee in October, 18 05, includes the 
reports of Professor Chase and Mr. 
McAlpine. The report of Professor 
Chase is largely devoted to the analy- 
sis of samples. Mr. McAlpine's report 
was a remarkably able document. He 
examines with clearness and fullness, 
every phase of the question. He con- 
siders and presents estimates for tak- 
ing supplies from the following 
sources: 

1 — A reservoir to be formed upon 
the Acushnet river by the construction 
of a dyke at Dog Fish bar. 

2 — The Acushnet which was later 
constructed. 

3 — A modification of the Acushnet. 

4 — Dong Pond. 

5 — Turner's Mills. 

— Smith's Mills. 

lie considers the advantages and 
disadvantages in each of these pro- 
jects and gives the reasons which in- 
duced him to recommend for adop- 
tion, the Acushnet plan, substantially 
as submitted by Mr. Briggs. 

It is interesting now to recall the 
severe criticisms that were made at 
this time by those who declared Mr. 
McAlpine's comprehensive plan to be 
positively reckless. One factor pro- 
posed Tripp's brook valley (Burgess 
swam])) as the source of supply, and 
the foolishness of this project is 
shown by the fact that the stream 
mentioned was some years later con- 
verted into a sewer known as the 
Tripp's brook sewer. Another scheme 
was to draw upon the supply of Fresh 
river at Smith's Mills, and that was 
regarded with favor by many. Others' 



DEVELOPMENT OP NEW BEDFORD WATER SUPPLIES. 



13 



preferred Turner's pond. Tobey's 
pond, now known as Sassaquin, was 
suggested as a good source, but in- 
vestigation found it to be lacking in 
the essential qualities necessary for 
a water supply. It was even proposed 
to dam the Acushnet river at Dog 
Fish bar. Those who proposed this 
scheme admitted that the water might 
be brackish, but what of that, it was 
needed only for manufacturing pur- 
poses and it did not matter. We can- 
nut now understand how some of 
these schemes, which today seem posi- 
tively ridiculous, could ever have been 
seriously considered. 

The reports of the committee was 
signed by Warren Ladd, chairman: 
The committee were not united in this 
recommendation. Four of the num- 
ber, Joseph Knowles, Matthew How- 
land, Charles H. Gifford and David B. 
Kempton, submitted what they termed 
the minority report. They gave great 
credit to Mr. McAlpine for the able 
manner in which he had investigated 
the subject, and gave full credence to 
his statements and conclusions. They 
approve of all that portion of the un- 
dertaking that sets forth the Acushnet 
as a source of supply with the brick 
conduit to the receiving reservoir in 
the north part of the city. They 
recommend for adoption the plan pro- 
posed by Mr. McAlpine as the modi- 
fied Acushnet plan. 

The minority report was adopted by 
the city council on Nov. 3U, 18i>r>. The 
modified plan contemplated the use 
of the Ansel White dam and pond and 
conveying water by brick conduit to 
a receiving reservoir in the city, from 
whence it was to be distributed on as 
high a grade as it would naturally 
How. 

on the same day an ordinance was 
passed "to regulate the proceedings 
of the commission for supplying the 
city of New Bedford with pure water." 
The body was designated "the New 
Bedford Water Commissioners" in ac- 
cordance with the provisions of the 
act of the general court. 

William W. Crapo, Warren Ladd 
and David B; Kempton were chosen 
water commissioners for a term of 
two years as provided for by the leg- 
islative act. Messrs. Crapo and Ladd 
had been warm friends of the pro- 
ject from its inception. Mr. Kempton 
at first was very skeptical as to the 
feasibility of the introduction of 
water. He represented the conserva- 
tive sentiment of the community. 
This commission became a very happy 
and harmonious family and each did 
good work. As Mr. Kempton became 
better acquainted with the situation 



his opinion yielded to the proofs and 
arguments in favor of the work as it 
was finally constructed. 

The board of water commissioners 
was organized on Decern ber 13, 1865. 
Mr. Crapo, chairman, and James B. 
Congdon, clerk. Shortly after organ- 
ization George A. Briggs was appoint- 
ed chief engineer and William J. 
McAlpine was retained as consulting 
engineer. 

The city council committee for 18GG 
was appointed (see appendix). Mayor 
John H. Ferry briefly alludes to the 
water question in his inaugural of 
January 1, 18G6. 

In less than two months we find 
the water commissioners pleading 
with the city council for a change in 
the plan. They recommend that the 
Wilson dam should be erected at once, 
thus avoiding the delay contemplated 
by the minority report. The council 
authorized such changes in the plan 
as the commissioners may deem most 
expedient and gave them authority to 
exercise their own discretion as to the 
extent of grubbing, excavating and 
dredging the proposed reservoir. 

The growth and decay of micro- 
scopic organism in water supplies, do 
an immense amount of mischief and 
is the source of constant annoyance to 
those in charge. No natural water 
which is exposed to light and air is 
ever entirely free from these green 
dust-like plants known as algae. 

"The number of individuals is al- 
most infinite and under favorable con- 
ditions they increase with great rapid- 
ity. Their appearance gives a decid- 
edly green or greenish-yellow tinge to 
huge bodies of water and their death 
and decay often cause considerable 
offence to the sense of smell, of those 
in the vicinity and to the sense of 
taste to those obliged to drink the 
water." 

While the plant is alive and growing 
there is little taste or odor given to 
the water, hardly noticeable if the 
water is iced. When the plants enter 
into the first stage of decay, the water 
acquires a peculiar taste and odor. 
Light and a certain degree of tem- 
perature are required for a normal 
growth, and the decay often takes 
place in the mains and service pipes, 
it will not infrequently happen that 
the water in a reservoir or pond will 
have almost no taste while the water 
delivered to consumers will be de- 
cidedly unpleasant. There is one 
species known as the "anabena" that 
is particularly dreaded by all water 
officials. That particular plant flour- 
ishes in the Acushnet reservoir and 
all water takers realize its effect upon 



14 



DEVELOPMENT OF NEW BEDFORD WATER SUPPLIES. 



the water. The "spongilla" is also 
abundant there and it is always an un- 
welcome visitor. 

The water commissioners fully 
realized the possibility of trouble from 
the causes just described and the sub- 
ject gave them much concern. Pro- 
fessor Chase in his earliest report had 
emphasized the importance of re- 
moval of all vegetable deposits from 
margin and bottom of proposed reser- 
voir to insure acceptable tasting 
water at all times. Mr. Briggs had 
roughly estimated the cost of this 
work known as grubbing and cleaning, 
to be $100,000. This was so large a 
sum that the commissioners hesitated. 
They visited kindred works where 
similar conditions existed. This in- 
cluded visits to Hartford, New Britain 
and New Haven, Conn. They visited 
the New Britain reservoir with F. T. 
Stanley, who had charge of its con- 
struction. They consulted with Pro- 
fessor B. Silliman, Jr. at New Haven, 
a noted water supply expert of that 
day. The consensus of opinion which 
they obtained led them to believe that 
an extensive grubbing and cleaning 
process could safely be omitted. That 
if the reservoir were maintained at a 
high water level for a few years an 
offensive odor and taste would prob- 
ably appear occasionally during the 
first year, but that the annoyance 
would diminish year by year until it 
entirely ceased. 

This grubbing operation somehow 
seemed to be a subject which caused 
many citizens to view it in a whim- 
sical light and when the commission- 
ers returned from their Connecticut 
journey they received the attention of 
the know-it-all critics of that day, in 
the form of newspaper squibs and 
back-store gossip. 

James B. Congdon, then clerk of 
the commissioners, added to the fun 
by contributing the following, which 
he styles an impromptu: 

THE WATER HOARD ON A BENDER. 

Behold the Board on a Bender bent, 
And gravely chat upon pipes, brick 
and mortar — 
As forth to the land of the Blue-Laws 
they went. 
To taste of the tipple and talk about 
water. 

And safe returned from their venture- 
some trip — 
Each fault-finding tax-payer quietly 
snubbing — 
When charged with an overlarge out- 
lay for flip — 
Each dollar for grub, saved a dollar 
for grubbing. 

The operations up to November, 
I8 60, were carried out upon the lines 
of the limited plan adopted with the 



exception of change stated in pre- 
vious paragraphs by which the supply 
to the citizen was to be confined to 
those portions of the city which could 
be reached by gravity. 

On November 20, 1866, the water 
commissioners call the attention of 
the council to the importance of mak- 
ing provision for the distribution of 
the water. The plan recommended by 
Mr. McAlpine would include an engine, 
engine house, a force main, a distri- 
buting reservoir and ten miles of dis- 
tributing mains, in addition to the 
work that they were authorized to 
construct. The necessary authority was 
granted by the council on December 
20, 1866. This change in plan nearly 
doubled the importance and extent of 
the work and involved a much larger 
expenditure than was contemplated 
by the plan first adopted by the coun- 
cil. 

Mayor John H. Perry in his address 
to the city council January 7, 1867, 
reviews the progress of the work. 

We now have the enterprise well 
underway upon the lines on which it 
was later finished. It is not the pur- 
pose of this paper to deal with the 
constructive parts in detail, but mere- 
ly to outline the history in a gen- 
eral way. 

The storing reservoir was complet- 
ed in July, 18 67, when the gates were 
closed and the reservoir rapidly tilled. 
On February 15, at ten o'clock in the 
forenoon, Thomas Hersom, the well 
known soay manufacturer, was driv- 
ing to the city from Long Plain, when 
crossing the Acushnet river bridge 
at Leonards, he saw a flood coming 
down the valley. Realizing the dam 
had given way he drove post-haste to 
the city and notified Mr. Ladd of the 
casualty; stopping at each mill site 
on the way and advising the owners 
of the coming flood. Beyond the dam- 
age done to the dam itself, and the 
destruction of the highway bridge at 
Leonards, little injury was sustained 
by the sudden rush of so large a body 
of water. The break was caused by 
the action of water upon the quick- 
sand upon which the foundations of 
gate house and dam rested. Repairs 
were made during the following sum- 
mer and fall. 

Andrew G. Pierce was mayor in 
18 08 and 18 69. In both of his inaug- 
ural addresses he enlarges upon the 
progress of the work. 

Under the provisions of the legis- 
lative act, the terms of the commis- 
sioners expired November 30, 1867. 
An ordinance' was passed under which 
the old board was re-elected for two 
years or until, completion of work. 



DEVELOPMENT OF NEW BEDFORD WATER SUPPLIES. 



A brief description of the work as 
completed is as follows: A storing- 
reservoir had been artificially formed 
by the construction of a dam across 
the valley of the Acushnet about seven 
miles north of the centre of the city 
and half a mile down stream from 
the Ansel White dam. The high water 
Level of this reservoir is elevation 4 0. 
Invert of conduit is elevation 30. 
Area of water shed 5.1 square miles. 
Area water surface full reservoir 300 
acres, (estimated contents) 300 mil- 
lion gallons, allowing 600,000 gal- 
lons per day per square mile, its full 
capacity may be placed at 3,000,000 
gallons per day through the dryest 
year. 

An egg shaped brick conduit con- 
nects this resevoir with the receiv- 
ing reservoir on Coggeshall street. 
This conduit is three feet horizontal, 
four feet vertical. Invert at storing 
resevoir elevation 30 feet, at receiv- 
ing resevoir, elevation 2G.82 feet. 
Grade six inch per mile. Capacity 
7.000,000 gallons per 24 hours with 
full resevoir. 

Receiving resevoir water area 1.1 
acres, elevation high water 30 feet, 

Mileage of 
Distribution 

Year Population Mains 

1 87<> 21,320 17 

1875 25,895 35 

1880 26,845 42*4 

1885 33,700 B-0.% 

1890 41,500 62 Vo 

1895 56,300 7614 

1900 62,500 92% 

1905 ........ 75,000 104 V4 

1910 99,000 137 

1914 108,000 162 

Water was delivered through the 
distributing pipes for the first tine on 
November 2 5, 18 69. On the after- 
noon of that day a display of hydrant 
streams was made on Purchase street 
between Union and 101m streets. 

Application No. 1 for a service sup- 
ply was made by William J. Hotch 
for his residence on Orchard street 
at the head of Madison street. 

Application No. 2 was made by 
Elisba Thornton 9 8 Cottage street and 
was the first service installed October 
27, 1869. 

The total number of applications 
since made has been over 16,000. 



The term of Water Commissioners 
expired November 30, 1869 when the 
Acushnet Water Board was created 
by ordinance for the care and 
management of the New Bedford 
Water W r orks. This board consisted 
of the members the same as today, 
three at large with the mayor, George 
B. Richmond and C. M. Peirce, Jr. 



depth 12 feet, capacity 3,000,000 gal- 
lons. 

The Purchase street pumping sta- 
tion was equipped with notable pump- 
ing engine especially designed by Mr. 
McAlpine, by means of which water 
was pumped from the receiving 
reservoir to the Mt. Pleasant reser- 
voir on Mt. Pleasant street. The 
water surface of Mt. Pleasant reser- 
voir has an area of 3.1 acres, ele- 
vation high water 154.8, depth 18 
feet, capacity 15,000,000 gallons. 
From this reservoir the water flows 
by gravity through the distributing 
mains of the city. 

By the end of 1870, 17% miles of 
distributing mains had been installed, 
of this number a little over 9 y 2 
miles were of the wrought iron ce- 
ment lined type of pipe all of which 
has since been replaced by cast iron 
pipe. 

George A. Briggs was assisted in his 
engineering operations by Engineers 
George B. Wheeler, William B. Sher- 
man, Roswell E. Briggs and Israel 
C. Cornish. 

The following table will illustrate 
the growth of the supply: 

Gals. 

No of No. of Average Dailv per 

Services Meters Cons, in Gals. Capita 

553 3 2 9,375 

2311 9 1,136,835 

3798 22 2,014,200 

4965 67 2,876,167 85 

6394 123 4,066,200 98 

8<>27 254 4,711,866 84 

9280 1429 6,320,542 101 

10477 2434 7,093,187 95 

12769 6106 7,864,323 79 

14407 13788 7,432,137 69 

president of the common council, ex 
officio. Messrs. Crapo, Kempton and 
Ladd became the first members at 
large, and George A. Briggs was 
elected the first superintendent. 

In 1S82 the name Acushnet Water 
Board was changed to that of New 
Bedford Water Board. 

In 1871 George A. Briggs resigned 
as superintendent and Israel C. Corn- 
ish was elected his successor. 

The financeering of this enterprise 
was lightened by the assistance whicn 
was supplied by the use of the Sylvia 
Ann 1 lowland bequest. 

The one hundred thousand dollars 
which was bequeathed in aid of the 
introduction of water was at once 
applied in meeting construction ex- 
penses. 

The bequest of the second one hun- 
dred thousand dollars which con- 
stitutes the educational and Free Pub- 
lic Library fund was invested by the 
city council in the cost of the water 
works, the city engaging to provide 



16 



DEVELOPMENT OF NEW BEDFORD WATER SUPPLIES. 



the annual income and apply same 
for the purposes set forth in the 
will. 

The city council's appropriations to 
December 1, 1870 was $700,000. This 
includes the $200,000 bequeathed by 
Sylvia Ann Rowland which deducted 
leaves $5 00,000 as the amount of 
water bonds issued up to that time. 

After the storing reservoir was fin- 
ished and filled it was found to be 
impossible to keep the water level at 
high water mark during the summer 
months. It settled two or more feet 
each year and in 188 6 it shrank 7 
feet This of c Durs<i exposed large 
areas of vegetable deposits to the ac- 
tion of the blistering summer sun. 
Periods of offensive tasting water 
came altogether too frequently and 
there was much complaint on the 
part of the takers. 

The longest and most intense visit 
was in 188 5 when the causes were 
thoroughly investigated by Professor 
William Ripley Nichols who advised 
aeration and filtration method treat- 
ment but thought that a direct con- 
nection with Little Quitacus pond 
might result in obtaining better 
water. 

The consumption was now fast out- 
growing the capacity of this reservoir 
and the board knew that more water 
must soon be obtained. 

The next year the city came very 
near facing a water famine. It was 
the closest call we ever had when in 
October the reservoir level allowed a 
depth of less than three feet to en- 
ter the conduit. 

A hurried connection was made 
with little Quittacus pond. After 
that supply had been provided it was 
possible to maintain the reservoir 
level near that of high water through- 
out the summer. It also improved the 
color and the periods of bad taste 
were of less intensity and not as fre- 
quent. This reservoir was abandoned 
for regular use on July 10, 18'JO. 

One point should be emphasized, 
the storing reservoir water was a 
pure, safe and healthy water, even in 
the days when its taste was unpleas- 
ant. At such times those in charge 
fairly earned their honor by the pa- 
tience which they exercised in listen- 
ing to the complaints that came from 
every direction. The people were very 
restive under the annoyance that it 
was impossible to avoid, and the as- 
surance Of the highest authorities 
that there was nothing harmful or 
noxious in the water did little to- 
ward removing their impatience. Dur- 
ing the worst epidemic it was my cus- 
tom to have a tank of stiff lemonade 
mixed each morning and placed in 



my outer office. The lemon juice killed 
the musty taste of the water. When 
a complainant entered and stated his 
trouble he was invited to sample the 
water furnished to the office, he was 
told that it did not seem to have a 
disagreeable taste. Re was apt to be 
cautious about the first cup, after 
which he partook freely and departed 
in a more comfortable frame of mind 
than he possessed when he entered. 

Within a year after the introduction 
of water a large reinforcing main was 
started from the distributing reser- 
voir, south through the Cedar street 
district, to overcome the loss of pres- 
sure which existed in that area. 

In April, 187 2, George P. Wheeler 
was elected superintendent in place 
of* Israel C. Cornish, who resigned. 
During Mr. Wheeler's administration, 
a second pumping engine (Worthing- 
ton, three million) was installed in 
the Purchase street pumping station, 
and the stand-pipe was erected on 
Mt. Pleasant street opposite the dis- 
tributing reservoir. 

In April, 18 77, William B. Sherman 
was elected superintendent and dur- 
ing his administration many improve- 
ments were made. 

During that year the reinforcing 
main of 18 72 was continued in Ash, 
Bedford, Borden and Grinnell streets 
to Water street. 

In the early 70's the water board 
adopted the policy of maintaining the 
Acushnet storing reservoir at a re- 
duced level in the early part of each 
year, hoping thereby to diminish the 
periods of objectionable tasting water. 
This nearly resulted in a water famine 
in November, 1877, when the reservoir 
level settled to 6 8 inches below high 
water. This caused much anxiety and 
it was deemed wise to move in the 
direction of obtaining additional 
water from either Dong or Little 
Quittacus ponds. 

During the winter of 1877-78 Mr. 
Sherman made extensive surveys to 
locate possible routes from both 
ponds. 

Upon April 13, 1878, the General 
Court passed an Act authorizing the 
City of New Bedford, the use of 
water from either pond under certain 
restrictions. 

On August 1, 1878 the city council 
authorized the water board to use its 
discretion in the selection of ponds, 
and to take water therefrom when- 
ever they deem it expedient. 

On November 12. 1878 the water 
board voted in favor of Lung pond as 
the source of supply. Mr. Sherman's 
plans called for an open canal con- 
necting Long pond with the head 
waters of the Acushnet river. The 



DEVELOPMENT OF NEW BEDFORD WATER SUPPLIES. 17 



water level of Long pond is ten feet 
higher than that in the storing reser- 
voir. There was to he a controlling 
Kate house at its entrance at Long 
pond. Estimates of cost were pre- 
pared. Plans were made and all 
necessary documents filed. The re- 
quired land was taken and settlements 
were made with the owners thereof, 
and all preliminary work was com- 
pleted. This action left the work in 
condition to he taken up and com- 
pleted at any time when the water 
heard considered it expedient. Noth- 
ing further was ever done. The 
city's rights here still exist. 

In 1878-79 a new boiler house and 
coal shed were erected at the Pur- 
chase street pumping station, replac- 
ing smaller structures which were de- 
molished, and two new boilers were 
Installed. 

In 1879 James H. Hathaway was 
elected eity treasurer in place of 
James H. Congdon, who declined a 
re-election on ccount of ill health; a 
little later Mr. Hathaway was elected 
water registrar. Mr. Congdon had 
been identified with the works from 
Its very beginning. 

William B. Sherman resigned as 
superintendent and clerk of the 
hoard on June 9. 1S81 and It. C. P. 
Coggeshall was elected to fill the va- 
cancies. 

In providing a distributing sys- 
tem, it is a recognized practice 
among hydraulic engineers that the 
largest takers (manufacturing and 
fire protection) should determine the 
size of the distributing mains. The 
domestic draught in any given area, 
say a quarter of a mile square, is hut 
a small fraction of the possible man- 
ufacturing or frre draught. The do- 
mestic draught is distributed with 
approximate uniformity over its en- 
tire area. Pipes for domestic supply 
alone might start with main arteries 
and taper down to small veins at the 
extremity of the area. Manufactur- 
ing and lire protection often demand 
all the water a system can supply at 
one point, and this point may happen 
to he anywhere. It is in one case 
distribution and in the other concen- 
tration. In planning works it is of 
the utmost importance to be able to 
concentrate the full supply at the 
point where it is likely to be needed. 
When the water commissioners 
constructed the works they provided 
a distributing system for the city as 
it then existed with its 21,000 inhabi- 
tants. They did not provide for con- 
centration at the extremities for the 
reason that nothing was then in ex- 
istence that warranted their so doing. 
The only large mill in the city at that 



time was the Wamsutta, which had 
its own water supply from Rodman's 
pond, so they were not likely to re- 
quire large, amounts from the city 
mains. It was impossible to fore- 
cast the future of the green fields and 
slill pastures which then existed in 
every direction at the extremities of 
the city, and no one suspected the 
the tremendous textile activity which 
came later. The Potomska mills 
came during the 70's for which the 
supply was adequate. 

By 18S0 the city had gained over 
0000 in its population and both the 
Wamsutta and Potomska had built 
additional mills. Conditions rapidly 
changed in IS 82 with the construc- 
tion of the Acushnet, Grinnell and 
Onekp mills. Let me say right here 
that New Bedford differs from other 
large mill centres in this respect. Kail 
River factories draw upon Watuppa 
lake; Lowell, Lawrence and Man- 
chester upon the Merrimac river, 
Holyoke upon the Connecticut river, 
and the public water supplies of 
those cities supply only a small pro- 
portion of the manufacturing water. 
The mills of New Bedford have no 
auxiliary fresh water supply, so every 
drop must be obtained from the city 
mains. In 1^82 the water board was 
confronted with four strong petitions 
from different sections of the city 
at the same time. The drop in pres- 
sure and lack of supply was proving 
a serious impediment to the new en- 
terprises. The water board well 
knew that to provide satisfactory de- 
liveries required more than the mere 
enlargement of certain pipes. The 
maximum daily consumption was 
hovering around 4,000,000 gallons. 
There was only one pump (McAlpine) 
to provide this supply and that was 
becoming worn after thirteen years' 
service. More pumping facilities 
were badly needed. A special ap- 
propriation by the city council en- 
abled the water board by 188(> to 
place the pumping capacity upon a 
more reliable basis than had hitherto 
existed. This work consisted in pro- 
viding new pump wells; new connec- 
tions with the receiving reservoir; an 
addition to the engine house; a new 
live million Worthington pump; a 
new force main to the Mount Pleas- 
ant distributing reservoir and the be- 
ginnings of a twenty-inch reinforcing 
main which in a few years continued 
through State, Pleasant, William and 
Sixth streets to Grinnell street. From 
that time to the present, more or less 
of larger sized pipe has been laid 
each year, replacing the small mains 
of earlier days, especially the wrought 
iron cement lined pipe. A great deal 
of this work has been required to 



18 



DEVELOPMENT OF NEW BEDFORD WATER SUPPLIES. 



provide the concentration ability 
needed by the new mills that have 
appeared during the last thirty years. 
The energetic members of the water 
board of these days were George R. 
Stetson, William N. Church and David 
B. Kempton. For many weeks much 
of their time was required and free- 
ly given and the work was faith- 
fully executed. 

The consumption of the summer of 
1886, as has already been stated, was 
beyond the capacity of the storing 
reservior to supply. The water level 
by October had droppped over seven 
feet and the city with all its new 
industries was facing a problem. A 
quick connection was made with 
Little Quittacas pond by cleaning out 
what was known as the Dry Swamp 
Ditch. This ditch is said to have 
been dug by Ansel White about 1830 
in an attempt to obtain more water 
for his mill pond. It had not been in 
use for many years and had complete- 
ly filled up with vegetable decay. 
After this connection had been com- 
pleted it was possible to maintain a 
well filled storing reservoir through- 
out the summer months for many 
years. 

on March 24, 18 87 the Massachu- 
setts general court passed an act en- 
abling the city to use the water of 
Little Quittaeus Pond. 



In 1890 a new chimney and a large 
addition to coal shed was constructed 
at the Purchase Street Pumping Sta- 
tion. 

In 18 9 2 a "lielpaire" type of boiler 
replaced two boilers which were 
worn out. The old chimney was re- 
moved and a meterological observa- 
tory was erected upon the location. 

In 1893 it was necessary to deepen 
and enlarge the dry swamp ditch. 

We have now arrived at a critical 
point in the history of the Acushnet 
supply. The population has passed 
the 55,000 mark. The city is spread- 
ing out in every direction. Building 
has invaded large areas of high ele- 
vation to supply which will require 
the construction of a high service 
system. The amber colored water of 
the Acushnet supply with its marked 
periods of disagreeable taste and odor 
is a source of criticism. The conduit 
must at times be strained to its ut- 
most capacity to satisfy the consump- 
tion; the capacity of the -Mount 
Pleasant reservoir is not equal to 
modern requirements. An increased 
pressure for fire protection purposes 
has become very necessary. In short 
the Acushnet supply is now worn out 
and in many respects outgrown. 



It was perhaps fortunate that so 
many defects in the orignal system 
appeared at the same time, otherwise 
the board would have probably yield- 
ed to the great temptation to patch 
up the old system. 

As they came to appreciate these 
many shortcomings they decided to 
submit the whole question to experts 
for study and recommendations. 
Messrs. George E. Rice and George 
E. Evans were employed to do this 
work, which occupied several weeks. 
They finally submitted an elaborate 
report in which every ohase of the 
question was considered and discussed. 
They presented alternative plans, in- 
cluding the possibilities of patching 
up the old system with the addition of 
a separate system for high service 
supply; but in the end they strongly 
recommended the adoption of an en- 
tirely new plan which later was ac- 
cepted and constructed. 

It is not the purpose of the writer 
to enter into the history of the "Fur- 
ther Supply" at this time. That will 
be left for consideration in a later 
paper. 

The worn-out Acushnet plant con- 
tinued to supply the city during the 
period of the "Further Supply" con- 
struction. On three occasions its ca- 
pacity was taxed to its utmost limit 
proving to the satisfaction of the wa- 
ter board that the construction of the 
new supply had been begun none too 
soon. 

The transfer of supply from the 
<dd to the new system was made at 
6 o'clock on the morning of July 10, 
1899. 

Since its abandonment, the old sys- 
tem has been held intact as a reserve 
supply. Its pumps have since been 
occasionally operated allowing certain 
repairs to be made. Should occasion 
require it is possible to pump a por- 
tion of the daily supply through these 
pumps. 

The growth of a city is always in- 
timately connected with its water 
supply. It does not require many 
years for a city to outgrow a well 
conceived plan. The early water 
commissioners thought that they had 
planned for at least fifty, and prob- 
ably for 7 5 years. The plant lasted 
just thirty years. Exactly the same 
length of time that the original Co- 
chituate aqueduct unaided continued 
to supply Boston. The original Cro- 
ton aqueduct of New York lasted 42 
years but was badly strained in the 
latter part of its career. Thus we 
see that our early commissioners were 
fully as far seeing as those in charge 
cf similar affairs in larger cities. 

The board of water commissioners 
bad a hard' time of it during the con- 



DEVELOPMENT OP NEW BEDFORD WATER SUPPLIES. 



19 



Btruction period. The disposition of 
the owners of land required was to 
hold saioe at prices far in advance 
of its real value. This made it dif- 
ficult to effect settlements. They 
were the targets of criticism and rid- 
icule and on one occasion an individ- 
ual advertised and pave a ridiculous 
lecture in Liberty hall upon "The 
[Use and Fall of the Mighty Water 
Works of New Bedford." At the 
time of the. construction of the fur- 
ther supply 1804-98 Mr. Kempton 
was a member of the board. He had 
the satisfaction of being one of the 
construction agents of both works. 

The water board of the late 90's 
were often severely criticised and Mr. 
Kempton often referred to the days 
when the original commission was 
under fire and would say: "I have an 
impression that 25 years from now 
there will be as little criticism of the 
work in which we are now engaged 
and that there will be just as much 
commendation bestowed upon this 
board, as is now freely given to Wil- 
liam W. Crapo, Warren Ladd and 
David P.. Kempton for their service of 
25 years ago." 

From the date of the introduction 
of water in 18 69 to the present time 
no one subject has been the theme 
of more controversy than that of 
water rates. 

r l he first schedule was passed by 
the city council on January 1, 1870. 
This list was based upon figures 
similar to those adopted in other wa- 
ter departments throughout the state. 
The first faucet was placed at $5 and 
the maximum charge for one family 
was $22. For manufacturing purposes 
the charge was 15 cents per thousand 
gallons. 

These charges were deemed exces- 
sive by many and agitation resulted 
in a reduction of fifty per cent in all 
flat rates, while the manufacturing 
rate was placed at 2 % cents per 
thousand gallons. This revision took 
effect July 1, 1872. 

The Sylvia Ann Howland bequest 
had its influence in determining the 
low manufacturing rate. 

In 187"), Mr. Crapo, who was about 
to begin his congressional career, sent 
a letter to Mayor Abraham H. How- 
land, Jr., resigning his membership 
in the water board. In that letter he 
reviews the past activities of the board 
and expressed himself in sympathy 
with a* readjustment of the water 
rates. I quote a few paragraphs: "The 
water rates as now established, pay 
the expenses of maintaining and oper- 
ating the works, but reimburse a por- 
tion only of the yearly interest paid 
on the water bonds. The deficiency is 
met by general taxation, which falls 



upon our citizens and corporations, ir- 
respective of their use of the water. 

Those who have n<» benefit contri- 
bute toward the payment of this in- 
terest equally with those who enjoy 
them. 

The consumption of water in New 
Bedford is now so extensive that if 
the moderate charges made in other 
New England eities were established 
here, it would enable this department 
to be self-sustaining." 

Later he expressed the opinion that 
the manufacturing interests should 
have fhe benefit of the income of the 
Sylvia Ann Howland fund. 

Mr. Crapo's words attracted much 
attention. The water ordinance re- 
quired a revision of the water rates in 
18 77. On May 3rd of that year the 
city council established rates in which 
no important change was made from 
those heretofore in force. 

On May 1st. 1878, the water board 
sent a communication to the city 
council strongly recommending a re- 
vision of the rates in the direction of 
placing the department upon a self- 
sustaining basis. The charges recom- 
mended were placed at about the 
same figure as obtained in other New 
England cities. Metered water was 
placed at thirty cents per thousand 
gallons. This measure was killed by 
the ciiy council. 

Beginning at this time and continu- 
ing for many years, the question of 
water rates was a veritable fire-brand 
for violent controversy between three 
factors, viz.: free water advocates, 
those who desired no change, and 
those who wished to see a self-sus- 
taining department. 

Early in the year 1883 the city 
council requested the water board to 
prepare a revised tariff of rates and 
submit same with recommendations 
that they be adopted as an ordi- 
nance. This was done but its passage 
was defeated by the city council. 

Exactly the same thing was repeat- 
ed in 1884 and again in 18S5 when 
the agitation was the most bitter 
struggle of the many attempts to re- 
vise the rates. This was largely caused 
by an attempt to obtain a legislative 
bill authorizing the city of New Bed- 
ford "to create from its recipts from 
the price of the rent of water, a sink- 
ing fund for the payment at matur- 
ity, of the water bonds of said city 
now outstanding." 

An increase in water rates would 
have been required to meet this con- 
dition. When this was realized public 
meetings in protest to this bill were 
held and the discussions were long 
and varied. I remember two items that 
were humorous but convincing. One 
citizen declared that water should be 



i 



20 DEVELOPMENT OF NEW BEDFORD WATER SUPPLIES. 

free as the air we breathe, whereupon Councilmen, Cornelius Rowland. 

Benjamin Reed of the Standard force Frederick S. Allen, John H. Perry, 

replied, "So it is out in the Ansel George R. Taber. 

White pond. Jt is your privilege to 18G2 

go there and take it by the pailful, Aldermen, Warren Ladd, William 

and bring it home, but J suspect that H. Reynard. Councilnien, George 

by the time your wife asked for the I lowland, Jr., Edward T. Taber, J. A. 

second pailful you would be willing Brownell, Charles M. Fierce, Jr. 

to pay a good price for a faucet in 1863 

your, house rather than repeat the Aldermen, Warren Ladd, John 11. 

journey." Ferry. Councilmen, Charles IF Taber, 

Another reply was to this effect, Caleb Hammond, Elijah II. Chisholm] 
"It is true that the air is free to all, George F. Kingman, Charles 11. Gif- 
b'ut how free would air be if you had ford, 
to bring it seven miles underground 1864 
in a pipe and then pump it into a Mayor, George Rowland, Jr. Alder- 
reservoir." men, Warren Ladd, Khen Ferry. 

The measure was again killed and Councilmen, William G. Taber, L. M. 

water rates were not considered again pollock, George F. Kingman, J. P. 

for twenty years. Knowles, Jr. 

Meanwhile a large number of care- Aldermen, Warr.m Ladd, Joseph 

fill water takers had discovered that Knowles, Cornelius Rowland. Coun- 

by proper care a saving over he fix- ri lmen, Charles R. Gifford, David B 

ture rate could be effected by the use Kempton, John W. Maeomber, Elijah 

of meters They passed the word ,, chisnolm Caleb Hammond. 

along and the sentiment in favor of 18 6 G 

metered supply was soon in ascen- Ai, 1(1 , nwin r^^r.<r, n r*ee 4 

dency. Thus the interest in fixture aJorJl v ' rin, " ^ CLfford, 

charges was passing in favor of the ?*?** r i£™ t , w^? 11 ™"' 

policy of one unit price to all. As ^Z^K^t^' "^ 

long as the manufacturer was charged „ ' ~" u - 

2V 2 cents per thousand gallons there Aldermen, George G Gifford 

was more or less discontent among p 1 ,,,*,.^ i.- t-- V,' ., IU| 

those who were obliged to pay the Y n ?w ; ?J n8rman ' TI Councilmen, 

fifteen cent rate, but when the manu- *" '°wim' ' m" 1 " ? H T or " tifJ ""th- 

faeturing rat, was by the ordinance ,lW ' iy ' William Oordon, Jr. 

of 1905 placed at the same figure, M .,„ , . , ,, ,,. 

while not pleasing to the manufact- nu , V Andrew G Fierce ; Alder- 

urer it proved satisfactory to all V' \\' h ?®° ,ge "' J) ". n »» : "-. Elijah H. 

others. The manufacturers in turn , h V Councilmen, Horatio 

were discontented when by ordinance \vm * Wllllam ( ^> r(1( »n, Jr., John 

of 1906 a five cent rate was allowed ' Macom » e r. 

to one mill. The agitation which fol- AI . , l °*JI 

lowed resulted in the ordinance of Mayor, Andrew G. Fierce. Alder- 

1908, which repealed the five cent m ® n l '\ n ^Vh IT. Cornel], Elijah 11. 

rate and placed all manufacturing -nianolm. ( ouncilmen, Horatio 

rates at 10 cents per thousand gal- \ 1 "' t .," way ' James G - Hitch, John R. 

Ions, where it now remains. The or- * <U ue * 

dinanco of 1009 provided for the , ,, _, ls '° 

metering of all supplies, the abolish- n Aldermen, George G. Gifford. Isaaac 

ment of fixture rates automatically \: ^nerman. Councilmen, John R. 

with the installation of meters. All § *- < j Kl e * James c - Hitch, William T. 

supplies in this city are now measured " pule. 

through about 14,000 meters. .,, 1S7:I 

Aldermen, George G. Gifford. Sam- 

The joint committees of the City uel r - Waft. Councilmen. John R. 

Council upon Water Works and Macki<\ William R. Sherman, Abram 

Water Supply from the beginning T - Eddy. 

have been: 18 72 

1860 Aldermen, William Bosworth, Sam- 
Aldermen, John Runt, Nathan lK ' 1 (< - Hart, ('ouncilmen, Charles M. 

Lewis, William R. Reynard. Council- Fierce, Jr., Joseph G. Dean, Loum 

men, Frederick S. Allen, Eben Ferry, Snow, Jr. 

Edmund Anthony, Nathan E. Ram- 1873 

mott - Aldermen, Frederick S. Allen, An- 

1861 drew G. Fierce. Councilmen, James 
Mayor, Isaac C. Taber. Aldermen. 1 T. C. Richmond, William J Norton 

Nathan Lewis, William H. Reynard. Samuel Dammon. 

( 



DEVELOPMENT OF NEW BEDFORD WATER SUPPLIES. 21 

lg74 Stephen D. Pierce, Frank R. Sawin, 

Aldermen, Joseph R. Road, William James W. Kane. 

j. Kilburn. Councdmen, Augustus 1888 

Swift Jliram W. Wentworth, John 11. Aldermen, Stephen A. Brownell, 

Hounds. Wendell 11. Cobb. Councilmen, 

1 g 7 5 James W. Kane, Andrew G. Pierce, 

Aldermen, James I). Thompson, Ji\, William N. Chinch, Jr. 

George R. Stetson. Councilmen, VVil- 1889 

11am A. Heard, Uul'us A. Soule, George Aldermen, Edward T. Pierce, James 

II Freeman. Delano. Councilmen, John J. How- 

187G land, Andrew G. Pierce, Jr., William 

Aldermen, Jonathan C. Tlawes, N. Church, Jr. 

George K. Stetson. Councilmen, John 1890 

p. Taylor, Lemuel T. Terry, John Aldermen, Charles F. Shaw, James 
Wing. 



Vl.tno. Councilmen, Eliot D. Stetson, 



1877 William A. Church, George VV. Parker. 

Aldermen, George Rowland, Jr., 181)1 

Henry T. Wood. Councilmen, Aldermen, Wendell TT. Cobb, 

Charles W Coggeshall, Benjamin Stephen II. Brownell. Councilmen, 

Dawson, John 10. Murphy. George VV. Parker, Martin P. F.ehten- 

1 S 7 S mayer, Isaac L. Ashley. 

Aldermen, John Hastings, Shear- 1892 

jashub T. Viall. Councilmen, Albert Aldermen, William TT. Rankin, 

G. Stanton, Walter Clifford, Francis Stephen II. Brownell. Councilmen, 

C. Terry. Stephen U. Wilbur, Charles T. Luce, 

1S79 James Slater. 

Aldermen, OLs A. Sisson, William 1893 

II. Sherman. Councilmen, Morgan Aldermen, Oliver W. Cobb, George 

Ilotch, Simeon llawes, Loum II. F. Brightman. Councilmen, William 

Faunce. T. Taylor, 13d Ward G. Reynolds, Mar- 

1550 tin II. Sullivan. 
Aldermen, John Wing, John Mc- 1894 

Cullough. Councilmen, Morgan Aldermen, George F, Brightman, 

Rt.tch, lOzekiel C. Gardner, Loum II. Arthur 10. Perry. Councilmen, Harry 

Faunce. B. Wood, Henry T. Ashley, Lewis TO. 

1551 Millikcn. 
Aldermen, James 10 Stanton, Tsaae 1S9G 

N. Marshall. Councilmen, Hiram P. Aldermen, John II. Barrows, Wil- 

Coffln, John A. Uussell, Philip C. Ham R. West. Councilmen, Harry B. 

Tripp. Wood, Charles IT. L. Delano, James C. 

1882 Piatt. 

Aldermen, Thomas Donaghy, Dana 1890 

B. Humphrey, Councilmen, Phineas Aldermen, John II. Bar-rows, J. Ar- 

White, Henry Howard, William 10. thin- Taylor. Councilmen, Edward G. 

Clarke. Reynolds, John D. Wilson, Henry T. 

1883 Ashley. 
Aldermen, Stephen W. TTayes, 1897 

James C. Stafford. Councilmen, Aldermen, Henry P. Jenney, Samuel 

Henry Howard, William 10. Clarke, C. Hunt. Councilmen, Joseph Magnant, 

orlando F. Ply. Frank A. Habicht, William Bamford. 

18 8 4 18 9 8 

Aldermen, Andrew B. Hathaway, Aldermen,. TTenry P. Jenney, Charles 

John P.Taylor. Councilmen, Orlando TT. Brownell. Councilmen, Joseph H. 

F. Ply, Frederick Swift, Thomas Sullivan, lOrnest Findeisen, Abbott P. 

Boardman. Sm.th. 

188F) 1899 

Aldermen, Edward T. Pierce, Aldermen, Henry P. Jenney, Charles 

Wendell H Cobb. Councilmen, VVil- TT. Brownell. Councilmen, Ernest 

liam A. Church, Arthur 10. Perry, Findeisen, Joseph If. Sullivan, Weston 

Robert Snow. C. Vaughan, Jr. 

1886 1900 

♦Alderman, Edward T. Pierce, Aldermen, Henry P. Jenney, Charles 

Wendell II. Cobb. Councilmen, Wil- IT. Brownell. Councilmen, Ernest 

liam A. Church, Robert Snow, John F. Findeisen, Robert S. Gorham, John 

Canny. Hannigan. 

1887 1901 

Aldermen. Edward T. Pierce, Aldermen, Henry P. Jenney, Charles 

Wendell H. Cobb. Councilmen, H. Brownell. Councilmen, Patrick H. 



22 DEVELOPMENT OP NEW BEDFORD WATER SUPPLIES. 



Keardon, Robert S. Gorham, Robert 
J.. Baylies. 

1902 
Aldermen, Henry I'. Jenney, Charles 
11. Brownell. Councilmen, Robert L. 
Baylies, Patrick II. Reardon, Stanis- 
laus J. Desautel. 

RiO 3 
Aldermen, Henry I*. Jenney, Charles 
If. Brownell. Councdmen, Joseph If. 
Handford, John V. Thuot, Abbott P. 
Smith. 

1904 
Aldermen, Henry P. Jenney, John 
Hannigan. Councilmen, Joseph II. 
Handford, John V. Thuot, Lewis 13; 
Milliken. 

1 9 5 
Aldermen, Charles H. Adams, Fred- 
eric!; A. Daniinon. Councilmen, Sam- 
uel Whitlow, George J. Allen, Charles 
S. Rieketson. 

1906 
Aldermen, Ernest A. Dionne, Fred- 
erick A. Dammon. Councilmen, Hen- 
ry J. Curl, Charles A. McAvoy, Wil- 
liam K. Lees. 

1907 
Aldermen, Samuel Higham, Joseph 
Chausse. Councilmen, Joseph II. Clen- 
non, J. I3rnest Dionne, John llalli- 
well. 

190S 
Aldermen, Francis F. Washburn, 
Joseph Chausse. Councilmen, Joseph 
Aloi.ncv, Samuel T. Rex, Clarence II. 
llrownell. 

HI 9 
Aldermen, Samuel F. Winsper, 
Joseph Chausse. Councilmen, William 
Burke, Stephen 1 >. Perry, George C. 
Hatch, Jr. 

1910 
Aldermen, John Hannigan, Joseph 
R Clennon. Councilmen, Samuel A. 
Percy, Henry 10. Woodward, James 
Caw ley. 

1911 
Aldermen, John Hannigan, Joseph 
Chausse. Councilmen, Samuel A. 
Percy, Henry 10. Woodward, Daniel J. 
Sullivan. 

1912 
Aldermen, John Hannigan, John F. 
Hatch, Jr. Councilmen, Hubert S. 
Kelleher, Samuel A. Percy, Henry 13. 
Woodward. 

1 9 1 3 
Aldermen, William K. Fees, Aldege 
Chausse. Councilmen, Robert Burke, 
Wanton F-I. S. Beauvais, Joseph H. 
Fernandes. 

1914 
Aldermen, Aldege Chausse, William 
K. Lees. Councilmen, George D. La- 
croix, Alfred Leveille, Samuel A. 
Percy. 



1915 

Aldermen, Mortimer McCarty, Ed- 
Ward L. Cronin. Councilmen, George 
D. Lacrbix, John H. Hollihan, Robert 
Burke. 

The Water Hoard consists of the 
Mayor and President of Common 
Council, ex-offieio, and three members 
elected at large. The board was des- 
ignated as the "Acushnet Water 
Hoard" from its creation in 1869 to 
1SS2 inclusive. Since lss2 it has been 
named "The New Bedford Water 
Board." The following have been its 
members: 

MA VOLS AND PRESIDENTS < »F 
WATER H<)A HD. 

Andrew (1. Pierct — 1869. 

George B. Richmond — 1S70, 1X71, 
1872, HS74, 1878. 

George II. Dunbar— 1873. 

Abraham 11. Rowland, Jr. — 1875, 
1S76. 

Alanson Borden — 1 S77. 

William T. Souk 1879, 1880. 

George Wilson — 1881, 1S82 
1884. 

Morgan Rotch— 1S85, 18S6 

INNS. 

Walter Clifford — 1 SS9, 1S90. 

Charles S. Ashley — 1891, 
IS 97, 1898, 1899, 19 00, 19 01, 1902 
1903, 1904, 1905; 1907, 1910, 1911 
1912, HtHk 1914. 

Jethiu C. Brock — 1893. 

Stephen A. Browned — 1894. 

I >avid L. Parker — 1895, 1896. 

Thomas Thompson— 1 9 06. 

William J. Bullock — 1908, 1909. 

Hdward R. Hathaway -1915. 



1883, 
1S87, 

1892. 



PRESIDENTS OF Til 13 COMMON 
COUNCIL. 

I loratio 1 la t ha way — 1 869. 
Charles Al . Pierce, Jr. — 1S7<), 1871. 
I lenry F. Thomas — 1872, 1873. 
Hufus A. Soule— 1874. 
13d win Dews — ls7. r >, ls7tk 
William II. Matthews- 1 S 77. 
Thomas P. Hodman — 1S7S. 
Hubert W. Tabor — HS79, 1S80. 
Isaac H. Tompkins, Jr.— 1881, 1882, 
1S83, 1884. 

Kdniuud Wood— 1.885, 1S86. 
William A. Church — 1 S s 7 . 1906. 
Stephen D. Pierce — 1888. 
William A. Tucker, 1889, 1890. 
Joseph 1 lawson — 1 891 . 
William G. Kirschbaum — 1892. 
Samuel C, Hart — 1893. 
John A. Harrows — 189 1. 
( diver Preseott, Jr.— 1 895. 
Arthur L. Bluckmer- — 1 896. 
George H. Bailey — 1897. 
Stephen A. Btowueil — 1898. 
John L. (',. Mason — 1899, 1900, 1901. 



DEVELOPMENT OF NEW BEDFORD WATER SUPPLIES. 23 

Pumuel Higham— 1902, 1903, 1904, Thomas W. Cook— 1877, 1S7S, 1S79 

1905. 1880. 

Francis P. Washburn— 1907. George R. Stetson — 1880, 188 1 

Patrick Loftus — 1908. . 1882, 1883, 1881, INS,",. 

J. Ernest Dionnc — 1909. William N. Church — 1881, 1882 

1). Herbert Cook — 1910, 1911. 1883, 1884, 1885, 1880, 1887, 1888 

Frederick ti. Tuber— 1912. 1889, 1890, 1891, 1892, 1803. 

Richard Knowles — 1913. ITenry Howard— 1885, 1S86, 1887 

Henry E. Woodward 1914. 1888, 1889, 1890, 1891, 1892, 1S93 

James F. Collins— 1 9 1 5. 18!) 1. 

Edmund Wood — 1 893, 189 4, 1S95 
1S96, 1897, 1898, 1899. 

Thomas H. Trip]) 189 1, 1895, 1896 
1897, 1898. 1899, 1900. 



M EMBERS AT LARGE. 



Will am W CrapO— 1869, 1870, Robert XV. Tabor -1898, 1899, 1900 

1871, 1872, 1873, 1874, IS75. 19"1, 1902, 1903, 1901. 

Warren Ladd — 1SG9, 1870, 1871, Samuel < '. Hunt 1899, 1900, 1901 

1872. 1902, 1903. 

David P.. Kempton — 1809, 1870, Zephnniah XV. Pease- 1900, 1901 

1871, 1880, 1881, 1882, 1883, 1884, 1902, 1903, 1901, 1905, 1900. 

1885,' 188(1, 1887, 1888, 1S89, 1890. George M. Hedge — 1903, 1901. 

1891 1892, 1893, 1894, 1895, 1S90, Loltioe R. Washburn — 1 901, 1905 
l v s:i7, 1898, ,!,,l,; . 1907, 1908, 1909, 1910, 1911 

George 1 lowland. Jr.- 1871, 1872, 1912, 1913, 1911, 19 15. 
1873 1871, 1875, 1876, 1877. William 10. Smith— 1904, 1905 

Henry J. Taylor— 1872. 1873, 1874. 1906, 1907, 1908, 1909, 1910. 

Frederick S. Allen — 1874, 1875. William II. Pitman— 1906, 1907 

Thomas Bennett, Jr— 1875, 1876, 1908, 1909, 1910, 1911, 1912, 19 13 

1877, 187S, 1879, 1880, 1881. 1911, 1915. 

Henry F. Thomas — 1875,187^,1877, Francis P. Washburn — 1910, 1911 

1878, 1879, 1880. 1912, 1913, 1914, 1915. 












- 




PURCHASE STREET PUMPING STATION, 
Showing Development Between 1870 and 18!M>. 



' i X 




OLD DARTMOUTH 
HISTORICAL SKETCHES 



No. 43, 



Proceedings of the Old Dartmouth Historical Society. Annual 

Meeting, March 22. 1915. Reports. 
Quarterly Meeting July 15, 1915. 
Buzzards Bay Canal. 



OXFORD VILLAGE, FAIRHAVEN. 
CAPTAIN THOMAS TABER. 



Bv HENRY B. WORTH. 



Proceedings of the Annual Meeting 



The Old Dartmouth Historical so- 
ciety held its annual meeting in the 
Free Public Library building March 
22, 1915. The attendance was large, 
the uliicers' reports enthusiastic; ana 
there was every indication that the 
hope of Frank Wood, the curator, that 
"We are not going - to settle down into 
a dully and musty old antiquarian so- 
ciety, we are going to be a live issu . 
in the history of New Bedford" is al- 
ready being fulfilled. 

A net gain in the membership of 
182, making the total number of 
members 840, was the encouraging- 
report of Henry B. Worth, the sec- 
retary. Miss Emily H. Bourne's gift 
of a whaling museum was referred to 
at some length by Mr. Wood, with the 
hope that that on the roof of the new 
building there might be a "whale 
walk, where we can go and look for 
the whalers that may never come.' 
With Miss Bourne's gift completed, 
the Whaling Museum will become a 
unique institution, and one of the 
most interesting museums in the 
country. The officers were elected aft- 
er the reports were heard. 



Secretary's Report. 

The report of the secretary, Henry 
B. Worth, was as follows: 

"The present board of officers be- 
gan their duties January 1st, 1914, 
after a deferred annual meeting. As 
the next annual meeting was in or- 
der within three months, their chief 
duty was to become familiar with 
the needs and condition of the so- 
ciety and attempt to start in opera- 
tion its various activities. They adopt- 
ed the plan of holding meetings on 
the second Monday of the same 
months appointed for the quarterly 
meetings. 

'Some important changes in the 
management of finances were adopt- 
ed, which have proved successful. 
The restoration of the date when an- 
nual dues were payable from July 
to April caused a few inquiries, and 
the explanation proved satisfactory. 

"The most useful change was the 
appointment of a finance committee, 
comprising the president, treasurer 
and two members. The treasurer was 
entrusted with the duty of collecting 
all moneys, dues, income and prin- 



cipal belonging to the society and to 
pay all bills, and no expenditures were 
to be authorized except by the com- 
mittee. Consequently, there should be 
no unexpected bills and no surprises 
as to resources, and the condition of 
money matters has, at all times, been 
under intelligent control. 

"During the past year the society 
has held all its regular meetings, 
which have been well attended. 

"The spring reception held Satur- 
day afternoon, April ISth, was an at- 
tractive innovation and ninety mem- 
bers were present. 

"The June quarterly meeting was 
held at Padanaram, June 17th, and, 
after a clambake a large concourse 
of visitors and members convened at 
the Yacht club house to listen to Wal- 
ter H. 13. Remington, city clerk of 
New Bedford, and previously a re- 
porter on the New Bedford Standard. 
The city was in the midst of an en- 
thusiastic preparation for celebrating 
the Fourth of July and arrangements 
were in charge of a committee of 
which Mr. Remington was chairman. 
It was highly opportune that he 
should be asked to deliver a paper on 
'Notable Fourth of Julys in New Bed- 
ford.' 

"The quarterly meeting held 
Wednesday afternoon, October 14th, 
could only be appreciated by those 
who were present. The speakers were 
Hon. William W. Crapo and Job C. 
Tripp. These venerable gentlemen had 
passed several milestones beyond their 
eightieth year, and without notes or 
paper entertained their auditors in a 
most attractive manner, describing 
events that occurred seventy years 
before, and of which they were eye- 
witnesses. 

"The December quarterly meeting 
was held in the rooms on Water 
street on Saturday afternoon, Janu- 
ary 2nd, 1915, when the secretary 
delivered a portion of the paper on 
the 'Mills of New Bedford and Vici- 
nity Before the Introduction of 
Steam,' the whole of which is now 
being prepared for publication. 

"Nineteen members have died dur- 
ing the past year: Mary A. Allen, 
Mary H. Akin, John E. Coggeshall, 
William IT. Hand, Jennie C. Nye, 
Francis Rodman, Sarah C. Sayer, Al- 
bert C. Sherman, Caroline O. Sea- 
bury, Mary E. Austin, Andrew M. 



Bush, Williston H. Collins, Matthew 
C. Julien, Clara A. Read, William L. 
Sayer, Caroline W. Hathaway, Hum- 
phrey H. Swift, Jr., Sarah H. Taber 
and Mary B, Grinnell. 

"Twenty members have withdrawn, 
making' the loss by death and resigna- 
tion thirty-eight. Yet the activity of 
the membership committee has yield- 
ed a large increase. Five life mem- 
bers have been secured and 215 an- 
nual members have been placed upon 
our list, and the record shows the 
number of members a year ago 658, 
and at the present time 840, a net 
gain of 182. 

'•The publications of the society 
have been regularly increased. 

"No. 39 contains the proceedings; 
of the two last annual meetings and 
a paper on the First Settlers of Dart- 
mouth and Where They Located. 

"No. 40 contains the three addresses 
of Messrs. Remington, Crapo and 
Tripp. 

"No. 41, now in the hands of the 
printer, contains the proceedings of 
the January meeting. 

"These pamphlets will add fifty 
pages of historical matter to the large 
amount already printed. 

"The publications are appreciated 
by investigators everywhere and are 
in the libraries that deal with Dart- 
mouth history. 

"This society has a splendidly 
equipped building on the site of the 
old Bedford bank, from the west win- 
dows of which one may behold the 
Mariners' Home bearing the date 
1795; from the east windows can be 
seen the wharves and the location 
where, when the river front was a 
long and lonely stretch of shore, the 
try-pots of the founders of the whal- 
ing industry stood upon the bank. 

"The people of Acushnet, Fair- 
haven, Westport, New Bedford and 
Dartmouth should consider it a privi- 
lege and pleasure to give to the so- 
ciety generous, loyal and substan- 
tial support. 

"Nor i.s the present achievement the 
final stage. The society's property in- 
cludes a lot fronting on Bethel street. 
Next south is a lot which was pur- 
chased in 1795 by William Rotch, Jr., 
on which he built the 'Friends school 
house, near the Four Corners.' This 
institution continued until Mr. Rotch 
in 1821 conveyed the lot and build- 
ing to Hervey Sullings. If available 
information leads to the correct con- 
clusion, the schoolhouse was turned 
round, moved to the south side of 
the lot and altered into a dwelling 
house, and on the north edge another 
house was erected. The Old Dart- 
mouth has acquired the land and 
both houses and they have been de- 
molished during the past week. 



"If expectations are realized, an 
addition to the society's building may 
be erected on the Bethel street from 
when, in ample proportions, will be 
installed a whaleship completely fur- 
nished and equipped and where may 
be observed the features of the indus- 
try that was once centred in this ('city 
and which has now largely disap- 
peared. 

"Henry B. Worth, 

"Secretary." 



Treasurer's Report. 

Treasurer Frederic H. Taber made 
his report. The assets and liabilities 
are: 

Assets. 

Invested funds $7507.45 

Cash 63.65 

Real estate 9537.34 

Museum 1.00 

Total $17,109.44 

Liabilities. 

Notes payable $1450.00 

Excess of assets 15,659.44 

Total $17,109.44 



Curator's Report. 

President Cushman in introducing 
the curator, said that some $400 had 
been expended in putting the society's 
building in good repair, and that a 
man had been secured to take care 
of the building. He was sure that 
while in oifice the curator had done 
excellent work, and had shown many 
visitors about the building. He in- 
troduced Frank Wood, the curator, 
whose report was as follows: 

"The past year has been one, not 
.•"nly of activity in the work of our 
society, but one of accomplishments 
and results. A year ago I prophesied 
with the awakened interest that naa 
entered into our life a future of per- 
menancy and success. From the re- 
ports that we have listened to this 
evening I am sure you will agree 
with me that that prophecy has come 
true and that the dreams of the 
past are to be more real than we had 
ever dared hope. The attendance at 
our rooms during the past year has 
been the largest in our existence and 
all who have come have expressed 
themselves as amply repaid for their 
visit. 

"On two evenings our rooms were 
opened, once to the Boy and Girl 
Scouts of this city, about 15 0, and 
once for the Boy Scouts of Fairhaven 
numbering 54, all of whom showed 
the deepest interest and enthusiasm. 
Our museum is unique in the fact 
1hat with but few exceptions our col- 



h^ctlons are associated with the his- 
tory of this city and of Old Dart- 
mouth. It is on these lines that we 
»>roi>oso to continue it. During the 
past year we have received as gifts 
many Interesting 1 accessions to our 
collections. A list of these will ap- 
pear in the published report of this 
meeting. No report of this nature . 
would be quite complete without an 
uppeal to your generosity for more 
and with the building of the new 
Whaling Museum this seems a most 
Mting time for that appeal. 

"A lew years ago I, had occasion 
to write to a firm connected with the 
whaling business in Dundee, Scot- 
hind. I was delighted on the receipt 
of their letter, to find that their of- 
fice was located on East Whale Lane. 
I have often wished that we had a 
Whale Lane, but now we are going 
to have, instead, a real Whaling Mu- 
seum on Johnny Cake Hill. What 
could be more delightful? and we 
are not going to settle down into a 
dull and musty old antiquarian so- 
ciety, we are going to be a live is- 
sue in the history of New Bedford. 
Most of us can remember our city of 
the past, with its pleasant shaded 
streets, its quiet prosperous homes, 
its old time population of sturdy men 
and women, its busy wharves and 
snips, its sail lofts, its spar yards ami 
lis coopers, block makers, and iron 
workers, and its old counting rooms. 
All of these have gone to make way 
for new industries and a much larger 
city. No doubt but not a few of us 
regret this passing of the old, a pass- 
ing that has brought new conditions 
Into our life, forming as it were be- 
tween the old and the new a chasm 
which must be bridged. The Old 
Dartmouth Historical society must be 
one of the buttresses on which this 
bridge will rest. 

"The more 1 have visited other mu- 
seums the more 1 am convinced of 
two things which we are especially to 
strive for. One to collect everything 
that smacks of the sea, figure heads, 
models of ships, log books, pictures 
and prints of ships, and of whaling 
portraits of old time merchants and 
of those who followed the sea, a clas- 
sified collection of shells, curios of 
all kinds brought home on our ships, 
and in fact everything pertaining to 
whaling" and its industries, so that 
we may have the most complete whal- 
ing museum possible. The other is 
to collect, arrange and care for all 
that had to do with the home life of 
Old Dartmouth. Miss Bourne is giv- 
ing us a wonderful opportunity to do 
the first and for the present the Rog- 
ers' building will take care of the 
other. 

"In this connection let me say that 
we would like examples of the work 



of all of our local artists. We have 
paintings by Bradford, Bierstadt, 
Hathaway, Bussell McKnight and 
Wall. We want something by R. 
Swain Gifford, Charles Gifford, Ar- 
thur Cumming, Leander Plummer, 
Walton Ricketson, Lemuel D. Eldred 
Clement N. Swift and all of our artists 
of the present day. We live in the 
hopes that the time will come when 
we shall have a Colonial house com- 
plete with all of its furnishings, and 
at the top a whale walk where we can 
go and look for the whalers that may 
never come. 

"We dream too of a garden with 
old fashioned flowers growing and 
blooming in it, lilacs, hollyhocks, sun 
• lowers and all the rest, not forget- 
ting its borders of box. These are 
some of our wants and it is the duty 
and the privilege of the members of 
this society to help conserve for all 
times ihe relics of the past. Know- 
ing your deej) interest we feel sure 
that you will do your part. 

"Do you quite realize all that Miss 
Bourne's gift to the society will mean? 
J I is more than local. It will be a 
memorial to strong men who built 
up a great industry to brave men 
and vessels who carried our tlag not 
only into the known but the unknown 
and uncharted seas of the world. 
They were the first to anchor off the 
shores of lands which today are the 
most valued colonial assets of the old- 
er nations. For this and for their 
part in making the maritime history 
of our country we make our appeal." 

Additions to the Museum from the 
following named persons: Myles 
Standish, Frank E. Brown, Frank C. 
Barrows, Edgar K. Lewis, George R. 
Phillips, Miss Clara Bennett, Mrs. 
Susan A. Garrett, Louis S. Richardson, 
Rev. Edward Williams, Mrs. John 
Russell, Miss Gertrude Baxter, Miss 
Caroline Sayer, 11. H. Rogers, Andrew 
E. Hathaway, Miss Harriet W. 
Thomas, Mrs. Thomas W. Nye, Her- 
bert P. Bryant, J. & W. R. Wing, Miss 
Annie Anthony, Charles S. Kelley, Ed- 
mund Grinnell, Edward P. Haskell, 
William Rodman Dennis, Susan Marin 
Briggs, W. W. Crapo, Walton & Anna 
Ricketson, Sally and Elinor Cushman, 
Mrs. Albert C. Sherman, Talbot & Co., 
Curtis M. Pierce, W. H. B. Remington, 
Willie Hazel, Captain Jesse Sherman, 
Miss Emma Hall, Alan Forbes, Lafay- 
ette L. Gifford, Miss Sara B. Worth, 
Dr. Milton H. Leonard, Mrs. Arthur R. 
Brown, Mrs. George Hussey, Frank H. 
Gifford, Mrs. William N. Church, 
Morse Twist Drill Corp., Mrs. Gideon 
Allen, Jr., James E. Moore, William A. 
Robinson & Co., John T. Besse, Her- 
bert E. Cushman. 

"Frank Wood, Curator." 



President's Report. 

President Cushman reviewed the 
work or' the year in an intelligent and 
entertaining- manner, and spoke of the 
gift which Miss Emily II. Bourne is 
to give the society. His address was 
as follows: 

"For the Old Dartmouth Historical 
society, the year just past has i>een 
filled with interesting experiences. 
When a year ago your officers were 
called upon to accept the positions as 
executives of the society, it was 
gratifying to find a most earnest de- 
sire on the part of the members to 
co-operate with them and to advance 
its interests. Any call made upon any 
member has always been responded 
to promptly and earnestly. 

"Anyone having to do with the 
work of directing any institution — 
whether a business or an organization, 
charitable or otherwise; — must have 
from its members cordial support; 
and most assuredly can your officers 
say today that during the last year 
they have received from you not only 
the interest financially, but personally. 

"We find that during the year we 
have added about two hundred mem- 
bers, increasing the membership from 
about 050, March 1st, 1914, to 833, 
March 1st, PJ15. This is a goodly 
number — about 20 per cent, but we 
must have one thousand members. 
We cannot possibly let it be said that 
a society of our kind has less than 
that, in a city of 115,000 people. 

"Occasionally we hear of the un- 
fortunate conditions of New Bedford 
as a city. We are optimistic. We 
believe that New Bedford has always 
stood for the best, and that it always 
will. There will always be, as the 
city grows, conditions which are to 
be regretted; but with all that, there 
is always an underlying element and 
a strong backing of the most con- 
scientious and interested citizens, who 
are looking for the betterment of this 
city and its advancement. 

"Our society stands in rather an 
interesting position in this particular. 
We ask for the support and interest 
of those people, without regard to so- 
cial circle and without regard to 
other affiliations, who have the best 
interest of our city at heart. We want 
this society to be the rallying ground 
about which will centre those who are 
proud of its past, willing to help the 
present to be of a high order, and 
looking forward to the future, to 
carry on the good reputation of the 
years that were and are. 

"In looking at our membership, do 
you wonder that your officers feel 
proud to know that that number in- 
eludes just such people, and is it not 
therefore an opportune time for us to 



ask you to look about— for you all 
have many friends who have the same 
ideas and the same thoughts — and 
ask them to join our society, who.se 
aim and purpose is to preserve thj 
old, stand for the best of the present, 
and leave for the future a record, 
seen and unseen, of the best of those 
days. 

"Anyone is eligible for membership 
who has the interests of our society 
at heart, along the line of our by-laws, 
article IT., whieh specifies: 

" 'The object of this society shall be 
to create and foster an interest in 
the history of the territory included 
in Old Dartmouth, namely, the city 
cf New Bedford, and the towns of 
Fairhavrn, Acushnet, Dartmouth and 
West port ; to promote historical re- 
searches; to collect documents and 
relics, and to provide for their prop- 
er custody, and to take and hold his- 
toric sites and provide proper care 
for them.' " 

"Can you not think of some one, 
Who isn't a member, who would like 
to beV 

"Your secretary has given to you a 
very excellent report of the work done 
by your society. 

"Your curator has welcomed, dur- 
ing the last year, many people to our 
rooms; and the very fact of our hav- 
ing so many visitors there, shows 
the wisdom of having the rooms al- 
ways opened, with welcoming hands, 
to greet not only our own citizens, 
but ihe stranger who comes within 
our £*'ates. Nearly every one who has 
been there the last year has expressed 
surprise that we have gathered to- 
gether during the last 15 years such 
a goodly collection. Recently a visi- 
tor from one of the largest museums 
in the country, stated that he felt the 
Old Dartmouth Historical society 
should be proud of what it has done, 
and believed that in the future it 
would stand among the old historical 
societies of the country, in one of the 
most prominent positions. It is your 
duty and mine to make it so. 

"Your treasurer has shown to you 
that after taking care of our ac- 
counts which came over to us from 
other years, after caring for all ex- 
penses, repairs, etc., during the year, 
we have paid our bills, and we have 
something left. We have not had to 
ask anyone this year to help make up 
any deficit, and we do not propose 
t<» do so in the future. That is also 
your duty and mine. 

"We have to thank most graciously 
our entertainment committee for the 
good work they have done. When 
you note by the report of the treas- 
urer the goodly amount received from 
entertainments held during the last 
year, you can but realize that it ha3 
not been a small undertaking — that 



11 has meant hard work and earnest 
work; and it is becoming 1 that we 
should all express strongly our ap- 
preciation of their efforts. I am sure 
you will join me most heartily in 
coing so. 

"We understand that it is the pur- 
pose of the entertainment commit- 
tee to have two entertainments as an 
established fact for our society each 
year — one during the summer, of 
acme special interesting nature, and 
a Mardi Gras at the end of the sea- 
son each year, as we did this sea- 
son. 1 hope that both of these af- 
fairs — as they may be called — will re- 
ceive your hearty support and enthu- 
siastic interest. 

"Your house committee and your 
educational committee have also car- 
ried on a certain line of work, as 
told by their reports; but there is one 
committee which has not been men- 
tioned, and that is known as the pan- 
try committee. Now any of you who 
have visited the rooms at the dif- 
ferent receptions and entertainments, 
l.now how well they have carried on 
their work, and I am sure you have 
enjoyed what they have had to offer 
yon, and that you appreciate it. Let 
their g-ood work go on. 

"This seems to be a fitting oppor- 
tunity to express our thanks to all 
of the people who have been so gra- 
cious to us during the last year — 
those who have helped in the way of 
talks and lectures, and those who 
have helped in the way of entertain- 
ing. It is a splendid thing to be able 
to call upon people to do this sort 
of work and to have them respond 
gladly. 

"There has come into our work this 
year an experience that has been 
most interesting and most beneficial 
to our organization. I speak especial- 
ly cf the gift that we are to receive, 
but I wish to speak a little of the 
personal side. 

"When one gives of what he has, 
by simply giving what is necessary, 
that in itself has a virtue; but when 
one gives because of a vital interest 
and intense interest in the work 
which is to be accomplished through 
the gift, then it becomes more than 
a simple gift. It inspires — or should 
inspire — on the part of those who are 
to receive it, the same sort of spirit. 
It should make them intensely in- 
terested for the advancement of their 
society. 

"While we cannot all give in the 
way our good friend has suggested 
she wishes to do for us this year, yet 
we can give of our thought and of 
our best to the work which the so- 
ciety has to do. 

"The thoughtfulness and the pur- 
pose which has been back of the gift 
which Miss Emily H. Bourne is to 
give to us, must be an inspiration to 



all of us to do our part to carry on 
the good work. H certainly has in- 
spired me, and I am sure it will you, 
as from time to time the details of 
her thought are shown to you, and 
developed in the substantial way 
which is her purpose. 

"In speaking of the gift, it is her 
thought to express it as a memorial 
to her father, but also in commemo- 
ration of the whaling industry, and 
the men who stood for it — not only 
in their offices, directing and guid- 
ing it, but those who went out on 
the sea amidst the hardships sur- 
rounding it. It stands for the strong, 
sturdy, substantial interests of the 
olden day, upon which the New Bed- 
ford of today was founded; and it 
will ever stand to represent to the 
future generation, as well as to the 
present, that the sturdiness of those 
days must not be forgotten, but must 
be developed and continued. 

"Miss Bourne's gift places our so- 
ciety as one of the assured New Bed- 
ford institutions of the future. 

"In Salem not long since, it was 
my pleasure to visit the Historical 
society buildings of that city. We 
were told that they had been in exist- 
ence over a hundred years, and had 
been remembered with kindly be- 
quests from time to time from those 
interested in its advancement and 
self-support. 

"Our society has grown in fifteen 
years beyond our fondest hopes. It is 
the usual custom to consider twenty- 
one years as the time when one be- 
comes of age. Would it not be a valu- 
able asset to have, before that time, 
a substantial endowment to care for 
our future? During the year, there 
has come to us, through the thought- 
fulness of Miss Caroline O. Seabury, 
one of our first bequests. Let it be well 
on your mind that you wish your part 
in the development and care of our 
society and its interests, not only in 
the work of today which you can do, 
but let your influence and thought 
help to carry on the work in the 
future, if it is within your means to 
do so. 

"In closing, I can but express to 
the members of the society my ap- 
nreciation of their interest and help. 
When I first accepted the office of 
president of your society, I felt I was 
willing to do some amount of work, 
and give it some thought. You notice 
I say 'some.' The enthusiasm and in- 
terest which has been shown by the 
members has inspired not only your 
president, but all of your officers, to 
make extra efforts to see that the in- 
terest was not only kept up, as the 
expression goes, but increased. Your 
help can but make your society pro- 
gressive, and show an advancement in 

the future. „__ _ _, . „ 

"H. E. Cushman." 



Miss Carolyn Jones gave the re- 
port of the educational committee, 
stating that several classes from the 
schools had visited the building dur- 
ing the year. She read a composition 
on the visit of one of the classes by 
a little French girl, which was de- 
cidedly interesting and entertaining 
to the members. 



Officers Elected; 

The following officers were elected 
for 1915-16: 

President — Herbert E. Cushman. 

Vice Presidents — George H. Tripp, 
Oliver Prescott, Jr. 

Secretary — Henry B. Worth. 

Treasurer — Frederic H. Taber. 

Three Directors (for 3 years) — Mrs. 
Annie A. Swift, Mrs. Clara J. Brough- 
ton, Abbott P. Smith. 



Oxford Village 



"Oxford Village" was the subject of 
a paper read by Henry B. Worth be- 
fore the members of the Colonial club, 
Fairhaven, May 25, 1915. Mr. Worth's 
paper in full is as follows: 

For half a century following the 
King Philip war, Captain Thomas 
Tuber was one of the important men 
in ancient Dartmouth. He married 
the daughter of John Cook and this 
gave him prominence in all directions. 
His title was gained by a military 
appointment in 1689 and was always 
used in distinguishing him from oth- 
ers by the same name. His farm ex- 
tended from the Acushnet river east 
to the Sconticut Neck road, and lay 
equally north and south of North 
street, the south line being approxi- 
mately half way between North and 
Fridge streets. 

At his death in 1731, Captain Taber 
gave the north half of his homestead 
to his son Jacob and the south to 
son Philip. The road now called 
North street separated these sections. 
This way has also been known as 
Farm lane and Town lane. 

In 1742, Philip Taber sold his 
farm to William Wood, known as the 
Glazier, who was a thrifty Quaker 
of successful business capacity. A 
few years later he purchased the tract 
south of his farm and this extended 
his ownership south nearly to Bridge 
sireet. 

Whaling Begins. 

Such information as can be ob- 
tained indicates that the whaling in- 
dustry in ancient Dartmouth began at 
the Head of Apponagansett before 
IV 51, when John Wady and Daniel 
Wood were owners of two or three 
vessels. How much earlier it started 
cannot be fixed definitely, but in 1725 
Philip Sherman had a ship building 
yard which he sold to Daniel Wood 
where the Methodist church stands. 

This Daniel Wood was one of the 
wealthy men of his day and related by 
marriage to John Wady who later 
was also a rich man. William Wood, 
Glazier, was a cousin of Daniel. 

About 17 60 the centre of whaling 
in Dartmouth was established on the 
Acushnet river. On the west side the 
Russells took the lead and were close- 
ly followed by the men who settled 
Fairhaven village. At that date no 
bridge spanned the Acushnet and the 



best channel was east of the island 
called "Ram," Taber's, Wood's ajid 
Popes island. When the twenty acre 
purchase was made for Fairhaven no 
mention was made of any wharf or 
other accessory to whaling or com- 
mercial activity, except that a vessel 
was being built by Elnathan Pope on 
Crow island. Whatever Pope may 
have had in contemplation, he had 
not at that date established any whal- 
ing or maritime business. 

Elnathan Eldredge was one of the 
Fairhaven syndicate. Two weeks be- 
fore these speculators purchased 
Fairhaven, Eldredge alone purchased 
a neck of land at the northwest cor- 
ner of William Wood's farm on the 
river, comprising six acres, and the 
object was "for house lots." This 
was the Oxford purchase. The deed 
contains some interesting informa- 
tion. The east bound was an inlet 
called a salt pond that was just 
west of the burial place. Hence the 
pond was at the south end of Cherry 
street. The conveyance did not in- 
clude the place "where the try 
house and oil sheds stand." This 
tract was next west of the pond and 
was where the Coggeshall and Bi\rt- 
lett Allen houses are located. So, in 
December, 17 60, William Wood hi\d 
established a landing place, try works 
for trying out blubber and sheds for 
storing oil. tie retained this prop- 
erty until 17 68 when he sold the 
whole to Eldredge. 

The original purchase was the sec- 
tion west of Cherry street. At this 
date there was no Main street north 
of Fairhaven and the only way for 
the lot owners to reach a highway 
was along the Farm lane or North 
sireet to Adams street. 

First Called Oxford. 

For several years after the pur- 
chase, Eldredge did not adopt a name 
for the village. At first it was "Ye 
Little Town at Ye Foot of William 
Wood's Homestead", then it was "Up- 
pertown." In a deed in March, 1773. 
the name Oxford was used for the 
first time. The name "Poverty 
Point", requires examination. It ap- 
pears in deeds to and from Joshua 
Howland in 1810 relating to land of 
Robert Bennett, and had not been 
used before. About this date two 
events took place which may have 






10 



led to the designation. Robert Ben- 
nett, the leading man of the village, 
was overtaken by financial disaster 
during those depressing years that 
preceeded the war of 1812. It was 
some of his land that was attached 
by Joshua Howland. Then the sloop 
"Thetis" sailed the year before for 
Savannah with 34 men on board and 
was wrecked off Cape Hatteras, and 
all but five were lost. Nineteen lived 
in and near New Bedford. but of 
those that were lost only three lived 
at Oxford. But the tradition is that 
there were left in Oxford many wid- 
ows with children and so the place 
was called "Poverty Point." An ex- 
amination of the vessel's list does not 
contirm this theory. Only five lived 
at Oxford and two of these were 
saved. The loss of three men at sea 
would not render the whole village so 
destitute as to be called "Poverty 
Point. ".The probability is that the 
name described the people more or 
less aptly and it clung to the com- 
munity and was in common use until 
recent years. This condtion was due 
more likely to unfavorable local con- 
ditions than to the shipwreck. 

As a speculation, Oxford was a 
failure. The portion of the tract west 
of West street was devoted to a wharf 
and two or three stores. The section 
between West and Cherry streets was 
intersected by two streets and into 
twenty house lots. A public pump was 
built at the crossing of West and Ox- 
ford streets. Storehouses at the wharf 
were built by Jethro Hathaway, Bar- 
tholomew Taber and John McPher- 
son, and Hathaway owned three lots, 
but none of these men lived there. It 
was over thirty years before all the 
lots were disposed of and less than 
a dozen houses were built. In those 
years Oxford was not an attraction. 
But not long before 1800 a develop- 
ment took Dlace that gave promise 
of better destiny. Main street was ex- 
tended north from Fairhaven and the 
bridge was built across the river. Ox- 
ford was connected with two larger 
communities and it was expected that 
this would be an advantage. 

Robert Bennett of Long Plain be- 
came an enthusiastic speculator. He 
purchased the land between Main and 
Cherry street and along both sides of 
Main to a considerable extent south. 
He sold the land in house lots and 
built and sold houses. It is a well 
founded tradition that he operated the 
shipyard west of Cherry street where 
the William Wood "try houses" had 
been. The records show that he be- 
came associated with a man named 
Fearing and started a store at the 
southwest corner of Oxford street and 
Main. He must have attained some 
success because he built for himself 



on the east side of Main street the 
three-story mansion which is the most 
pretentious dwelling in the village. 
But the public improvements that 
were expected to bring prosperity 
failed in that result. The bridge ruin- 
ed the channel on the east side of the 
river and the business at the wharf 
at the foot of Oxford street ceased. 
The stores were abandoned and the 
land at the end of the point was de- 
voted to houses. The pump was dis- 
continued beyond the recollection of 
the oldest inhabitant. 

Then came those turbulent years 
after 1800 when England and Napo- 
leon were at war and each was de- 
claring blockades and embargoes 
which paralyzed all American busi- 
ness. The New Bedford vessels couJd 
bring in oil but had no market in 
which to sell it. On the west side of 
the Acushnet river the Russells be- 
came involved. It was this depression 
that caused the downfall of Robert 
Bennett and swept away his property. 
It was inevitable that the little vil- 
lage should be heavily burdened. 
These causes rather than the wreck of 
the sloop brought the people into 
such a condition that the place was 
called "Poverty Point." It is of some 
significance that the deeds in which 
this name first occurs related to land 
of Robert Bennett. The very success- 
ful career of Captain Thomas Ben- 
nett, son of Robert, enabled him to 
redeem the homestea.d property, and 
it is still owned in the family. 

Mercantile Career Ends. 

The construction of the bridge 
closed the mercantile career of Ox- 
ford village. Soon after the War of 
1812 the wharf was abandoned and 
the storehouses were sold. The town 
pump disappeared and the shipyard 
west of Cherry street was only an 
historical recollection. A few men 
have engaged in building whale boats, 
but outside of this industry, Old Ox- 
ford has become a residential section. 
In the disaster of 1810 one lot of land 
of Robert Bennett is described as hav- 
ing thereon a "nail machine." This 
is mentioned in two conveyances of 
that date and there the subject ends. 
It is a suggestive item. Probably in 
his zeal to engage in many enterprises, 
hoping that success would offset 
failure, Bennett encouraged some in- 
ventor who claimed to make nails 
by machinery. Fifty years later other 
capitalists had better success with the 
factory near Fort Phoenix. 

The village store that was at first 
at the wharf, before 1800, was estab- 
lished at the southwest corner of 
Mai nand Oxford streets. It was con- 
ducted by Bennett and William Fear- 
ing, but in 1806 the lot was sold to 



11 



Nicholas Taber and the present house 
built and occupied by him as the 
"Rising Sun Inn." Thoddeus Pickens, 
a son-in-law of Bennett, then had a 
store on the lot next west. 

Any investigation of the early his- 
tory of Oxford is hindered by the 
number of deeds that were never 
placed on record. Whether this was 
due to poverty or carelessness can- 
not be settled, but, it is an exas- 
perating circumstance anywhere and 
is to be observed to a greater degree 
In this village than elsewhere. In 
attempting to trace back the history 
of the store on the northwest corner 
of Oxford and Main streets this defect 
becomes an obstacle. Probably as soon 
as the store was discontinued on the 
corner that Taber purchased, another 
was started across the street where 
it has been ever since. But it cannot 
be known who was the storekeeper 
until 1828 when it was conducted by 
John Rowland & Co., and later by 
Joseph Taber. 

Previous to Howland there are in- 
dications that Noah Spooner and Dan- 
iel Clark owned a store on this corner. 
It seems reasonably certain that for 
over a century the village store that 
has supplied this hamlet has been 
conducted continuously on the north- 
west corner. When owned by John 
Howland, good liquor was sold, as was 
customary in all stores of that period. 

Tavern a Social Centre. 

The tavern, or public house, was 
the social centre of early New Eng- 
land communities, but this strug- 
gling village seems to have had only 
one. Nicholas Taber had a license in 
IS 02 which was before he located on 
the corner of Main and Oxford streets, 
and while he did not own the house 
on the northeast corner of Oxford 
and Cherry streets, there are indi- 
cations that he had a public house 
or store at this place. 

"The Rising Sun Tavern" had a 
typical sign that swung at the cor- 
ner of the streets, which fortunately 
has been preserved and is now in the 
custody of the Colonial club. The 
house is an excellent specimen of 
double, two story and two chimney 
variety of that date, and for over a 
century was in the Nicholas Taber 
family. 

First Meeting-House. 

Oxford was a village without a 
meeting house until 1850. Before 
1800 its inhabitants were too few in 
number to maintain a church, and, 
even if they had undertaken the ob- 
ject- they were too diverse in beliefs to 
agree on any single creed. After 
Main street was extended from Fair- 
haven, the Parish Meeting house in 
the centre of Fairhaven accommo- 



dated all who were not Quakers and 
those could attend at Acushnet. In 
1*50 the village people seem to have 
felt the need of a general assembly 
hall for religious purposes and 12 
men purchased from John Bunker a 
lot on the south side of North street 
and built a meeting house. The deed 
provided in very plain terms that "it 
was to be a free meeting house and 
not for any particular sect or denom- 
ination, and if it ceased to be used 
for a meeting house the property 
should revert to the thirteen own- 
ers." 

In 18 34 Joseph Millett conveyed to 
the trustees of the M. E. church, a 
lot on the northwest corner of Main 
street and the new bridge, and here 
was built the church which the Meth- 
odists owned and occupied until 1840 
when they moved to the centre of 
Fairhaven. In 18 51 the Main street 
church was sold to the town and for 
the next half century was used as the 
town High school. 

Oxford had a school before 18 00, 
but it is a very obscure affair. The 
layout of Main street in 1795 was ex- 
tended as far north as North street 
and it terminated at a "schoolhouse 
en land of Bartholomew Taber," and 
the building must have stood at the 
head of North street on the west side 
of Main. These early schools were 
village and not town institutions and 
so there is no record concerning their 
career, by whom or when they were 
started, how they were supported or 
what teachers were employed. In 
1S28 John Bunker sold a lot to dis- 
trict No. 11 and there must have been 
erected some kind of a building. In 
iS-J<; it was the stone structure, now 
on the same lot which may have been 
built earlier. 

The Academy. 

The New Bedford Academy stood at 
the southwest corner of Main street 
and the new bridge and is the building 
where this meeting is convened. The 
lot was purchased in 1798 by Joseph 
Bates and Isaac Sherman and others 
of Fairhaven and Oxford erected the 
building. In 1841 Samuel Borden had 
purchased all the interests and the 
lot and building were later owned by 
Captain John A. Hawes. 

A unique feature of Oxford is the 
burial place, near the foot of Cherry 
street. It is mentioned as a land 
mark in the deed from William Wood 
in 17G0 and later in his will this 
place was given in the care of his 
sons to be used for that purpose for- 
ever. He describes the spot as be- 
ing "a little hummock or island on 
the meadow at the foot of my home- 
stead where were buried persons who 
were of good account in their day." 
Instead of fulfilling the wish of their 



12 



ancestors, the Wood descendants sold 
this place with other adjoining land 
and allowed the spot to be neglected 
until the Improvement association 
rescued it from desecration. Owing 
probably to a provision in John 
Cook's will, which has been misun- 
derstood, it has been inferred that he 
was buried on this "hummock" and 
the fact is so stated on the bowlder 
that was placed there as a monu- 
ment. Without explaining the rea- 
sons it is enough to say that there is 
no evidence that Cook was buried 
here; that the circumstances point to 
the conclusion that his last resting 
place was on the neck at Howard's 
brook, a spot for which the provision 
in his will applied and for which he 
showed the keenest interest. All that 
can be known of the occupants of the 
Oxford cemetery is the eulogy of Wil- 
liam Wood, "persons that were of 
good account in their day." Being on 
the farm of Captain Thomas Taber, 
it is likely that he and the members 
ot his family were among the num- 
ber. 

Early Dwellings. 
Among the footprints left by the 
inhabitants of Oxford are their dwell- 
ings which are interesting because 
they illustrate every period of colonial 
architecture. The earliest was Captain 
Thomas Taber's homestead built in 
1U80, only the larger part of the 
stone end being still standing. Some 
pictures exist of Black Annis, the old 
Indian woman who last occupied it, 
with the building in the background. 
Some pictures exist which show the 
chimney. The large fireplace is still 
standing where over two centuries 
ago the children of Captain Thomas 
Taber gathered during the snows of 
winter in the house that had only one 
apartment to serve as kitchen, din- 
ing-room and parlor. 

On the northwest corner of Adams 
street and North is the massive centre 
chimney house, the homestead of the 
late Captain George H. Taber. In some 
respects it resembles the John Alden 
house at Duxbury. It was probably 
built by Jacob Taber, the son of Cap- 
tain Thomas, previous to 1747. This 
estate was set off to Captain Thomas 
Taber in 1673 and is still owned by 
one of his direct descendants. 

On the west side of Adams street 
south of North is a long curious 
house that seems from its three 
chimneys like a block of houses. 
While it has an ancient appearance 
the family tradition is that the 
earliest part was built by one of the 
descendants of William Wood about 
the time of the Revolution and other 
additions in length were erected later. 
On the north side of Oxford street, 
between Cherry and West streets is 



the central chimney homestead of the 
late Eben Akin, Jr. While some of 
the early deeds of this place have 
not been recorded, enough appears to 
show that this house was built by 
James Sellers before 1771 and belongs 
to the large chimney variety of that 
style common at that period. It was 
later purchased by Bartholomew 
Akin. 

The house next west presents the 
same difficulty due to unrecorded 
deeds, but it must have been there in 
1788, and since 1821 has been owned 
in one of the branches of the Bartlett 
Allen family. 

Bennett's Houses. 

The speculative activity of Robert 
Bennett, during the decade after 1797 
resulted in the erection of the dif- 
ferent styles of house that were char- 
acteristic of that period. In the first 
place there was a centre chimney va- 
riety, built somewhat on the lines of 
the Akin house, yet the chimney was 
smaller. It was the lingering of an 
old type in a subsequent period when 
it had been generally rejected in the 
populous towns. This tendency to hold 
to the old styles was common in 
country villages. The Keen and Hath- 
away house on the north side of La- 
fayette street between Cherry and 
Main and the Francis house on the 
east side of Main street are illustra- 
tions of the final development of the 
central chimney dwelling which is 
found more at Oxford than elsewhere. 

The successful house of that period 
that may be ranked as by far the 
most popular was the double two- 
story design with central hall-way and 
two chimneys, one on each side of 
the hall. This was the prevailing style 
generally in New England and to a 
marked degree in southern Massachu- 
setts and in New Bedford and vici- 
nity. There were several at Oxford. 
The John Bunker house on the east 
side of Main street across from the 
store; the Taber tavern on the south- 
west corner of Main and Oxford, and 
the Nye house next north of the new 
High school lot are good examples 
of the two-chimney style. The Nye 
house was built in 1799 by Reuben 
Jenney and afterward owned and oc- 
cupied by Galen Hix, first principal 
of the academy. 

The Dutch Cap style was adopted to 
a limited extent during this period, 
but was usually selected by men of 
wealth because it was expensive to 
construct and was a good basis for 
certain kinds of ornamentation, like 
parapet rails and verandas. Without 
some embellishment they were like 
cubical blocks as may be noticed in 
the Rodman house in New Bedford, at 
the corner of Spring and County 



13 



streets. A good example of this style 
where the builder was not restricted 
by Quaker influence is the Robert 
Bennett house at Oxford, on the east 
side of Main street, near the head of 
Oxford which exhibits the opportu- 
nities for elaborate and ornate treat- 
ment. 

The people of Oxford in recent years 



have kept their dwellings in excellent 
repair and what is much more for-" 
tunate, they have, in most cases, left 
the original house unaltered by any 
attempt at remodelling. A modern 
house may be satisfactory, but mod- 
ern ornamentation of an ancient house 
is always in danger of incongruous 
result. 



Taber Family Reunion 

JULY 23, 1915 



The verandas of the Padanaram 
club, were the gathering place yester- 
day morning for members of the 
Taber family, who held their fourth 
annual reunion. 

The following officers were re- 
elected: 

President — Frederic Taber, New 
Bedford. 

Vice President — Jesse P. Taber, 
Worcester. 

Secretary — S. S. Taber, New Bed- 
ford. 

Treasurer (newly elected) — Fred- 
eric H. Taber, New Bedford. 

George H. Taber of Pittsburgh, 
Miss Martha Taber of Pawling, N. Y., 
and George S. Taber of New Bedford 
were re-elected honorary vice presi- 
dents, while Franklyn A. Taber of 
Poughkeepsie, N. Y., Miss Mabel Ta- 
ber of Linghamton, N. Y., and Jo- 
seph Tabei of Millbrook, N. Y., were 
newly chosen honorary vice presi- 
dents. 

Letters of regret read at the business 
meeting, were from G. Taber Perkins 
oi Syracuse, N. Y., Charles N. Taber 
of Reynolds, N. D., A. E. Taber of 
Battle Creek, Mich., Edward G. Taber 
of Spokane, Wash.; James E. Taber of 
DeWittville, N. Y. ( Henry W. Taber of 
Martville, N. Y., and George T. Hart. 

An interesting feature of the re- 
union was the reading of an address, 
"Thomas Taber of Dartmouth," by 
Henry B. Worth. Dinner was served 
in the Woodhouse pavilion at 1 
o'clock. 



Mi. Worth's address was as fol- 
lows: 

New Bedford, Fairhaven, Acushnet, 
Dartmouth and Westport were com- 
prised within the limits of the ancient 
town of Dartmouth. The original 
grantees of this section were residents 
of Plymouth and Duxbury, but only a 
few took up their abode on Buzzards 
bay. No town in the Old Colony con- 
tained such diversity of people. A 
dozen families from Plymouth settled 
en the east side of the Acushnet river. 
In religion and civil government they 
followed the principles of the Pil- 
grims. The remaining portion of the 
town was purchased and occupied by 
Quakers and a small number of Bap- 
tists from Portsmouth, R. I., and from 



Cape Cod. Here was a prolific source 
of discord and the opposing parties 
were trained never to yield until 
brought into submission by competent 
authority. Massachusetts was Puritan 
and Dartmouth was Quaker by a large 
majority. 

The Quakers and Baptists were al- 
lies against the province in affairs of 
church, government and education. 
The small Puritan element in Dart- 
mouth exercised a feeble control in 
the town, but they had the support of 
the united province. This situation in- 
vitably led to bitter controversies 
Any reports of unsatisfactory proceed- 
ings presented at Boston by the Popes, 
Spuoners or Hathaways were cordially 
welcomed, and the powerful ma- 
chinery of the province was quickly 
set in motion to coerce the Dartmouth, 
town government into subjection. This 
is not the time to describe this in- 
tensely interesting episode. So much 
has been presented to indicate the in- 
fluences in affairs of the town of Dart- 
mouth. Stated theologically, the town 
was over three-quarters Quaker and 
the rest Presbyterian. 

Consequently the Quakers con- 
trolled every department and yet 
could not always elect men of their 
own sect to oflice because there was 
the difficulty of taking the oath of 
office. While the Baptist element was 
not numerous, yet, owing to the curi- 
ous politeal situation, it was better to 
elect a Baptist than a Presbyterian 
and frequently Baptists were chosen. 
In this way the Quakers made good 
selections and retained men in office 
for long terms. This was true of 
Captain Thomas Taber, son of the 
first Philip. Born in Yarmouth, the 
family moved to Edgartown, where 
they acquired a knowledge of Baptist 
views under the teachings of Peter 
Folger and then they removed to 
New London, Portsmouth and 
finally settled permanently at Adams- 
ville which previous to 18 00 was 
known as Tabers Mills. Through the 
influence of the Taber family a Bap- 
tist organization was gathered in that 
vicinity before 168 and still worships 
In a stone meeting house north of 
Adamsville. The first minister was 
Philip Taber, a brother of Thomas. 

John Cook was the leading Pilgrim 
among the Dartmouth inhabitants 



15 



during the first 30 years of its history. 
It Is said that he became affected by 
Baptist views and was not in favor 
with the church at Plymouth. Possibly 
this similarity of opinion led to 
friendly relations between the Cook 
and Taber families. At the age of 
twenty-one Thomas Taber married 
Esther Cook who was eighteen. 

John Cook was one of the origi- 
nal grantees of Dartmouth, and a 
prominent land owner. In 1G72 he 
conveyed to Thomas Taber one third 
of a share of Dartmouth, and in 1683 
still more. Part of this interest was 
located in a large tract on the east 
side of the Acushnet river, compris- 
ing 300 acres and extending from 
Riverside cemetery south nearly to the 
new bridge and from the river east- 
ward over a mile. The village of Ox- 
ford was at the center of the water 
front. In what part of this great 
farm he placed his house is not 
known, but without question it was de- 
stroyed four years later dining the 
King Philip war. When the inhabi- 
tants returned he built a bou.'je in Ox- 
ford village east of Main street, in 
line of Pilgrim avenue. In the deed 
from his wife'/* father he is designated 
as "Maison," from which circum- 
stance it may be assumed that he 
built the house himself. It was de- 
signed according to the Rhode Island 
plan of that day, one story with gor- 
rell, on the lower floor one or at 
most two rooms and the south end of 
stone, tapering into a chimney. In 
this habitation were born and brought 
up six daughters and five sons. Es- 
ther Cook was the mother of two and 
in 16 72 Thomas Taber married a sec- 
ond time Alary Thompson of Middle- 
boro, daughter of John, a man of 
large stature and large property. She 
was the mother of the other nine chil- 
dren. 

The stone end house was occupied 
by the family of William Wood until 
the Revolution. Its later occupants, 
were tenants and the last was an old 
Indian woman who about 1850 was 
taken to the Fairhaven almshouse. 
A few years later the house was de- 
molished and the stone end chimney 
remained standing. About 1859 this 
was partly reduced by a stroke of 
lightning, but the largest part is still 
standing where Thomas Taber built it 
two hundred and forty years ago. 

By appointment of the general court 
in 1689 Thomas Taber was chosen 
captain, a title which was given him 
usually after that date. 

In deeds to and from Captain 
Thomas Taber he is generally desig- 
nated as "yeoman", which meant 
"landowner". The designation of 
"Mason" is not used after his first 
deed. This may indicate that he was 
by occupation a "farmer." 



His official career was continuous 
and well occupied. Once he repre- 
sented the Town at Plymouth, several 
times he served :~£ Moderator of 
Town meeting, surveyor of high- 
ways, constable, Town clerk and 
eleven terms as selectman. When 
the Town in 1686 voted to build its 
Town house on the Hathaway road 
at the head of the Slocum road the 
committee to attend to that import- 
ant duty was Thomas Taber and Seth 
Pope. 

Beside indicating his capacity in 
management of public business, this 
varied and continuous service shows 
that he was approved by the major- 
ity of his townsmen at a period when 
there was turmoil and disturbance 
between the two contending factions. 

In his church affiliations Captain 
Taber did not manifest any positive 
activity. The Dartmouth Monthly 
meeting claims him as a member, an 1 
in 1708, when there was a vigorous 
protest of voters against compelling 
the town to pay an assessment to 
maintain a Presbyterian minister and 
meeting house, amongst the signers 
was Thomas Taber and his sons Philip, 
Thomas and Joseph. This may have 
been when they were still Baptists. 
An examination of such church rec- 
ords as are preserved prove that the 
members of this family began to ap- 
pear in the Dartmouth Friends' meet- 
ing in 1715 and in 17 30, and subse- 
quently several of the children were 
married in that meeting. Probably 
when the province of Massachusetts 
attempted to compel the Dartmouth 
voters to contribute towards the Pres- 
byterian minister and meeting, the 
Taber family passed into the Society 
cf Friends. It is rather incongruous 
to find among its members a military 
captain. But in those days it was not 
considered an impediment. Another 
important fact appears from a con- 
sideration of the records of the Pres- 
byterian church contained in the 
manuscript books ana cemetery. This 
society began about 1708. The name 
of Taber does not appear in its an- 
nals until after the Revolution. No 
birth death nor marriage is recorded. 
This shows that the Tabers were not 
Presbyterian, and indirectly confirms 
the suggestion that this family began 
as Baptists and soon after 1700, when 
the Baptist meeting house, which had 
been in Dartmouth near the west 
boundary, was moved a short distance 
west into Tiverton, the Tabers became 
connected with the Society of Friends. 
The Tabers of Tiverton seem to have 
continued their connection with the 
Baptist denomination. 

One of the chief objects in the life 
of a colonial yeoman was to rear a 
large family, encourage them to em- 
bark in early marriages and then 



16 



leave the sons substantial farms. 
Thus Captain Seth Pope, the richest 
man in Dartmouth, owned large 
farms and other extensive possessions 
and at his death he devised a valuable 
farm to each of his four sons. 

For that day Thomas Taber was a 
wealthy man and large landed inter- 
ests had come into his hands. The 
mills at the head of the Acushnet 
river were owned by the principal 
men of the locality, Captain Pope, the 
Hathaways and Captain Taber. 
Beside the farms that he had acquired 
he oAvned meadow and wood land in 
different parts of the town. His will 
was executed in 1723 but his death 
occurred nine years later. The docu- 
ment mentions his wife Mary and five 
sons and six daughters. The latter 
had married men named Perry, Ken- 
ney, Hart, Morton, Blackwell and one 
had remarried her cousin Ebenezer 
Taber. 

According to the custom of that day, 
beside a life right to the widow in his 
house and part of the homestead, all 
moveables were bequeathed to his 
widow and daughters. 

On the road from Fairhaven to Mat- 
tapoisett, about a mile east of the 
town hall, is a well known storehouse 
built by a merchant named Delano. 
This farm Thomas Taber devised to 
his son Thomas. 

North of the head of the Acushnet 
river at the road leading to Whites 
factory was a large farm which he 
gave to his sons John and Joseph. 

His own homestead he divided, the 
north half to son Jacob and the south 
to son Philip. North street is the 
division between the two sections. His 
stone end house was in the south 
half and' this was given during her 
life to the widow. 

There was no house on the north 
half originally and Jacob Taber was 
obliged to erect a dwelling on that 
part. On the northwest corner of 
North and Adams street is still stand- 
ing a large massive house that must 
have been built before the Revolu- 
tion. It was the house of the late 
Captain George H. Taber, and is now 
owned by his son, both descendants of 
Jacob Taber. If the exterior can be 
depended on for decisive information, 
the house was erected by Jacob Taber 
about 175 years ago. 

The life of Captain Thomas Taber 
covered four score and six years, and 
was extremely useful and respectable. 
He served his generation well and 
without attempting inopportune re- 
forms and innovations, proceeded 
along the beaten track. 

The south half of his homestead 
was purchased by William Wood, 
whose family was prominent among 



the society of Friends. Shortly be- 
fore the Revolution he executed his 
will and made special arangement 
for the preservation of a hillock in 
the meadow in the northeast corner 
of his farm where, to use his own 
language, "were buried persons who 
were of good account in their day.'" 
A bowlder now marks the spot and 
on the inscription is the doubtful leg- 
end that there was the last resting 
place of John Cook. It was the 
family burial plot where were laid 
the persons in the family of Captain 
Thomas Taber and here they were 
placed in graves that were never 
marked. 



There were many interesting family 
history stories told this morning, and 
one of these was told by Franklyn A. 
Taber of Poughkeepsie, N. Y. His 
great-great-grandfather, Thomas Ta- 
ber, was fourth in line from Philip 
Taber, the first known settler of that 
name in this country. Thomas Taber 
was born June 22, 1732, probably in 
Dartmouth, and in 17 GO, in the 33d 
year of the reign of George II, he and 
his wife traveled through 200 miles or 
wilderness and settled at Quaker Hil' 
in Duchess county, New York. The 
farm has since passed from father to 
son. and the graves of the original 
Tabers are in the yard. Mrs. Taber 
was a well known cheese maker, and 
at the time of the Revolutionary war 
she agreed to give a cheese to the first 
colonial general to enter the vicinity. 
The records of George Washington 
show that he secured a cheese for 
which he paid 16 shillings cash. 

Among those who attended the re- 
union were Joseph J. Taber, Mill- 
brook, N. Y.; Theodore A. Taber, 
Brockton; George A. Taber, Boston; 
Mr. and Mrs. John A. Russell, Acush- 
net; Frank E. Taber, Acushnet; James 
F. Schlutz, Acushnet; Otis T. Aldrich, 
New York; Mr. and Mrs. Jesse P. Ta- 
ber, Worcester; Frederick Taber, New 
Bedford: Mrs. Sarah E. Schultz, John 
C. Sherman, Acushnet; Charles O. 
Taber, Providence; Julia F. Taber, 
Millbrook, N. Y.; Mr. and Mrs. Silas 
S. Taber, New Bedford; Mabel B. Ta- 
ber, Binghamton; Mrs. E. S. Wat- 
son, Brooklyn, N. Y.; Mrs. Phebe P. 
Welden, Central Village; Eben Jones, 
Middleboro; Miss Gladys Taber, New 
Bedford; Mrs. M. Maria Sharp, New- 
port; Mrs. A. Sarah Watson, New- 
port; George W. Taber, Fall River; 
Clinton 'Caber, New Bedford; Miss 
Sarah Taber, New Bedford; Mrs. 
Frank E. Taber, Acushnet; Mrs. 
Frederick B. Hawes, New Bedford; 
Mrs. A. A. Dunbar, New Bedford; 
Franklyn G. Taber, Poughkeepsie, N. 
Y. ; George G. Parker, Acushnet. 



Summer Quarterly Meeting 

AT BUZZARDS BAY CANAL 



"I don't know where it could have 
D©en improved upon, ' said Walton 
IUeketson, one of the charter mem- 
bers of the old Dartmouth Historical 
society, speaking Of their outing - on 
Cape Cod canal and at the town of 
Bourne July 15, 1915. That was the 
sentiment of the sixty participating. 

Prom the time Harrj L. Pope, 
manager of the trolley arrangements, 
started the members upon their way, 
the forty who made the trip by trolley, 
until Mrs. Benjamin Wilcox, Mrs. 
George A. York, Miss Mary Bradford 
and Mrs. Frank Wood, !he servers of 
the tea in the town hall of Bourne, 
arose from the tables, the members 
seemed to be enjoying themselves to 
the full and so expressed themselves 
often. 

The trolley and motor ride from 
here to Onset is a beautiful one, the 
tour of the canal and out into Cape 
Cod bay is one of the most interest- 
ing trips in the state, anil the address 
of Commodore J. W. Miller, vice 
president of the Cape Cod Canal 
company, upon the historical features 
of the waterway, not to mention two 
picnic lunches, tea and other refresh- 
ments, made sure to the members on 
the outing a most pleasant experience. 

Th'rty-six members and guests 
made the trip through the canal It 
was heped that all could go together 
on the Ideal, but the large number 
who decided at the last minute upon 
the water trip made necessary another 
powerboat, the Velna, in which 15 
congenial friends made merry. The 
Ideal is a 3G-horsepower boat and the 
Velna is but 8-horsepower. That cir- 
cumstance made the only unfortunate 
happening of the day. 

The speedy boat made the trip in 
more than an hour's less time and the 
members in the Velna were not able 
lo hear Commodore Miller's address. 
The Ideal had engine trouble twice, 
which enabled the boats to stay to- 
gether better than would have been 
possible otherwise. The Velna was a 
mile or more from the Onset wharf 
before the Ideal got under way . 

The members chose to take it in 
fun as a handicap race, and there was 



much laughter as the Ideal passed the 
slower boat near the south toll station. 
But when the collector boat stopped 
the ideal to get the toll, its engine 
"wcrl dead" again. So the Velna went 
ahead again and was a mile into the 
canal before the Ideal once more be- 
gan its welcome "put put." 

"I e> haps this will be the tortoise 
and the hare and we'll beat you back 
yet," shouted one of the passengers 
on the Velna as another overhauling 
was made. But they were mistaken 
as the engine of the Ideal ran steadily 
until the stop at the Onset wharf on 
the leturn. 

The pause at the collector's station 
took the attention of all from the trip 
into the boat and while some were 
watching the captain's efforts with the 
carburetor, other eyes fell upon their 
lunch baskets and soon all were mak- 
ing away with sandwiches, olives, con- 
tents of thermos bottles and all the 
good things which mother or sister or 
the restaurant waiter had packed into 
the boxes. 

Much interest was displayed in the 
working of the three draw bridges over 
the canal. The Velna had a mast 
which made necessary the lifting of 
the spans. Just beyond the Bourne 
highway and street car bridge, the 
Bourne town hall, in which the speak- 
ing was held later, and the library, the 
gift of Miss Emily H. Bourne, stood 
upon the left and right banks of the 
canal. 

The captain did but two things, an- 
swer questions and run the engine. It 
is certain that the former duty took 
the greater part of his time. He has 
made the arbiter of all kinds of dis- 
putes. "Does the canal run east and 
west or north and south?; Is Onset 
northeast or southeast of New Bed- 
ford?; Does the tide run out all one 
way or from a half way point each di- 
rection?; Can a tug turn around in the 
canal?; and many similar questions 
were left to the master of the boat for 
decision. 

The return trii) was made in just 
half the time as the engine was run 
at full speed. The special street car 
was awaiting at the wharf and in a 



18 



short time most of the members were 
seated in the beautiful town hall of 
Bourne (Buzzards Bay). Many walked 
across the bridge to see the library 
before and after the addresses. 

Miss Emily H. Bourne, the donor 
of the library to her home town, has 
given the new building to the Dart- 
mouth Society of New Bedford and 
one of the features of the day was the 
pilgrimage to Miss Bourne's home as 
a sign of the society's appreciation. 
After the speaking, tea was served 
and the members finished emptying 
their baskets. 

The party broke up at 6 3 with 
many votes of thanks to Commodore 
Miller for his address, to President H. 
E. Cushman for the admirable ar- 
rangements, and to Harry L. Pope 
for his work as manager of -the fi- 
nancial and transportation facilities 
of the trip. New Bedford was reached 
at 8 30 by those in the special street 
ear, after a delightful trip through 
the Cape country at sunset. 

The list of people who took part in 
the outing is as follows: 

Miss Sally Taber, C. W. Holcomb, 
Nathaniel B. Russell, Edward Den- 
ham, Catherine W. Chandlor, Mr. and 
Mrs. O. N. Pierce, B. P. Allen, Mrs. 
Clara Kingman, Miss Emma C. Wat- 
kins, Mr. and Mrs. P. G. White, Miss 
Goldthwaite, Mrs. Worth G. Ross, Al- 
len P. Wood, Mrs. Horace Nye, George 
N. Alden, Miss Myra Gifford, Mrs. C. 
N. Swift, Mrs. James L. Hammond, 
Miss C. M. Hopkins, Mr. and Mrs. F. 
G. Tripp, Miss Katherine Hough, Wil- 
liam A. Robinson, Miss Julia Delano, 
Miss Lily Swift, Miss Gertrude Baxter 
Miss Clara Pierce, Mrs. William B. 
Jenney, Walton Rieketson, Prank 
Wood, Edward D. Brown, Miss Anna 
G. Brawley, Miss Susan P. flask ins, 
Harry Pope, Miss Mary Taber, Mrs. 
Cornelia Winslow, Mr. Hersom, Mr. 
and Mrs. Arthur Robbins, Abbott P. 
Smith, Herbert E. Cushman, Mrs. 
Cushman, Miss Kidder, George Hale 
Reed, Job C. Tripp, Mrs. E. Cushman, 
Mrs. L. B. Barker, Miss Allen, William 
Huston, Miss Mary E. Bradford, Mrs. 
Haekett, Miss Hacker, Miss K. S. 
Swift, Mrs. W. X. Church, Mr. and 
Mrs. Charles Marshall, Mrs. Sherman, 
S. .1. Besse, Miss Klebs, Mr. and Mrs. 
A. G. Van Nostrand. 

President H. E. Cushman, when the 
first party had assembled in the town 
hall at Bourne, made brief remarks in 
introducing Captain Miller, the speak- 
er of the afternoon. He said that in 
appreciation of the kindly thought of 
Miss Emily H. Bourne for the benefit 
of the Old Dartmouth Historical so- 
ciety, as expressed in the new building 
whic" she plans to present to the so- 
ciety, the plans of which the president 
held in his hands, that it seemed 



fitting that the pilgrimage should have 
been made to Bourne on Cape Cod, 
the town in which both Miss Bourne 
and her family have been so largely 
interested, and for which they have 
done so much, the speaker mentioning 
the pift to the town of the handsome 
library building located to the right of 
the town hall. President Cushman 
said that Captain Miller had kindly 
consented to tell the members of the 
society about the historical aspect of 
the Cape Cod canal, which most of the 
party had just been through. 

Captain Miller was greeted with en- 
thusiasm, and said it was of especial 
gratification to him that he could talk 
of the historical aspect of the canal, 
and not on a financial or engineering 
feature of the ditch. He spoke as fol- 
lows: 

"Modern research has brought to 
light the fact that Verazzano, while 
blundering along the coast in the 
Dauphine from Hatteras to the north- 
ward, not only entered the Hudson, 
but, on the 2 2d of April, 1524, an- 
chored in Naragansett bay. He then, 
during the beginning of May, passed 
through Vineyard sound and called the 
cape to the northward "Pallavicino" 
in honor of a member of the court of 
Francis I under whose orders his vay- 
age was made. His log states that the 
shore ran to the east "within which 
space we found shoals which extend 
from the continent into the sea fifty 
leagues. Upon which there was over 
three feet of water; on account of 
which great danger in navigating it we 
survived with difficulty and baptized 
it Arinellino.' 

"The superstition of a sailor did not 
deter Bartholomew Gosnold, the cap- 
tain of The Concord, sailing from Pal- 
mouth, England, on Friday, March 26, 
16 02. After a long' voyage across the 
western ocean land was sighted. The 
small craft kept on, passing safely 
through the shoals to the westward, a 
crew of thirty-two men landing on cer- 
tain islands, which they named after 
Queen Elizabeth. John Brereton, one 
of the ship's company, reported to Sir 
Walter Raleigh that 'coming ashore 
we stood awhile like men ravished at 
ye beautie and delicacie of ye sweet 
soile,' he then goes on to tell 'of divers 
eleare lakes of fresh water,' which 
seems to prove that the ship must also 
have anchored near the later New 
England Falmouth. 

"Three years afterward the French- 
man DeMonts nearly came to grief 
upon the cape and rightfully named 
the spot Mallebarre. 

"Their earliest thought was to con- 
nect the numerous lakes and streams 
existing within twenty miles of Ply- 
mouth and there to build a channel 
between what was known as the North 



19 



und South seas. Even then humanity 
demanded an inshore route towards 
New Amsterdam, the home of their 
friends, the Dutch, if Plymouth was to 
avoid famine on shore and death at 
sea. 

"So it came about that on September 
2, 1627, after the terrible winter, when 
the Old Colony was threatened with • 
starvation, that Myles Standish was 
sailing his Shallops towards the coun- 
try of the Shawnees. Thence, with 
his boats pulling up the Scusset river, 
a distance of three miles, he took his 
crew to an elevation of only twenty- 
nine feet above the sea, and in the dis- 
tance saw before him, anchored in the 
Manomet river, a small flotilla. This 
was commanded by a man named 
Isaac de Resieres from New Amster- 
dam. The Dutchmen had come to re- 
lieve the famished Pilgrims and 'trad- 
ing there in sugar, linen and other 
commodities' the first commerce be- 
tween Hudson and Massachusetts be- 
gan on the line of the present canal. 

"A few years later Sir Edmund Free- 
man, together with nine others, were 
the pioneers at the same spot. He had 
arrived at Lynn on the ship Abigail in 
1635, and was subsequently seven 
times assistant governor at Sandwich. 
His daughter Mary fell in love with a 
young man, who several years later 
arrived from Devonshire (he was born 
In 1630), but the orthodox Reverend 
Tupper refused to marry them, where- 
at there was a pretty ecclesiastical 
row; Freeman being fined for not at- 
tending church, and Edward Perry for 
belonging to the Society of Friends, 
but they were married. Also Perry's 
sister to Freeman's son. From this 
union of Quakers there ultimately 
came those distinguished fighters, Na- 
thaniel Greene, Christopher Raymond 
Perry of Revolutionary fame and the 
two brothers, Oliver Hazard Perry and 
Matthew Calbraith Perry of the War 
of 1812, the latter being the man who 
opened Japan to the trade of the 
world. 

"The various instances, historic and 
otherwise, mentioned above are perti- 
nent to our subject, as well as to the 
whole future of our country. The two 



foremost nations of the world, boih 
used to the hardships of the sea and 
embued with religious fervor, provid- 
ed the first settlers to a savage wilder- 
ness adjacent to a stormy coast. They 
reached that coast long after the Span- 
iards had colonized the gold and silver 
fields of the tropics. The New Eng- 
land colony, as was well said by Ed- 
ward Everett, was 'rich in the want of 
gold.' The Pilgrims also brought with 
them a religious toleration greater 
than that of the Puritans, and the in- 
fluence of the Quakers of Sandwich 
ultimately created a lasting impression 
upon Rhode Island." 

The "I-told-you-so's" of the canal 
was the closing part of Commodore 
Miller's address. He traced the va- 
rious attempts and plans for the canal 
since the time of Governor Winthrop 
and the colony, the surveys ordered by 
President George Washington, and ob- 
served that people had come to think 
that the feat was not possible. 

The sand, the strong tidal currents, 
and numerous other popular and tech- 
nical difficulties were mentioned as 
things for which persons had hoped to 
be able to say "I told you so." Just 
then the speaker was able to give a 
practical demonstration of 
canal was doing. 

The bridge gong outside 
ring and soon 2,0 DO tons of 
passing under the draw. "That barge 
will get to Boston a day and a half 
sooner than by the old route," said Mr. 
Miller. As much tonnage goes around 
Cape Cod yearly as through the Suez 
eanal and twice as much as is expect- 
ed to use the Panama, he said. 

'But sentimental and humanitarian 
reasons really had weight with August 
Belmont as well as the obvious com- 
mercial and financial ones," said the 
speaker. "Hundreds of lives have been 
lost and numerous vessels in the stor- 
my trip around the Cape which is now 
unnecessary. The canal will be a won- 
derful help in case of war as a quick 
route for transporting troops and ma- 
terials. Finally it is interesting and 
pleasing to know that the canal passes 
through the estate of the Perrys of 
Colonial days of whom Mr. Belmont is 
a descendant. 



what the 

began to 
coal were 




OLD DARTMOUTH 



HISTORICAL SKETCHES 



No. 44. 



ANNUAL MEETING, APRIL 3d, 1916 



MEN I HAVE KNOWN 



Milton Reed, Fall River 



SHIP BARTHOLOMEW GOSNOLD Henry B. Worth 



THE BOURNE WHALING MUSEUM Z. W. Pease 



NEW BEDFORD OUTFITTERS The Morning Mercury 



ANNUAL MEETING. 



The annual meeting of the Old 
Dartmouth Historical society was 
held last evening, when reports of of- 
ticers were made, and officers chosen. 
The following were re-elected as of- 
ficers of the society: 

l'resident — H. E. Cushman. 

Secretary — H. B. Worth. 

Treasurer — Frederic 11. Taber. 

Directors for three years — W. W. 
Crapp, Walton Rieketson, Edward L. 
Macomber of Westport. 

The report of Henry B. Worth, sec- 
retary of the society, follows: 

The Old Dartmouth Historical so- 
ciety originated in an address by Ellis 
L. 1 lowland, a member of the 
reportorial staff of The Standard. 
delivered before the Unity club 
of the' Unitarian church, Janu- 
ary 16, P)U3. At the close of 
the meeting a committee of five 
were appointed to investigate the 
feasibility of forming a historical so- 
ciety. At a meeting held in the same 
place May 25, 11)03, an organization 
was effected and a plan adopted for 
the work of such a society. This 
provided four departments, Museum, 
Historical, Research, Publication ami 
Educational. Along these lines the 
activity of the Old Dartmouth has 
developed and the institution has be- 
come popular and widely known. This 
appears in the large membership, the 
number on the roll now aggregating 
821. The number withdrawn has been 
ten and the 2 3 who have deceased 
are the following: 

Walter S. Allen. 

Mrs. Francis V. Akin. 

George D. Barnard: 

A. Emma Cummings. 

Mrs. VV. R. Chad wick. 

Clara S. Freeman. 

Horatio K. ilowland. 

George D. Hahicht. 

George S. Hart. 

Mis. Pemberton II. Nye. 

-Mis. Andrew G. Pierce. 

Charles S. Paisler. 

(Jeorge R. Stetson. 

Ellen M. Stetson. 

Thomas M. Stetson. 

Charles D. Stickney. 
' Mary H. Stickney. 

Myles Stand ish. 

Anna II. Parlow. 

Mrs. John Paulding. 

Mrs. George F. Klack. 

Arthur U. Jones. 

Lydia J. Cranston. 



Since the last annual meeting three 
pamphlets have been printed: 

No. 11. 10 pages on "The Mills of 
New Bedford and Vicinity Before the 
Introduction of Steam." 

No. 42. 23 pages by Robert C. P. 
Coggeshall — "The Development of the 
New Bedford Water Supplies." 

No. 4 3. 20 pages, containing Pro- 
ceedings of the Annual Meeting and 
Summer Outing at the Buzzards Bay 
Canal, to which were added Historical 
Articles on Oxford Village, Fairhaven 
and Captain Thomas Taber. 

These publications are sought by 
libraries and individuals throughout 
the United States on account of the 
historical and genealogical details re- 
lating to the early families, branches 
of which have removed to every part 
of the land. People in the west and 
south who desire to trace their an- 
cestry back to the Mayflower and the 
good oh! Colony days find the old 
Dartmouth researches often start 
them on the right track of investiga- 
tion. 

A meeting was held October 27, 
1915, in the rooms on Water street, 
and lion. Milton Read of Pall River 
gave an address on "Men I Have 
Known." This was an extemporaneous 
discourse and Mr Read had no notes 
from which it could be printed. His 
comments and reminiscences were de- 
lightful to his hearers and would have 
been valuable to publish, but un- 
fortunately could not be preserved for 
publication. 

A meeting was held in the High 
school auditorium Thursday evening, 
Feb. 2 1, PJ16, when a large audience' 
present listened to two addresses, one 
by Dr. llermon C. Bumpus, president 
of Tufts college, on "The Historical 
Society — Its Significance and Value in 
the Community", the other illustrate-d 
with lanlem slides, by Professor W. 
L. Underwood on his experiences, 
which he entitled "Fisherman's Duck.'' 

Cordial relations between the mem- 
bers and their friends have been main- 
tained through the medium of social 
gatherings. The first was held at 
Lincoln park, Sept. 22, 1915, and call- 
ed a "jamboure e," combining the 
features of a fair and a bazaar. The 
other was held in the Odd Fellows 
building, March ti, 101 6, and was a 
Mardi Gras fost'val. Both entertain- 
ments w< re attended by a large num- 
ber of persons. 



The original statement authorizing 

tlif work of the society provided that 
the educational section should aim to 
inspire interest in history in the 
aehools. In his lecture in the High 
school, I >r. Bumpus showed that this 
appeal must be made to the child by 
exhibition of relics and objects of his- 
torieal significance and that the Old 
Dartmouth was able along special 
lines, through Its museum, to effec- 
tively engage in this work. It has 
been expected that arrangements 
would be made with the school teach- 
ers to visit the museum with a con- 
venient number of pupils to see the 
rooms and the collection. During 
the past year this work has not been 
as vigorously conducted as desired for 
one reason, principally that the rooms 
have been disarranged by the con- 
struction of the addition. 

Delegations frcm the New Bedford 
ane Kail Hiver branches of the Young 
Men's Christian association have 
visited the rooms and pupils from 
New Bedford schools with teachers 
have taken advantage of the oppor- 
tunity. Miss Emma A. McAfee of 
the Knowlton school on two occa- 
sions; Mis. Ifltta M. A. Smead of the 
Middle street school; Miss Helen M. 
Welch of the Lincoln school, and Miss 
.lane Conway of the Congdon school. 

Perhaps this privilege is not fully 
understood by the teachers. In the 
future the persons who can sustain 
this institution must come from the 
class who are now in school. An in- 
terest in history and events of the 
past car. be best aroused while they 
are pupils by Galling their attention 
to curiosities and objects which il- 
lustrate ancient customs and methods. 
This is offered to the pupils without 
any charge for admission as long as 
they are under direction of the teach- 
ers. Nor is it restricted to the city. 
1-xactiy the same privilege is extend- 
ed to the pupils in the neighboring 
towns that once with New Bedford 
Comprised the town of Dartmouth. It 
is the desire of the officers to estab- 
lish cordial relations with the school 
children not only in the public schools 
of this locality, but as well in the pri- 
vate schools. 

The work of the historical research 
section does not appear as such ex- 
cept in the publications of the so- 
ciety and in the local press. Valuable 
articles on a variety of subjects are 
continually appearing in the New 
Bedford papers, for which frequent- 
ly the writers depend on the Old 
Dartmouth members for material; 
and means are employed by con- 
venient indexes, to keep these ar- 
ticles available for future use. It 
lias been a fortunate circumstance 



that the newspaper men of this city 
have been so cordially inclined to- 
wards the history of this section and 
this, of course, indicates that the pub- 
lic who 11 they serve arc also inter- 
ested and friendly. 

Tin' spectacular event that has 
chiefly claimed attention of the pub- 
lic is the addition to the Old Dart- 
mouth property on Bethel street at 
the top of what was once called Pros- 
pect Hill, a name more appropriate 
than the unexplainable designation 
of Johnny Cake Hill. After the 
annual meeting last year another 
house and lot was purchased and this 
gave a frontage on Bethel street of 
140 feet. The hill at its crown is 4G 
feet above tide water, and here has 
been erected an addition over 100 feet 
long, surmounted by an observatory. 
Here will be the only whaling mu- 
seum in existence, equipped on a com- 
plete and elaborate scale, and from 
the cupola the visitor may behold a 
view of the sea and shore that would 
have gladdened the vision of the 
worthies of a century ago who were 
eager to discover from the housetops 
the expected arrival of their whale- 
ships. 

Henry B. Worth. 

Secretary. 



The Kepoit of the Curator. 

The report of Prank Wood, cura- 
tor, follows: 

1 am sure that the officers of this 
society have an easier task this even- 
ing in presenting to you their annual 
reports than they had a few years 
ago when about all they could say 
was that the society existed. Tonight 
it must be a satisfaction to you to 
hear, as it is to us to be able to re- 
port, that the Old Dartmouth His- 
torical Society has passed the stage 
of a mere: existence, and is for all 
time to come a truly live society. 
One that you should be proud to be 
a member of. Yes more than that, 
one that the city should be proud of, 
as it is the aim of this society to 
make it for the benefit of all. 

Tonight 1 propose to tell you some- 
thing of the accessions in way of 
gilts to our museum, and in this we 
have been fortunate. I am sure, too, 
that the coming year will bring us 
many more for as the Bourne Whal- 
ing Museum noars completion, it 
certaiipy will create a wider and a 
more enthusiastic interest. You all 
know our needs, and at this time 1 
do not think' it necessary to appeal 
to your generosity, as we know it will 
be to you i pleasure to do your part 
in filling the eases and walls of our 
museum. <r 



Accessions 19J5-191G. Eliot D. Stetson— Desk used and 

owned by his father, Thomas M. Stet- 
son. 

Miss Mary TT. Baker — Two portraits. 



Francis Reed — Bed Key. 
G. D. and Dr. A. A. Julian — Pic- 
ture of the son of Colonel Ethan one"of "William "Russell.* Jr. "and the 



Allen. Two plates, cup and saucer other of Abagoil Brown and his wife. 

that belonged to Colonel Ethan Allen. Mrs. Louis Katun— Portraits from 

Mrs. Frank Wood — Two gilt frames. the Standish house 

Mrs. Caroline G. Winsiow— Picture Mrs. Nathanial" dishing- Nash— 

of her father, Captain Francis Baker. Model of a whale ship 

Cabinet of shells and curios. ' Prank Hammond— Photos, of the 

N. 1'. Hayes — Engraving of New bark C. W. Morgan. 

Bedford by Hill. George R.'phillips— Signal hook. 

Mrs. John F. Wing— Old pocket- Madame Von Do Bossach— Slippers 

book containing receipts, etc. made in Belgium. 

Mrs. T M. YVhite— Photographs. Clarence A. Cook— Copper plate 

Lafayette LGifford— Model ol brig, from wh ich the invitations wore 

ivory busk and old ink well. printed to a ball tendered to the New 

William A. Wing— Books, china and y ork Y acht dub in 1856. 

three quilting blocks. Miss Anna R Uobinson _ Certificate 



Dr. Charles Hunt — Liverpool pitch 



dated 1824, giving throe months' pas- 



er, bound hies New Bedford Mercury, sa ,, over the Fa f r haven bridge. 

photographs, government reports, etc M rs. Sarah G. Smith, South Middle- 
Chares SKelley— Documents, boro— Foot warmer and powder horn 
Frank Gilman— Very large pair first owned by Josiah winsiow, a des- 

mussei sneiis. cendant of Kenelm Winslom in the 

Arthur Grinnell— Very old hair fjf(h generation. Kenelm was n 

trunk, Copy of The Old Flag published brothe ? of Governor Edward Winsiow 

at Fort Ford, Texas, in the sixties. r i>i,., riM1)t v 1 

„£^ ™ Wi ^oementitle e d m Our Duty 

Thatcher k! Swift-Pair very old ment N >' e Swift ' artist and P oet: 

Feather irons or Hobbles. "Gather the scattered relics of old 

Buther B. Gifford — Old deed — Paul whaling days. 

Cuffee. Bring them with reverent if with tardy 

Frank E. Gilman — Log of ebonv hands. 

from vessel wrecked at Cuttyhunk. * Shrine them and guard them, as in 

Walter Chase-A fine lot of half T he °rSStcd swords and dinted helms 

models of ships, stern board and other were hung, 

articles. To breathe with their mute eloquence 

Mrs. Annie Seabury Wood — Log in subtlest ways 

book, shi]> America, Captain Charles Of that heroic epoch when the town 

P. Seabury. was - voun -- 

Frank E. Brown— Framed picture p>ri h nes?lectecl trophy, furbish 

of Captain Eben Pierce. ]t anew. 

Charles M. JIussey — Ships papers Each flippant year in passing lays its 

box, ship Washington. coat of rust, 

William E. Robinson — Documents Cherish and guard them henceforth as 

and various articles. „ a . sacred trust, 



Mrs. Bradford E. Walker — Pair silk 
mitts. 



For in this Museum's halls almost we 

find 
That brooding hush that dwells with 



George S. Bowen — Old boat build- sacred dust 

er's guage. Where tattered banners hang, and 

Mrs. Lemuel T. Perry — Signal book armours rust. 

LS37 and live sketches. A"' 1 *roat deeds r.se in memory, and 

Robert- C. B. Coggeshall— Signal Feel W f he neglected lore of whalemen 

book 1856. stlr the mind 

Mrs. Bradford E. White — Poster with our inherent tendency and long- 
auction sale, White's factory. 1843. ing for the sea." 

George II. TI. Allen — Sketches mem- 

hers municipal government 1861. 

A. J. Smith — Odd Fellows regalia Financial Report. 

and sword and sabre used in Civil war. f Krodoric H Tabor 

Mrs. Andrew G. Bierce, Jr. — Oil « 



follows 

Old Dartmouth Historical Soclch 



painting, steam whaler Mary and 
Helen. 

George II. IT. Allen — Whaling docu- Assu-t*. 

ments. N. B. Institution for Savings, 

Mrs. Henry H. Edes, Documents. Lyceum fund $1.77 



N. 13. Institution for Savings. 

r.ifp Membership fund 1.050.0') 

N. H. Five Cents Savings bank, 

Lyceum fund 1.1GS.1S 

N. IS. M\r Cuts Savings bank, 

Life Membership fund 175.00 

N. I'.. Institution for Savings, 

Seabury fund 50.00 

$5 (to N. li C >lton .Mil! bond... 450.00 
15 shares Mechanics National 

bank 2,300.00 

3 shares Merchants National 

bank G12.00 



Cash — 

Regular account 15.81 

(luuhe committee account .. 13.7!» 

IN si] estat* — 

P.uildinar 8.086.34 

( iosnold Island 1. 00 

Bethel street 1,450.00 

M UM'i.m I (in 

Totals $17,150.39 

LI ii hi lilies. 

Notes payable $1,450.00 



i 



" MEN I HAVE KNOWN." 



MILTON REED reminiscent before Historical Society. WILLIAM W. CRAPO tells of 

Governor Morton's Majority of One, George Marston, Hosea M. Knowlton and 

Other Notables of New Bedford. 



"Men I Have Known and Met in beg money, in behalf of charity, which 

Our Locality and Other Places" was if, a test of man's usefulness. I balk 

the subject of some delightful remin- on that! ' 

iscences by Milton Reed before the Ml . Reed re i ate d an anecdote of a 

Old Dartmouth Historical society yes- 1( .,, al encounter between father and 

terday afternoon. By Mr. Reed, sat Mm involving tic justice of whom he 

William W. Crapo, to whom the speak- Kul been spea king, and .lames M. 

er frequently referred tor corrobora- Morton, Jr., now judge of the district 

tion. And Mr. Crapo was helpful in C()U ,t m Boston. The son was coun- 

his responses, and related an anec- so j in H ; anc i case) j n which his father 

dote that should be given an honored was a hostile witness. "The son in his 

place in the records of the ."society. examination smiled around him, but 

Jt was told while Mr. Reed was dis- could not budge his father, and finally 

cussing die Morton family, which for began l:c ask emphatic questions, tin- 

many yens has had the habit of sup- f :I his father declared: 'James, you 

plying the supreme and superior can't drive me. Vou needn't try!' " 
courts with justices, lie spoke of Mar- Another difference in the family was 

ens .Morton, and asked Mr. Crapo if cited by the speaker, who stated that 

it were not true that Mr. Morton was while the senior Judge Morton and 

elected governor of Massachusetts by his wife were both advocates of suf- 

a majority of one. frage, the younger Judge Morton was 

"Yes," replied Mr. Crapo, "he was an "anti" and his wife was president 

elected by a majority of one, on the () f an "anti" society. 
popular vote. The following year, no jyT r . Reed said that his own advent 

candidate had a majority, and the jn y i{ \\ River occurred in 1868, John 

election went to the legislature. There c. Milne visiting him at Harvard and 

also, Mr. Morton was elected by a asking him to take the editorship of 

majority of one. the News, to succeed Mr. Reed's 

"At the tima of the completion of brother. With some reluctance, he 
the Taonton-Now Bedford railroad, a consented, taking the position on 
celebration in the form of a banquet March 30, ISGS, and remaining with 
was held in this city, John H. Clif- the paper for three and one-half years, 
ford presiding. Governor Morton at- during which time he met many peo- 
tended, but bong old-fashioned in his pie prominent in Taunton and New 
ideas, he did not take the first train Bedford. He recalled an elegant ad- 
down, but drove down with his horse dress made during one of the critical 
and chaise. The banquet began at 12 campaigns by the late William J. 
o'cIock. and the governor was late. Rotch; and also remembered Jona- 
When the giu-sts were about half than Bourne. "a hard-headed old 
ihrough dinner, Governor Morton ap- Yankee from the Gape"; George O. 
peareu. "The governor is here," an- Crocker, Edward Mandell, and Releg 
nounced Mr. Clifford. "He usually gets How land. "One dear friend whom I 
in by one!" had in New Bedford," he continued, 

Mr. Reed began his remarks con- "was Charles H. Pierce, treasurer of 

cerning the Motion family by a ref- the New Bedford Savings bank, a busi- 

erence to James M. Morton, Senior, ness man and a man of culture. I 

of Fall River, whom he described as felt his weath as a personal affliction, 
'one of the ablest lawyers he ever met. "New Bedford had the two ablest 

"He retired as a justice last year, at advocates I ever heard on a case — 

i. beautiful old age," said the speak- George Marston and Hosea M. Knowl- 

er. Of Mrs. Morton, Mr. Reed said ton. Marston was not learned, but 

that -die was an admirable woman, possessed remarkable powers of ob- 

active in every good work, and that servation, a trajectory of thought that 

.Judge Morton also took pleasure in was marvelous. As he followed the 

those simple charities. "He will even testimony of the witnesses his eye 



would sparkle and he would seize the 
very euro af ;i case. Lie understood 

Yankee jurors and how to so right to 
the euro of their characters. 

"Knowiton was of a different type. 
There is a tendency among lawyers 
to distort evidence; hut Knowiton was 
one of the most honest men I ever saw. 
lie was rough in his manner, but had 
a kind heart. I remember the dinner 
tendered him upon the occasion of his 
retirement from the office of attorney 
general. That Saxon berserker almost 
cried that night, at the overflow of 
a flection for him. 

"I would like to speak of a gentle- 
man who is still alive — Thomas Al. 
Stetson. I know of no greater com- 
bination of legal knowledge and cul- 
ture, allied to personal power, lie is 
possessed °f wonderful accuracy and 
magnificent reasoning ability, and few 
men in the state have his prodigious 
intellectual power. 

"New Bedford lias contributed a 
great many judges to Massachusetts. 
Lincoln F. Brigham, who was a chief 
justice, had a photographic conscience, 
and 1 never saw a man on a jury- 
waived case who would hit nearer to 
the heart of truth than he. He was 
distinguished for his dignity, his char- 
acter and courtesy, and was one of the 
handsomest men who ever sat upon 
the bench. He moved from New I'.ed- 
ford to Salem while I was practicing 
law. 

"Judge Tit man was a man of high 
ideals, devoted to temperance, and an 
admirable lawyer, lie had some tem- 
peramental qualities that made him 
unpopular with the bar, as is evi 
denied by the fact that he could get 
into a controversy with so urbane a 
man as Walter Clifford. lie seemed 
like a storm-bird, and apparently re- 
joiced in controversy, so that he would 
start all the devil in you, and make 
you want to throw a book at him. Yet 
he was a most admirable man. He 
was pure-minded and of exalted recti- 
tude, although possessed of a certain 
arrogance and narrowness of vision." 
The speaker cited one charge given 
by Judge Pitman, in which after de- 
voting himself exclusively to flatter- 
ing commentary upon the defendant 
and his case, he announced: "1 find 
for the plaintiff." 

(if the late Lemuel LeBaron 
Holmes, Mr. Reed said: "I never saw 
a. harder-working man. 1 was once 
counsel in a case, opposed lo him, 
in which he had the weak side He 
pulled out a, big packet of manuscript 
;n\i\ asked tlie justice if he could have 
all the time he wanted. The court 
assented, and Mr. Holmes read for 
five hours — a marvelous argument. 
1 had not expected a cyclone. I said 
that it was magnificent, but not law; 



and that he could not win his caso. 
And be didn't. He was an admirable 
judge, ami it would lie impossible to 
liini one more conscientious. 

"Your judges move away from New 
Bedford when you appoint them," re- 
marked M r. lit ed. "We used to 
punch it into the governor, when ap- 
pointments were to be made, that we 
wanted a judge from this district, so 
that the local attorneys could have 
their motions heard before him. Th" 
governor would appoint thnn, and 
then they would take the wings of 
morning and llv away to the ends of 
tho earth. 

"Vim have now upon the bench a 
sunny-faced judge from New Bedford, 
a very charming man. 1 have great 
respect for bun as, after he had a 
family dependent upon him, he went 
to I Inrvard to take the law course. 

"When I (tune from Fall River, 
with its cotton-factory atmosphere, 
in tin old days, 1 felt as if I were 
experiencing what is described in 
Shakespeare's 'Tempest' as 'a sea 
change into something rich and 
strange.' New Bedford bad the Itavor 
of the sea, and it was very delight- 
ful to see the class of men that could 
be found upon its streets. Your 
marine relics in this building remind 
me of what 1 used to see. 

"In my travels, I have always 
found New Bedford to be (.lie of the 
best-known cities in America. On 
steamship or railroad train, when it 
;.s discovered that 1 hail from Fall 
River, someone always takes me aside 
:nui asks: 'Do you think Lizzie 
Borden did it':" and al the North 
Cape, in Burma, or wherever I go, f 
am asked the question: 'Do you 
know Lizzie Borden?" Von of New 
Bedford have a happier lot. While 
I was in Hawaii, the people told me 
about the number of whalers from 
New Hertford that had been there. h 
is pleasant for New Bedford that you 
have not a horrible tragedy that 
everything ranges around." 

A Ball River man who made a deep 
impression upon Mr, Reed was John 
Westall, afterward minister of the 
Swedenborgian chapel in Ball River. 
The speaker's initial newspaper ex- 
perience was the reporting of the first 
Memorial day service there, at which 
a poem was read by Mr. Westall. "He 
was one of the most interesting men 
I ever knew," said Mr. Beed. "Born 
in I'On gland, he came here when a 
child, and went to work in a mill, 
also attending an evening school kept 
by the Messrs. Robeson, who after- 
ward came to New Bedford. Westall 
afterward entered the employ of the 
American Printing company, and be- 
came a designer of calice printing, 
making very beautiful designs. lie 



(lid a wonderful tiling — ho used every 
power that he possessed; just as the 
German empire is doing in its Satanic 
war. We in America need a lesson 
In the economy of powers. Westall 
painted; lie \v;is deeply interested in 
books, and gave delightful talks upon 
them; he was interested in music, 
playing the flute and violin. Tn fact, 
ho seemed to he an admirable Crich- 
ton. At middle age he resigned, and 
Mrs. Mary B. Young furnished the 
money enabling him to spend a year 
In Europe. Me went to Egypt, where 
he studied Egyptology,- giving lectures 
when he returned. At last he grew 
old, and had shaking palsy, but noth- 
ing disturbed the beauty of his char- 
acter. 

'•Among the most prominent men in 
Fall River were Colonel Richard Bor- 
den, and his sons, Thomas J. Borden. 
Edward P. Borden, Matthew C. D. 
Harden, Richard R. Borden, and 
William Borden; all men of remark- 
able ability. They were not only able 
men, but were staunch and true, 
always upon the side of a good gov- 
ernment, integrity, law and justice. 
The colonel's brother, Jefferson Bor- 
den, manager of the American Print 
Works, was another of the same type." 

other names mentioned by the 
speaker included Hale Remington, 
Robert K. Remington, and the mem- 
bers of the Bray ton and Durfee fami- 
lies. 

The speaker said that Taunton had 
an able bar, and he recalled that 
Charles W. Clifford read law in the 



office of Judge 10. II. Bennett, a cour- 
teous gentleman of (lie olden time, and 
a very learned man. At this point 
Air. Reed returned to New Bedford 
for a moment, saying that he ought 
not to forget to mention, "Your de- 
lightful old judge, Oliver Prescott. 
A sunnier man 1 never met; and you 
know what an honor to your town 
his son and namesake is." 

Judge William II. Fox of Taunton, 
Mr. Reed said, was a man who was 
never appreciated. "He was appoint- 
ed a police judge," said the speaker, 
"and held the- position fifty years. 
Had he resigned and gone into the 
arena, he would have been one of 
the ablest lawyers in Massachusetts. 
He had an incisive intellect, and in 
his capacity of bar examiner he could 
ask a single question that would tell 
the capacity of the applicant for ad- 
mission to the bar. But he did not 
take the commanding position that he 
ought to have taken." 

Among the business men who at- 
tained prominence in Taunton, Mr. 
Reed named William Mason, Enoch 
Robinson, .Samuel Crocker and Chester 
Read. 

In conclusion, the speaker said: 
"Bristol county has had its full share 
of the men who have moulded honest 
public opinion, and done something 
to make the world better, sweeter and 
nobler." 

Tea was served following the meet- 
ing, Mrs. William Huston and Mrs. 
Andrew G. Pierce, Jr., acting as hos- 
tesses. 



11 



VOYAGES OF SHIP 

"BARTHOLOMEW GOSNOLD." 

By HENRY B. WORTH. 



The Bartholomew Gosnold was 
built in Pal mouth, .Mass., in 1832, 
and after a career of over hall' a 
century, having been twice a ship ami 
twice a bark, was degraded to a barge 
and closed her existence in May, 18 1)4'. 

Captain John C. Daggett of Tisbury, 
had just returned as master of the 
hark l'indres of Fairhavcn, with a 
catch of 1200 barrels of oil, taken in 
the Atlantic ocean in a short voyage 
of eight months. This success prob- 
ably made it easy for him to induce 
Falmouth men to build him a larger 
ship, the Primlres being 103 tons. 
The first owners of the new ship of 
300 tons and named the Bartholomew 
Gosnold were the following: 

.John C. Daggett, master; Shubael 
Lawrence, Solomon Lawrence, Jr., 
Peleg Lawrence. Ansel Lawrence, 
Samuel 1'. Crowell. Stephen Davis 
Simeon Harding, Isaac Robinson, 
Thomas Robinson. Roland Robinson, 
William Nye, Ephraim ISidridge, Davis 
Match, Nathaniel Hldrod. Barachiah 
B. Bourne. Solomon Lawrence, Jr., 
was the builder, and Ward M. Parker 
of New Bedford, a -cut. 

In 184'i a radical change in owner- 
ship and management took place. Sha 
was] purchased by Thomau Mandeil, 
Gideon I lowland. Sylvia Ann Mow- 
land, and. Kdward Mott Robinson and 
managed by them under the l'amoua 
name of Isaac 1 lowland. Jr. & Co. 
She then passed into the hands of 
Charles R. Tucker & Co.. in 18G3 and 
in 1SS0 was withdrawn from the 
whaling service. 

She completed 13 whaling voyages, 
one in the Atlantic, two in the Indian 
and ten in the Pacific oceans. 

No serious disaster befell the ship. 
During the voyage beginning 1 S 4 7 , 
John M. Austen, the third mate, died 
and during the voyage under Captain 
John Fisher four men were lost fast 
to a whale. 

While the Gosnold made some 
average voyages none of them were 
notable. To be gone four years 
around Cape Horn and return with a 
catch worth only $27,000 brought no 



great profit to the owners, for the 
expenses of the voyage would gen- 
erally amount to that sum. During 
the Civil war, products of whaling 
voyages returned a handsome profit. 
At one time sperm oil brought $8'' 
per barrel. 

An unusual and lucky incident oc- 
curred on the last voyage. ' Captain 
l'o< le had come home sick and Cap- 
tain Hammond was sent, out to finish 
tha season. They were cruising for 
sperm whales on tlm west coast of 
Australia in company wi.h the bark 
Canton, Captain George L. Howland. 
Thc-y were cutting in the blubber 
from a sperm whale and the second 
triate, a Gay Head Indian, noticed a 
swelling in the intestines of the whale 
and as he probed into it with his spade 
he discovered it was hard and recog- 
nized it as ambergris, the most valu- 
able product of the sperm whale. The 
mass was carefully removed and 
proved to be over l>00 pounds in 
we : ght. It was put in two barrels 
and these were placed inside of larger 
casks, Tilled with water. Captain 
Howland states that this method of 
preserving it was a mistake. Its 
value would not have been injured 
so much if it had been kept dry, i*or 
on one voyage the Canton found 1 1' 
pounds that was kept dry and brought 
$ 4 5 per pound. When the Gosnoid 
discovery was reported, it was sup- 
posed that the value was prodigious, 
but when it reached New Bedford the 
substance was much like black mud 
and the quality not what was anti- 
cipated. While on the wharf it was 
guarded night and day. But it was 
no', easy to sell it. The chemical 
manufacturer!-: that used the sub 
stance in ma King perfumery were not 
satisfied with the quality and after 
much effort, John F. Tucker, the 
agent, was forced to sell it in small 
lots to different customers and it final- 
ly brought about $25,000 cr an aver- 
age of $S0 per pound, a result one- 
third of the expected value. 

These spectacular incidents do not 
often occur. , 



12 



Finally sperm and whale nil became 
supplanted by other substitutes and 
it was no longer profitable to send 
out ships for oil. Fabulous prices 
wcr<' paid for bone, but this was to 
he feaptured in the Arctic and pre- 
ferably in steamers. So the old Gos- 
nold lay at the wharf lour years and 
then the entry appears, "Sold and 
withdrawn." Ilere closed her career 
of halt' a century as a whaler. The 
new owners towed tier to Boston 
where she was dismantled and used 
as an experiment in a new venture in 
barge const) action vvhich proved a 
failure. The last entry in the Boston 
custom house was made May 22.JS94, 
"vessel burned." The old hull was 
taken do\vn Boston harbor to a shoal 
called Nut I rland and burned. Her 
log books before 1^7 1 are in the Now 
Bedford Public library. Her finely 
carved figurehead is now in the build- 
ing of the Old Dartmouth Historical 
Society. 



The following schedule shows when 
each voyage ended, who was master, 
and the approximate value of the 
catch, computed from reports in pub- 
lications on whaling: 

1836 — John C. Daggett $33,000 

1S3JI — Klihu Fish 30.000 

1843 — Abraham Russell 33, out. 

is 17 — hid ward P. Mosher 39.000 

1851 — Reuben Tabei 21,000 

1854— C. 15. Houstis G3.000 

1858 — John Fisher..... 57,000 

1802 — < !< oi ■-•■■ It. Clark 43,000 

I860— John Uolles 105,000 

1S7H — Charles Nichols S3 00(1 

1S7G— James M. Willis 81,000 

1 s so — Sylvan us 1). Robinson.... 27,0(»U 
18.S5 — William H. Poole and 

Janus Hammond 48,000 

Total $GG3,000 

Captain Poole returned sick be- 
fore the lasi voyage was completed 
and Captain Hammono was sent out 
to bring the vessel home. While not 
unusual, yet no master shipped on the 
Gosnold a second time. 




From The Morning Afercury. 

Figure Head Bartholomew Gosnold 



13 



THE STORY OF THE BUILDING OF THE 
BOURNE WHALING MUSEUM 

WITH REMINISCENCES OE OLD COUNTING ROOMS. 

By Z. W. PEASE. 



On the cast side of Front strctt at offices in this building were occupied 

the head of Men-ill's wharf stands a bv Charles 1,\ Tucker, Edward 1). 

stone building, massive and severe in Mandell, John R,. Thornton, Dennis 

design and construction. There are Wood, Oliver Crocker and George O. 

a few similar buildings left along the Crocker. In old Marker's block at 

water front, last reminders of the the foot of Middle street, now de- 

days of whaling, and the merchants molished, were the ofliees of John 

who occupied them. Avery Parker and Jireh Terry, Pardon 

in these buildings were the count- Tillinghast and William C. X. Swift, 
ing looms of the whaling merchants. and later on William Phillips ami 
Tiie first floors were often ship George It. Phillips. Others in the 
chandlery simps and rooms where list of merchants that come to mind 
whaling outfits were stored between were George [lowland, Matthew Mow- 
voyages. Tin- counting rooms were land, Henry Taber and John Hunt, 
on the seeoiui doors, and there were succeeded by William G. Taber and 
sail lofts and rigging lofts on tie- William Gordon, Edward C. Jones, 
upper stories. William Watkins, Alexander Gibbs, 

These counting rooms had a char- William O. Brownell, Thomas Knowles, 

aeter all their own. There weie Edward W. I lowland, George Harney, 

counters and iron railings behind Otis Seabury, Edward Seabury and J. & 

which were desks of mahogany. The W. II. Win;;. These are but a few of 

bookkeeper stood up, or sat on high the whaling merchants contemporary 

stools. There were few desks in 11m with Mr. Bourne. 

old counting rooms at which the oilicc The late Jonathan I'.onrne, the most 
help might sit in a chair. About the successful of all the whaling nie.r- 
oflioe walls were models of the ship- chants in New Bedford's rich historj, 
owners' whalers and whaling prints who owned at one time more ships 
reproduced from the paintings of than any man in New England, car- 
Benjamin Russell. There were boxes ried on business in the old stone block 
on the shelves, lettered with the ;it the head of .Merrill's wharf 
names of the whale ships, in winch throughout his career, and his count- 
the vessel's bills and papers were ing rooms are now exactly as lie left 
kept. them, the sole survivor of all the 

One of these great buildings of counting rooms which are visualized 
stone and brick, unadorned by archi- in the minds of those who remember 
tectum! ornament, and reflecting the the fascinating industry, no less than 
tendencies of tin 1 business men of the the quaint old ships strongly char- 
period, in many cases Quakers, is still acterized by their clumsy wooden 
standing at the foot of Union street, davits and the crow's nests, the 
and is now occupied in part by the perches from which the lookouts 
ofliees of the X. Y., X. II. & II. rail- watched for whales. 

road. The great house of Isaac How- There is today, an odor of whale 

land. Jr.. X: Co. occupied ofliees here oil about Merrill's wharf, contributed 

and late)- on their successors, Edward hy n few hundred casks of oil that 

Mott Ilobinson, the father of Hetty happen to he stored there at this 

Green, and Thomas Mandell. Othti lime, which brings back memories of 



14 



departed days to the old citizen who 
gets a whiff of oil and seaweed once 
so familiar. 

The power of smells to, evoke pic- 
tures was recently emphasized by Mi. 
Kipling. "Have you noticed," wrote 
.Mr. Kipling the other day, "wherever 
a few travelers gather together, one 
or the other is sure to say, 'Do you 
remember the smell of such and such 
a place?' Then he may so to speak 
of camel — pure camel — one whiff of 
which is all Arabia; or of the smell 
of rotten eggs at Hitt, on the Euphra- 
tes, where Noah got the pitch for 
the Ark; or the flavor of drying fish 
in Burma." 

Mr. Kipling's allusion brought out 
a swarm of letters from people who 
tried to assign the characteristic 
smell to great cities. One man tells 
that the odor of Paris is a mingling 
of the fragrance of burnt coffee, of 
caporal and of burning peat. Berlin, 
we are told, has the clean, osphaity, 
disinfectant smell of all new towns, 
while Vienna the windy, reeks of dust. 
The London Times, coming in here, 
is stirred to a pitch of poetical en- 
largement by the topic. "The sub- 
ject of smells in their relation to the 
traveler is an old and favorite topic 
with Mr. Kipling. Has he not said 
somewhere that the smell ot the 
Himalayas always calls a man back? 
And does not his time-expired soldier 
sing of the 'spicy garlic smells' of 
Burma? The smells of travel are in- 
deed innumerable. The voyager gets 
his first real whiff of the east when 
he lands at Aden, and drives along 
a dusty road to the bazaar within 
the Crater. It lingers in his nostrils 
fur evermore. On the coast of Burma 
and down the straits, the air is redo 
lent of rotten fish and overripe fruit. 
Tropical jungles have keen olfactory 
memories of decaying vegetation. The 
smell of Chinese villages is like noth- 
ing else in the world, but the odd 
thing is that to the true traveler it 
ceases to be disagreeable." 

So much for smells, apropos of 
those which linger on Merrill's wharf. 
In the old days casks of oil covered 
with seaweed, covered every wharf 
along the water front of New Bedford. 
The leakage saturated the soil and the 
air was redolent with the heavy odor. 
After a century in which it was the 
distinctive New Bedford smell, it has 
vanished excepting from this litlie 



spot where, in the only place on earth, 
is exhaled the odor of the industry 
which produced great fortunes and 
made the New Bedford of old flu 
richest city in the country in propor- 
tion to its population. 

So after the passing of decades one 
old counting room survives in a build- 
ing which was peculiar to the indus- 
try and about it clings the old odor. 
It is one bit of New Bedford which 
is as it used to be. There even re- 
mains the old shed which sheltered 
Mr. Bourne's "sundown," a type of 
carriage affected by the whaling mer- 
chants of his period and distinctive 
like everything pertaining to whaling 
days. 



But these reminders of the im- 
mortal industry are vagrant and 
transitory and it has devolved upon 
the last of the generation connected 
with and in touch with the men and 
affairs in the golden age of our 
unique industry to rear monuments 
to the men who brought fame and 
opulence to the city through their 
hazardous enterprise. Several years 
ago William W. Crapo erected a 
memorial on Library square to the 
whaleman. Bela Pratt, the sculptor, 
selected the harpooner as typifying 
the whaleman. The harpooner is the 
most picturesque figure in whaling. 
It is he who performed the task with 
the responsibility, the task with the 
thrill. "It is the harpooner," as Mel- 
ville wrote in "Moby Dick," "that 
makes the voyage." "Nowhere in 
America," wrote Melville of New Bed- 
ford in the high and far-off times, 
"will you find more patrician-like 
houses, parks and gardens more 
opulent than in New Bedford. Whence 
came they? How planted upon this 
once scraggy scoria of a country? 
Go and gaze upon the iron emblemat- 
ical harpoons round yonder lofty 
mansion and your question will be 
answered. Yes; all these brave 
houses and flowery gardens came from 
the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian 
oceans. One and all they were har- 
pooned and dragged up hither from 
the bottom of the sea." 

Put while the sea warrior makes 
first appeal to the fancy, the men 
who built the ships, planned the voy- 
ages, financed them, took the risk 
and made the Hag familiar- on all the 
seas of earth, were no less daring 



15 



and extraordinary. The whaling 1 in- 
dustry was the greatest gamble that 
ever men ventured, and required no 
less sportsmanship on the part of 
the promoters ashore than upon the 
men who actually went down to the 
sea. 

Now a memorial is building to the 
late Jonathan Bourne, the most suc- 
cessful of all the glorious host of 
New Bedford whaling merchants, by 
Miss Emily H. Bourne, a daughter. 
This memorial is no less unique than 
the industry or the man. The memo- 
rial has taken form in a splendid 
building in a historic neighborhood, 
en the crest of Johnny Cake hill, for 
which the architect, Henry Vaughan 
of Boston, found his architectural in- 
spiration in the old Salem custom 
house, made famous by Hawthorne. 
The cupola which surmounts the 
building is a reproduction, of the 
cupola on the Salem custom house 
and surmounted by a vane in the 
design of a whaler, gives a touch to 
the skyline which is appropriate and 
prepares the visitor for the atmos- 
phere which surrounds him upon his 
entrance to the building. 

The great feature of the memorial 
is a reproduction of Mr. Bourne's 
favorite ship, the Lagoda, which was 
the most successful of his great fleet. 
This feature is an evolution of an 
idea that has made appeal to the 
lovers of old New Bedford. The hope 
has often been expressed that one of 
the old square rigged whaleships of 
which only a few are left, might be 
preserved as a museum. The idea 
was vague and impractical, as such 
a vessel would be a constant care, and 
would deteriorate very fast, while it 
would be. inaccessable to visitors at 
many seasons. Every time the sug- 
gestion was made its lack of prac- 
ticability has been demonstrated, but 
there was the germ of an idea which 
lingered. 

So when Miss Bourne expressed her 
pjrpose to build a memorial to her 
father, the idea of reproducing a 
whaler again received attention. The 
site for the building was selected in 
the rear of the museum of the Old 
Dartmouth Historical society which 
will be its custodian. This situation, 
as we have said, is most appropriate, 
on a hill near the water front in 
that part of the old town where 
stands the Seaman's Bethel, an in- 



stitution which was an active philan 
throphy in whaling days. At first 
the idea of a building suggestive of 
a ship, with interior construction to 
conform and deck arrangement for 
the first floor, was considered. This 
was impracticable and then the Ide? 
of a large model of a whaleship of 
the type of fifty years ago was pre- 
sented to Miss bourne and met hei 
approval. The model grew in dimen- 
sions as well as in general appeal. 
and at length Miss Bourne added to 
her original land purchase, and a 
building covering greater area than 
was first proposed and of greater 
height was built to accommodate the 
replica of the ship. 

The traditions of New Bedford's 
history are woven on a Colonial back- 
ground and to perpetuate this feel- 
ing the museum was designed in the 
Georgian style, the architecture which 
gave the Colonial period to the 
colonies, and of which so many beau- 
tiful examples still exist in this city. 

The building is 118 feet long and 
5 7 feet wide; from the ground to th<> 
top of the copper whaling ship which 
swings lightly in the wind above the 
cupola the height is 96 feet. The 
exterior is of red brick and lime- 
stone trimmings with woodwork 
painted white to recall in general 
aspect the character of our public 
buildings of earlier times. The in- 
terior consists essentially of one large 
hall extending 5 feet from the en- 
trance floor through two stories to 
the barrel-vaulted ceiling above. 
Around three sides of the great hall 
at the second floor level is a colon- 
naded gallery arranged for the re- 
ception of many exhibits of things 
pertaining to the whaling industry; 
from this gallery one may also get a 
closer view of the rigging and top 
gear of the large whaling ship which 
will he the chief centre of interest 
within the building. 

Edgar B. Hammond, who was se- 
lected to make the plans for the 
model, found many problems, which 
he attacked with enthusiasm and the 
work is now well under way. The 
Lagoda will be reproduced in halt 
size. The model's length from her 
figure head to the tip of her stern 
will be 51) feet, and the measurements 
from the end of her flying jibboom 
to the end of her spanker boom will 
be 89 feet. Her mainmast will be 




J3 o 






u * h,te '' rv -^^^'•''-^■'^■- J -V - 



17 



SO feet in height. The bowsprit will 
be 15 % feet long, the fore and main 
yards 28 feet long. The problem or' 
Mr. Hammond can be partly imagined 
when it is considered! that there musi 
lie special blocks, special metal work, 
chain plates, hawser pipes, chocks, 
windlass, man-rope stanchions, bob 
stay eyes, pumps, davits, whale boats, 
rudder hangings and steering wheel. 
The first of Mr. Hammond's diffi- 
culties came from the fact that there 
was no model or photograph of Tho 
Lagoda in existence. Her measure- 
ments were found at the custom 
house and it was known she was a 
flush deck vessel and very similar in 
all points to tho whaling bark Charles 
W. Morgan which now lies moulder- 
ing at Fairhaven, excepting that she 
was provided with a billet head how 
in which the lines of a tub were more 
closely followed than in the Morgan. 
Mr. Hammond found Captain Edward 
D. Lewis, who commanded The La- 
goda on three voyages, living at 
Utica. Mrs. Lewis, the wife of the 
captain, sailed on three voyages in 
the whaler, spending ten years of her 
life aboard the vessel. Captain and 
.Mrs. Lewis were able to supply Mr. 
Hammond with voluminous informa- 
tion as to the details of the bark's 
rig — she was unusual in having car- 
ried a spencer, for example — the ar- 
rangement of her deck and cabin. Mr. 
Hammond has spent days in hunting 
up and interviewing at every stage 
of the work, old whalemen and ar- 
tisans who knew The Lagoda. He 
even took the chance of submitting 
the rigging and sail plans to ;i group 
of old whaling masters for their O. 
K. Anybody who knows the critical 
spirit of the old whalemen will real 
ize what a test Mr. Hammond chose 
to apply to his work. The story is 
told that when that combination of 
artists, Von Beest, William Bradford 
and Robert Swain Clifford, prepared 
the sketch of the paintings for the 
whaling prints of The Cnase, The 
Conflict and The Capture, they pasted 
their sketch on a piece of cardboard 
Jeaving a very wide margin and left 
it where whalemen were wont to as- 
semble with the request that they 
write criticisms of anything that was 
inaccurate. The whalemen covered 
the margin with criticisms and asked 
for more margin. The artists com- 



menced to make alterations in their 
picture, but discovering that (lie 
whalemen did not agree with each 
other more than with the- artists, the 
latter published their print for better 
or worse. 

The obi artisans who worked on 
whaleships, like the ships, have large- 
ly gone to their last port. There are 
few men skilled in any branch Ot 
whalecraft left.. Mr. Hammond ha •• 
found representatives, however, and 
summoned them to his aid. There is 
no shipbuilding firm here now, and 
the contract for building the model 
was given to Frank B. Sistare, a 
builder of houses. Hut William 11. 
Crook, a master shipbuilder, who 
worked on the Lagoda at. various 
times, aided Mr. Hammond and will 
have a general oversight of the work. 
Several ship carpenters were found 
and employed by Mr, Sistare. 

The Lagoda carried seven whale- 
boats. They will he built, half size, 
by Joshua Delano, an old whale). oat 
builder. Other boatbuilders if pro- 
vided with designs might build a 
whaleboat that would defy detection, 
hut no New Bedford whaleman would 
venture in them. 

Building whaleboats in San Fran- 
Cisco was tried at the time when New 
Bedford sent a fleet into the Arctic 
from that port, hut the whalemen 
would not use them, and the home 
product was eventually shipped across 
the continent as whaleboats have been 
forwarded to the isles of the seas 
when a ship has lost her boat. < >f- 
ten a vessel has lain idle in a foreign 
port for many months, awaiting a 
shipment of boats. This idea has fol- 
lowed through the whaling business 
from the beginning. No whaleman 
would ever use a tub line that was 
made anywhere outside the New Bed- 
ford Cordage works. Possibly other 
cordage manufacturers could make a 
piece of rope just as strong and fine. 
But a bowhead whale worth $10,000 
might he held by that rope. The 
whalemen knew the New Bedford 
company's rope could be trusted, they 
didn't know anything about the other 
manufacturer and they never took the 
chance. The other day a whaleman 
down south sent to I'M. Cole, a h'air- 

haven wh a lee raftsman, lor ash poles 
for his harpoons. He might have 
found ash poles nearer his destination 
but how could he know they were 




£ o 



Cj cx 



J W 






O 



: 



P=h 



19 

tight and trustworthy unless they met air-seasoned oak that would not crack 

the approval of a whaling expert ? in a heated building, the country 

Briggfs ^ Beekman will make the around was searched. The quest suc- 

sails and Prank Brown the whaling ceeded but a price was paid lor the 

guns, harpoons and paraphernalia. oak lor the timbers that was about 

Men who have built tryworks will that paid for the finest seasoned quar- 

build those on the ship and special tered oak used in waincoating. 

bricks will be made to afford the right The model will not be completed 

proportions. before September. .New problems 

Already the timbers of the hull of with relation to it arise daily, but it is 
tin- model are in place in the a labor of love with all concerned and 
memorial building. The model is it is believed the memorial will quick- 
founded not on a keel, but on hard ] y secure national fame. There is a 
pine "sills!" But they are fastened gallery about the museum where the 
as in ship building, The bow of the great whaling collection of the Old 
Lagoda is almost semi-circular. It Dartmouth Historical society will be 
might be well to correct an impression displayed, the other museum treas- 
tliat the model of whaleships were U res being displayed in the old 
peculiar or distinctive. The models museum on Water street. 

of our old whalers were like the mer- 

chant vessels of the period. In fact 

the Lagoda was originally a merchant Jonathan Bourne, for whom this 
vessel, but she was almost identical in memorial is built was born in Sand- 
design with the Charles W. Morgan, wich, Mass., March 25, 1811, and at 
built for a whaler. The bows were the age of 17, came to this city where 
necessarily heavy to accommodate the he entered the store of John B. Tay- 
old fashioned windlass construction. lor, remaining there nine month i. 
The things which differentiate an old Then he went back to Sandwich, spent 
whaler, in the eyes of the layman, the winter at school, and returning in 
from a merchantman of contemporary the spring was employed by John 
period are the wooden davits from Webster in his store under the Man- 
which the whaleboats swing, the con- sion House. He continued there as 
striatum of the afterhouse on deck clerk and proprietor until 1848 when 
and the crows' nest. Those versed in he opened tin- offices in the stone 
the technique of ships also note the building on Merrill's wharf which he 
location of a yard on the occupied until his death, Aug. 7, 188!>. 
m b:/.en mast, and variance in rig- 1[(i was an alderman of the city live 
gin«, made necessary in order to years, from 1848 to 1 8 u 2 , was a mem- 
work the sails without complication her of three national Republican eon- 
with the whaleboats a whaler carries ventions, a member of the executive 
along the rail. Merchantmen were council for live years, serving under 
blunt-nosed, originally, and when the Governor George D. Robinson in 1884, 
first designer turned out a sharp 1885 and 188G and Governor Oliver 
bowed vessel, there were dire predic- Ames in the years 18S7 and 1888. Mr. 
tions that she would run her nose mi- Bourne was married on Dec. 2, 1834, 
der and capsize. When the fast sail- ^t Fairhaven, by Rev. William 11. 
ing qualities of a vessel with a sharp, Taylor, to Emily Summers J lowland, 
concave bow were demonstrated, the daughter of John and Mercy Nye 
vogue of the clipper ship arrived. The Rowland, who died May 12, 1909 at 
Lagoda was very blunt forward and the of !>5. The children were Emily 
couldn't sail very close to the wind. 1 lowland Bourne, Annie G. Bourne 
Captain Lewis said the other day that who married Thomas G. Hunt, Helen 
she rarely or never shipped a sea. Church Bourne who married William 
"She went so fast to leeward," oh- A. Abbe, Hannah Tobey Bourne, who 
served the captain, "that a sea married Mr. Abbe after the death of 
'couldn't catch her." • his first wife. Elizabeth L. Bourne, 

The model hull will be upbuilded who married Henry Pearce and Jona- 

from her natural water line when than Bourne, Jr. Of these children 

moderately loaded and will show there are three now living, Miss Emily 

about a foot of the copper on her II. Bourne, Mrs. Elizabeth L. Pearce, 

botiom. As far as practicable, wood and Jonathan Bourne, Jr. The latter 

of Hie same kind used in the old ships has served as United States senator 

will be employed. In order to find from Oregon. 




H 
O 

id *** 

X) [J 

Ex, 

O 

a g 






21 

Benjamin Baker, who entered the 487 % barrels sperm oil, 1136 barrels 
employ of J\Ir. l&ourne in 1880 and re- whale oil, 12,D04 pounds ot whale- 
mained with liim until the close Of his bone. The total sales of catch of the 
service, still occupies the old counting twenty-four vessels managed at dn- 
rooins, where he carries on the af- ferent linns by Mr. Bourne, although 
fairs of the estate. Mr. Baker has not entirely owned by hint* aggre- 
spent his leisure time in preparing a gated $7,9S6,103.08." 
record of Mr. Bourne's connection Tlie bark La go da, which was, as 
with the whaling industry, a record of has been stated, Mr. Bourne's favor- 
great and permanent historical value ite ship, was a vessel of 3 7 1 . 1 & gross 
and the writer is indebted to Mr. Bale- and :J r» 2 net tons, 107.5 feet in length, 
er's record for the facts which follow: 26.8 feet beam and 18.3 feet deep, 

Mr. Bourne's first venture in the waa built in Seituate, Mass.. in IZZH 

Whaling business was the bark Roscoe by Seth and Samuel Foster. She was 

of 235 tons which made her first voy- Q f billet head, square stern, and two 

age for him under command of Cap- .decks. She was probably built for 

tain Robert Brown, sailing May 26, tho merchant service. Mr. Bournu 

1836 on a South Atlantic voyage and bought her in Boston, Aug. 3, 1841. 

returning April 9, 1837, with a catch In 1860 he changed her rig from that 

of 92 barrels wf sperm, 1033 barrels of of a sn i p to a bark. The Lagoda 

whale and 11,674 pounds of bone. arrived home June 3, 1886 under 

Tin re were 22 in the vessel, and all but command of Captain 10. D. Lewis and 

three were Americans. ()n July 1() of th; , t yo;u . was gold by 

In .May, 1880, at the time Mr. Bak- Ml . Bom . ne t0 John McCullough Le- 
er entered Mr. Bourne's employ, he $2475, who, in turn, sold her to Wil- 
was agent for 12 vessels engaged in li;im Lewis and othera who continued 
whaling, with none at home, as fol- her in the whaling business, the vessel 
lows: Schooner Abbie Bradford, Cap- saililR . from thi: . t May 10< 18S7 
lain Murphy, Hudson Bay; bark Ade- fm . t , K , Xl . cti( . She way condemm , a 
line Gibbs, Captain Besse, Atlantic as unse , lworthy Au|?i 7 , 18yo ut 
ocean; bark Alaska, Captain Fisher, Yokohama, Japan. Theodore A. Lake 
Pacific ocean; bark Draco, Captain tnen bei in command . The m . t 
lieed, Atlantic ocean; bark Eliza, Cap- 
lain Kelley, Pacific ocean; bark 
George and Mary, Captain Baker, 



profits of twelve voyages made by 

this vessel, covering a period from 

Nov. 25. 1843 to July 10. 1886. were 

Hudson; Bay; bark Hunter Captain $ 6 51|958i99i During theHe voyages 



E. B. Fisher, North Pacific ocean, 
bark Lagoda, Captain E. J). Lewis, 
Pacific ocean; bark- Napoleon, Captain 



her masters were Edmund Maxlield, 
Henry Colt, James Finch, Asa S. 



["obey, 13. B. Lamphier, John I). Wil- 
rurncr, Pacific ocean; bark Northern lanl ; Zebe(lee A . ne voll, Charles \V 
Light, Captain Mitchell, North Pacific FlBheri Stenhen Swift and Edward D. 
ocean; bark President, Captain Chase, 
Atlantic ocean; bark Sea Breeze, 
Captain Barnes, North Pacific oceai 



Lewis (three voyages). 

Of the ten most successful whaling 

During the fifty-three years Mr. voyages made by Mr. Bourne's ves- 

Rouriic vms in the whaling business," yels > thc bark ^'K<"lu made two, one 

Mr. Baker says, "his agency covered taking (iftn rank in the ILst and Lhe 

twenty-four vessels, with a tonnage other tentn " Tne lirst of Lheae luo 

of 7461 and he had interests in voyages was one of forty-six months 

twenty-two others of 7421 tons, a to thc L aclllc ocean in 1S04-1S6S, 

total of 14,882 whaling tons. His with Captain Charles W. Fisher in 

average ownership of 57.47 per cent command: 

in tho twenty-four vessels managed b> The value of this voyage 

himself equalled an entire ownership was $ li (>, 7 o ">.i>S 

of nearly fifteen vessels and his Average catch per month . . 4,304.25 

ownership elsewhere brought his total Average catch per day .... 145.47 

whaling ownership to the equivalent Average catch per hour . .. 0.0G 

of more than seventeen vessels. The The second of the voyages w;is one 

twenty-four vessels managed by Mr. of forty-four months, also to the 

Bourne made 148 voyages, covering Pacific ocean in 180*0-1804, under 

■1421 months, an average per voyage Captain Zebodee A. llovoll, when the 

«»f 29 .'.' mouths while the average Value of the voyage was .. $138, 15G.1 9 

catch per voyage of each vessel was Average catch per month . . 3,139.91 



22 



Average catch per day .... 104.66 

Average catch per hour . . . 4.30 

Oil one voyage only in the vessel's 
history was there a loss, $14,400.47. 

Mr. Baker states that Mr. Bourne 
was particularly careful in the selec- 
tion of the men who should have 
charge of his vessels, upon whom he 
must depend for good results. It 

was necessary to entrust a whaling 
master with a vessel and outfits worth 
from $40,000 to $00,000, with which 
the master could do as he pleased at 
the first foreign port reached. When 
one of his whaling masters was called 
by Mr. Bourne into his inner office 
to receive final instructions, Mr. 
Bourne said to him, "Captain, eternal 
vigilance is the price of success." 
Thit was the method Mr. Bourne 
himself applied in all his transactions 
and provided against every known 



risk. This, Mr. Baker declares, was 
the real secret of many a venture of 
Mr. Bourne's which others attributed 
to "luck." 

Mr. Baker found on the office pay 
rolls 101 .ship carpenters, 18 caulkers, 
2 1 spar makers, 2i) riggers, G5 sail 
makers, 13 stevedores, 8 ship keepers, 
11 coopers, 3 gangers, 4 oil fillers and 
7 whalebone cleaners and bundlers. 
With the passing of the whaling in- 
dustry their occupation has gone. A 
few men have survived the occupa- 
tions but in a few years there will 
be nothing left to remind the people 
Jedford of their ancient glory 
the statue on the square, the 
Bourne memorial and the log books, 
records and exhibits in the Old Dart- 
mouth Historical society and Free 
Public Library. 



of New I : 
excel) ting 



NEW BEDFORD OUTFITTERS. 

From THE MORNING MERCURY. 



With the passing within a year of The present generation remembers 

the Leander IJrightman clothing firm, in a general way how in the latter 

from business, and the removal of days of the arrival of whaling \v.<- 

the .1. vVt W. R. Wing & Co. store sols, runners of various clothing firms 

from its familiar location on Union wore always first to hoard a whaling 

street, where it had been established vessel, and how each representative 

nenrly . r >o years, the last two firms strove to outdo another in getting 

which until this year outfitted and down to an incoming whaler first, 

lulitted whaling crews, the discovery hug the whalemen and tell how glad 

oj the records of "The Outfitters they were to see Mm back safe and 

Association of New Bedford, Mass., sound, give him the news of his fam- 

of ixr.il," of which Leander FJright- ily and friends, and incidentally to 

man was the last secretary, seems an get his promise of trade for the firm 

,i.ld coincidence. no represented. 

The whalers, few in number, come The "sharks" of the olden whaling 
and go. But the almost daily arrival clays were not much different from 
of a whaler is only memory, and the those of the present time. 
perusal of the old record of the Out- According to the old record re- 
nters association seems an echo of the cently discovered and in the possession 
past. The incidents which it tells will «>!■' :l collector of old log hooks ami 
be remembered by hut few, whose as- other whaling records, the facts set 
sociations carry them hack 57 years. forth in the hook tell how the one- 

••Trusts," bv that 20th century ap- time tierce competition in the board- 

pellation, were hardly known 60 11 - o1 vessels was curbed for the 

years ;i.;o, hut see if the "sharks or period between the years 1851) and 

sharkers," as the old record says, the 1873, 

expressions of which were strictly On the fly leaf is found the following: 
tabooed at a penalty of -"> cents for 

each offence, were not wise in their THE 

generation. OUTFITTERS ASSOCIATION 

This old record tells of the organ- PF. 
ization of the association in IS.)!) and 
its discontinuance in 1S73. In the 

interval, for 14 years, the members MARCH 7th 

of the organization, which took in 1859. 

practically all .he firms that did husi- STANDING COMMITTEE 

i. ess with whaling vessels, enjoyed the ,Y lllll ,V? R ; u m -; 

, ... , ... , , , „, , , iU hranklin '. Seaburv, 

benefits and profits, the same as the 



NEW BEDFORD 
RECORDS 



big firms of those latter days who are 



William S. fob 
Treasurer- -Frederick Slocum. 



organized practically on the same Secretary- David V- r . Wardrop. 

lines, without the constant worry that 

somebody was getting the better of Skipping a page the following agree- 

theni. ment is found. 

This agreement made and entered into by and between the respective parties 
whose signatures and seals arc hereunto affixed. 

WITNESSETH** Thai whereas, (he several parties aforesaid, being engaged 
in the business of out fit t oi s and infitteis of seamen in the ('ily of New Bedford, 
and being desirous of so conducting said business as to avoid the necessity of uiehf 
watching for the arrival of ships at this poit without losing the chances of a fair 
and honorable competition in the same, have united themselves together under the 
name and style of "The Outfitters Association of New Uedi'oi d, ' ' and do hereby 
covenant and agree to be governed by the following articles of a-sneiat km : 

FIRST — Every person who shall' sign this instrument shall be a member of 
the tissocial ion. 

SECOND— The officers shall consist of a secretary whose duty if shall be to keep 
a record of its proceedings, a treasurer, and a standing committee of three persons, 



24 



members of the association, :ill of whom shall be elected annually on the first 
Monday of March in each year, by ballot, al a mooting of the association, to lie 
notified for the purpose by the secretary by leaving a notice al the place of busi- 
ness of each member, of the lime and place at which such meeting shall be held, 
.-ill other meetings of the association shall be called by the direction of the standing 
commit he and be notified by the secretary in like manner, 

Til IbM)— No ship or vessel arriving 'at this port, or that of Pairhaven, shall 
be boarded by any member thereof, or by any pcison in his behalf, at any 1 inn* 
I et ween sunset and sunrise, in any part of the bay, river or harbor, until after the 
arrival of such ship or vessel in the bay, river or harbor, shall have been announced 
by signal or otherwise, and the party boarding the same shall not start from the 
shoie, for the purpose of boarding such ship or vns.sol, al a point farther south 
lhan the north side of Hathaway & Luce's wharf at the foot of Walntil street. 

FOUliTII — For any violation. of the third article of this agreement the parly 
violating the same shall forfeit and pay to the treasnier of the association for the 
use of the association the sum of one hundred dollars. 

FIFTH — All questions arising out of any alleged violation of the third article 
aforesaid shall be determined by the standing committee, who shall certify to the 
treasnier every cast' of such violation that shall come to their knowledge, and it 
shall thereupon be the duty of the treasurer to proceed aiid collect such penalty 
and it is hereby covenanted and agreed by all the parties hereto that the said 
treasurer shall have a right of action, in his*own name, against any member thereof 
for the amount of said penalty, who shall have boon found by the standing com- 
mittee, guilty of such violation. 

For the faithful performance of all the agreements contained in this instru- 
ment we hereby bind ourselves each to the other on this seventh day of March, A. 
1). 18fi0 at New Bedford, aforesaid: 



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20 



Very full records of the proceed- 
ings wore kept from the start of the 
organization until the ciose of 1). W. 
Wurdron's term of ollice us secretary, 

April !i. ls<;o. when afterwards the 
iiktc tact Of the annual meeting and 
the names of t lie ollicers elected were 
written in the old document. 

Some interesting proceedings were 
found in the first few meetings of 
the association. 

The lirst meeting was held at the 
store of Aldnn VVordell at LO a. m.. 
March 7, 1859, when "the discon- 
tinuance of night watching upon the 
I'oint road, and improving the general 
condition of the business," was ois- 
cussed. 1\ ('. Seabury was chairman 
and 1>. W. Wardrop secretary.- 

The agreement as given above was 
drawn up l>y a committee consisting 
of William It. Wing, William S. Cobb 
and T. 1). Williams. The meeting ad- 
journed to 7 ]). in. the same day, when 
it was unanimously voted to accept 
the report of the committee. Oincers 
were elected and a committee appoint- 
ed to secure rooms for a meeting place 
for the association. 

At a meeting March 10th it was 
"agreed to have the members divide 
themselves into squads and arrange 
for watchmen as can be individually 
agreed to." It was voted that no 
member of the association shall char- 
ter any sailboat that is a common 
carrier, to go down the river in the 
night, to the exclusion of any mem- 
ber of the association. 

A room was hired at 767 Union 
street from Harvey SuHings, ami it 
was called Association hall, the lease 
to run to Jan. 1st, I860. 

The lirst report of the treasurer 
showed the receipts were $15 and the 
expenses $17 17, leaving a deficit of 
$2.83. It was voted to have regular 
meetings weekly at 7:30. 

At a meeting March 11, 1850, it 
was voted "not to allow intoxicating. 
liquors on hoard ships, and to call on 
Captain William West and request 
him not to allow any intoxicating 
liquors to be sold, or carried for sale, 
in his boat, and that ships should be 
hoarded quietly and peacefully." An 
assessment of $1 was levied on each 
member. 

At the next meeting it was reported 
bv the committee that was sent to 
Captain West, "that he was willing 
to prohibit the carrying of ardent 
spirits in his boat for sale, and also 
ale. if the committee wished him to." 

it was voted "not to allow any in 
toxicating liquors carried for sale in 
sloon Richmond, or any boat that 
Captain West may have charge of 
when used by the association in the 
transaction of their business." An 
amendment included ak-, and one en- 



thusiastic member wont so far as to 
include "bottled cider" in the taboo 
list. All the amendments were car- 
ried. 

Simeon Doane moved not to start 
from shore in the day time for the 
purpose of boarding a ship, until it 
was known such ship had arrived at 
Round Hills. 

Captain West was present at this 
meeting to find out about Leaving 
members on board ship. It was agreed 
that "all shall return in the boat un- 
less they stated to the boatman they 
would remain on board. A fixed 
charge of 25 cents was made for each 
seaman brought ashore. 

At a meeting held Feb. 27, I860, 
Simeon Doane wanted the privilege 
of boarding the boats when K<>im-; to 
the ships from the Point road from 
sunset until 8:30, instead "of having 
to run his horse up town, it being h 
matter of serious inconvenience to 
him." This caused a great deal or 
discussion, but it was finally voted to 
allow N. S. Ellis and S. Doane to 
board any boat with association mem- 
bers from the Point road from sunset 
to 8:30, but not to board vessels in 
their ow n bouts. 

It was voted "that the association 
hire a watchman whose duty it shall 
be to station himself noon the Point 
road in the vicinity of the lighthouse 
and there watch for ships, the asso- 
ciation to furnish him with a horse 
and wagon. When he raises a ship 
he shall call N. S. Ellis and S. Doane, 
and wait for them, and bring them up 
town, and call the rest of the mem- 
bers of the association, and the bout- 
man after ii -< has reached his. boat, 
shall wait 15 minutes in order to give 
time for all the members of the asso- 
ciation to get there. The expenses of 
the watchman shall be shared between 
the members of the association." 

At the annual meeting, March 5th, 
1 Stilt the secretary charged Nathan 
S. Rllis of the firm of Taber, Read 
& Co., with having violated the third 
article of the association's agreement 
by starting from his wharf on the 
Point road, and boarding bark P.ehring 
after sunset, on Sunday, March 4th. 
18(50. 

On March 19th, William It. Wing, 
William S. Cobb and .1. W. Ellis, the 
standing committee, reported finding 
no possible evidence to sustain the 

At the same meeting it was voted 
not to allow card playing in the sloop 
Richmond, .Terry, Angel, or any other 
boats that the members of the asso- 
ciation use. T. I). Williams and D. 
W Wardrop weir appointed monitor.? 
to enforce all regulations. It was also 
seen lit to vote that every member 
of the association constitute himself 



ii member to prevent "rowdyism" on tary and at this meeting these names 

hoard the boats used by the associa- were found on a slip of paper in the 

tion. book, they being of members who 

At this time new rooms were se- seemed to be present at the meeting: 
cured at 36 South Water street at Tuber, Read & Co., A. 11. Potter & 

an expense of $■"() a year. Co., William & Doane, Pope & Rich- 

Hnll & Worth, outfitters who were ardson, D. \\ . Luce, P. IX Slocum, 
on the outside of the association, j ames C. Smith. .1. W. Ellis, Alden 
were reported as having violated the Wordell, J. & W. R. Wing & Co., 
rules of the association. They were Cobb, Tope i< Co., Slocum, Cunning- 
invited to join, and declined, but ham & Co., Chase & West, II. Russell, 
stated they did not intend to go down Doane <.v Smith, A. Bullard & Son, A. 
the river for the purpose of boarding Wordell. 

slops, in antagonism to the associa- ,. ,., . ., . .. 

. ' ' !t seems that the association was 

?' . 44 . ■ 4- i .r -,- reorganized at a meeting held March 

A committee was appointed to wait ■ agreement was 

upon ship agents to notify the har- fl whi( . h j» t identicul 

bor pilots of New Bedford not to , J agreement, excepting 

carrv persons engaged m business, or +l + f \. , ., , 

.. ■ • , ^, ... , that an e.vtra article was added, re- 

heir employes in their boats when , . h } h fl 

they go out to cruise for ships. tinuance of the association •might be 

At a meeting March R>, 1S60. on ., , 

motion of Mr. Wardrop, it was voted: -onsineita. 

"That any member of the association William R. Wing was chairman un- 
iting the terms 'sharks, or sharking,' der the reorganization, .1. G. W. Pope 
during any- meeting of the, or while secretary, and Frederick Peleg Slo- 
in the rooms of the association, shall euni treasurer. This meeting ad- 
forfeit and pay to the treasurer of the journed to meet the following year. 
association, the sum of 25 cents for A dozen lines each covered the next 
each and every offence, said tines shall few annual meetings, with the same 
be used for the benefit or expenses of officers elected year after year, and 
the association.." the meetings seemed to have been 

The secretary added in the records: held around at the different stores of 

"The chairman (W. S. Cobb) in the the members. 

course of his remarks in answer to Reander Brightman was the secre- 
tin committee's question was the first tary of the association for the last 
person to use the obnoxious epithet, two or three years. The last record 
for which the members held him re- j n the old book was in 1872 when 
sponsible, and demanded the fine. ITe the officers elected at the annual 
excused himself, and ruled that the meeting were recorded and the roll 
law did not go into effect "until we oa lI -iven as follows: Roane, Swift 
occupied our new room." The records ^ Co., J. & W. II. Wing & Co., J. (',. 
do not say that he had to pay the w. Pope & Co', Alden Wordell, Peley 
fine. Slocum & Co., John I. Richardson. 

The records show that a special ,,,, n|(1 a8sol . iatlon went out llf 

meeting was held Apnl 9, 1S60 in the , x u t , Mlr , thp m ., t year according to 

new rooms and the next meeting th follllWini . r lUmd on a slil , of pa _ 
hown by the entry \yaa a regular .. ()n nlotion ot Simeon Doane it 



meeting held March 4, 1861. 



was voted that these meetings b 



T« rem that time on the records were lu . rH)V disC(mtilU ied, and the 

short, merely the fact of the annual 5za tion Outfitters Association of New 

meeting being held and the officers Bedford, formed by its members under 

elected, being placed in the hook. date of March 7, 1864, be and hereby 

At the annual meeting held March is discontinued from and after this 

3, 1863, S. Doane was elected secre- date, March 3 1S73." 



23 




Fi out The MoniiiM) A/< n toy. 
Commodore Morris Figure Head. 



■ 
I 




OLD DARTMOUTH 
HISTORICAL SKETCHES 

No. 45. 



Bourne Museum 
Dedication 



November 23d and 25th, 1916 




Iwew Bedford Standard. 



Dedication of the 
Jonathan Bourne Whaling Museum 



The Jonathan Bourne Whaling 
museum, which was dedicated this 
morning, is the gift of Miss Emily 
llowland Bourne, daughter of the 
great whaling merchant in whose 
memory the unique structure is built 
to the Old Dartmouth Historical so- 
ciety. The building stands on Bethel 
street, on that hill anciently known as 
"Johnny Cake," opposite the Seamen's 
Bethel (.that Herman Melville visit- 
ed just before he sailed on the memor- 
able whaling voyage which gave us 
'\Moby Dick, or The White Whale") 
and the Mariners' Home, a structure 
of the 18th century. The museum 
was built exclusively to hold whaling 
relics— and the half-sized model of 
the old bark Lagoda, one of Jonathan 
Bourne's old whaling vessels. The 
museum itself cost about $50,000 and 
the model is estimated to have cost 
fully $25,000 more. 

The Standard on Jan. 9, 1915, an- 
nounced to the people of New Bedford 
Miss Bourne's proposed gift. On the 
14th of March following, the houses 
numbered 12 and 14 Bethel street were 
sold at auction, to make room for it. 
Henry Vaughan of Boston was its 
architect, and John Crowe & Co., of 
Fall River, the builder. 

The staging was stripped from the 
completed museum about the middle 
of December, 1915. As soon as the 
interior hall was completed, work on 
the model of the old bark Lagoda be- 
gan. The plans were made by Ed- 
gar B. Hammond. The bark was 
built by Frank B. Sistare, aided by 
William H. Crook, a master ship- 
builder, who at various times worked 
on the old Lagoda. Mr. Sistare also 
secured the services of several ship 
carpenters. The result is not only 
the largest model of a vessel ever con- 
structed under a roof, but one which 
is complete for the whaling grounds 
down to the most minute details of 
construction, and fully equipped with 
exact replicas of the old whaleship 
furnishings, — the seven whaleboats, 
harpoons and lances, buckets and 
tubs, casks and all. 



The museum, with its massive 
Georgian .vtyle, harmonises in its 
architecture with New Bedford tradi- 
tion. Mr. Vaughan, the architect, 
adapted his plan from the historic 
custom house at Salem, Mass., in 
which Nathaniel Hawthorne worked. 
The building is 118 feet long and 57 
wide, and measures, from ground to 
tip of the topmast of her whaleship 
weathervane, 96 feet. It is con- 
structed of red (Colonial) brick with 
limestone trimmings and white wood- 
work, and is crowned by a belfry, 
from which a line view of the har- 
bor may be had. 

The interior consists of a large, 
main hall, in which stands the model 
of the Lagoda. A barrel-vaulted ceil- 
ing arches over the topmasts of the 
imprisoned ship, whose spars clear 
the arch by a few inches only. A 
colonaded gallery, designed for the ex- 
hibition of relics of the whaling days 
and of articles pertaining to the 
whaling industry, passes round the 
hall at the level of the second story. 
From this gallery, the visitor looks 
upon the deck of the vessel, and into 
its rigging. Winding stairs mount to 
the belfry. The new Lagoda measures 
5 9 feet from figurehead to stern, and 
89 feet from her flying jibboom to 
her spanker boom. The bowsprit 
measures 15 V 2 feet, and the fore and 
main yards 2 8 feet. 

Her first measurements were taken 
from those of the original Lagoda, at 
the custom house. No photographs 
and no model of this wonderful his- 
toric craft exist. The whaling bark 
Charles W. Morgan, which sailed last 
summer for the Antarctic, was known 
to be similar in many respects. Captain 
Edward D. Lewis, who commanded 
the vessel on three voyages was found 
at Utica, New York. Mrs. Lewis, who 
with her husband attended the exer- 
cises this morning, spent ten years of 
her life on the Lagoda. Captain 
and Mrs. Lewis were able to supply 
many valuable facts concerning the 
old bark's r'ux. 



The 

Old Dartmouth Historical 

Society 

INVITES ITS MEMBERS 
TO BE PRESENT OX 

SATURDAY, NOVEMBER 25th, 193 6 
AT THE 

FIRST MEETING 

IN THE 
JONATHAN BOURNE WHALING MUSEUM 



FROM 2 UNTIE f> O'CLOCK 



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Bourne Memorial 



The Jonathan 
museum, the gift 



Bourne Whaling 
to the Old Dart- 
mouth Historical society of his daugh- 
ter, Miss Emily Rowland Bourne, was 
dedicated this morning, and the build- 
ing and the model of the old winning 
bark Lagoda with beautiful cere- 
monies formally given to the society. 
Flags suddenly broke out from the 
main and fore peaks of the last of the 
whaling fleet, this forenoon. The 
hush that had come when the mem- 
bers of the Old Dartmouth Histori- 
cal society and other guests of Miss 
Emily Rowland Bourne waited for 
this traditional rite to be performed, 
was broken by applause. The bark 
Lagoda was duly "launched" again, 
and the museum that contains it given 
to the society for which it was built, 
as a memorial to the great whaling 
merchant. 

A soft air breathed across Johnny- 
cake hill, as gentle as the name of 
Bethel street itself, — "a weather 
breeder" an old whaler said. The 
building of the ship was done; her 
spars slung aloft, and her canvas 
tucked away ship-shape and according 
to the laws of the sea. No prophesies 
of uncertain weather would have kept 
the first Lagoda, Jonathan Bourne's 
old and gallant craft, upon the ways; 
and neither would gloomy headshakes 
effect the new bark. For well her 
builders know that if her hull had 
been completed below that calm 
wooden sea upon which she will never 
be tossed or shaken, this Lagoda 
could have breasted the wildest gales 
of the Pacific, and come home at last 
with a treasure of golden oil. So the 
quiet voice of William W. Crapo, as 
he gave the vessel into the keeping 
of the Old Dartmouth Historical so- 
ciety, could speak his confidence in 
the future and success of perhaps the 
last whaling vessel to be built in New 
Bedford, — the half-sized model of the 
bark Lagoda. 

The dedicatory exercises began at 
11 o'clock. Miss Bourne, the donor, 
and her special guests, and the speak- 
ers, assembled on the Lagoda's decks. 
The Georgian front of the Whaling 
MYiseum itself never looked richer or 
finer than it did in the gray shadows 
of this overcast day. She seemed 
already to be borrowing sentiment of 



that antiquity from which Henry 
Vaughan, her architect, had borrowed 
an inspiration for her. Those who 
entered the museum, felt as they did 
so, that here was a fitting monument 
in which to preserve a perfect toy 
whaleship for future generations, and 
mentally thanked Miss Bourne again 
for the gift she has given, — a gift not 
alone the society's but the world's as 
well, — the wide world's that will soon 
be making pilgrimages to the last of 
the whalers. 

Oliver Prescott presided. The 
speakers included Lieutenant Gover- 
nor Calvin Coolidge, representing the 
commonwealth; William W. Crapo, 
who spoke on the history of the whal- 
ing industry, and whose duty it was 
to present the museum and the La- 
goda to the Old Dartmouth Historical 
society in behalf of Miss Bourne; Her- 
bert E. Cushman, president of the or- 
ganization, who fittingly responded, 
expressing the deep gratitude, not of 
the society alone, but of the entire 
city for the great gift; Dr. Francis 
Barton Gummere, professor of Eng- 
lish at Haverford college, and himself 
a former New Bedford man (having 
been the first head of the Swain Free 
school), who delivered a polished and 
scholarly address, and others. The 
Rev. William B. Geoghegan, pastor of 
the Unitarian church, offered the in- 
vocation, and the Rev. Raymond 
Kendrick, rector of St. Martin's Epis- 
copal church, offered the benediction. 
Miss Bourne, the speakers, and Miss 
Bourne's guests sat on the bark's deck 
amidships. With the speakers sat Dr. 
John VVyeth, the noted New York 
surgeon; Captain Edward Lewis Hast 
master of the old Lagoda), Mrs. Fran- 
cis B. Gummere and Samuel Gum- 
mere, Mr. and Mrs. Henry Pierce, Mrs. 
Merriman, a niece of Miss Bourne's, 
and Mrs. Merriman's two children: 
Mrs. Emilie B. Michler, the daughter 
of Miss Bourne's sister, Mrs. Hunt; 
A. Kirtland Michler, Miss Joan 
Michler; Henry Vaughn, architect; 
Henry H. Crapo; Benjamin Baker; 
Senator Richard Knowles; the mem- 
bers of the Apollo quartet (in the 
bow). There also sat on the deck those 
who raised the flags: Seth J. Besse, 
Harold S. Bowie; Clifford W. Ashley, 
Edgar B. Hammond, Delano Dewint, 
and Alfred S. James. 



Ueutcnanl Governor Introduced. 

Mr. Prescott, in introducing Cal- 
vin Coolidge, lieutenant governor of 
Massachusetts, said: 

"Miss Bourne, with her usual at- 
tention to even the smallest detail, 
has provided a presiding officer for 
these dedication exercises. As her 
father used to send his out- 
side man out upon the wharf 
to superintend the final prep- 
arations for the voyage of the 
good ship Lagoda, so she has en- 
trusted to the chairman of this meet- 
ing the responsibility of seeing that 
her plans for the starting of this La- 
goda on its successful career are car- 
ried out. And truly, the putting of 
this vessel in commission is an im- 
portant event, justifying the care 
which has been given it. For while 
this vessel will not bring back to the 
port of New Bedford the material 
wealth which the other Lagoda wrest- 
ed from the sea in such large meas- 
ure, she will enrich the present and 
all future generations by preserving 
the memory of those strong, able, en- 
terprising men, the New Bedford mer- 
chants who directed the whaling in- 
dustry from their counting rooms 
along the wharves, and of those other 
brave and skillful men — the masters 
and seamen who manned the ships and 
sailed them on every sea in search of 
their cargoes. 

"It has been claimed with persistent 
iteration, often in letters large enough 
for him who speeds by in the train 
to read, that it required the services of 
a certain American timepiece to make 
the American dollar famous. It may 
be claimed with much greater reason 
that New Bedford has been an im- 
portant factor in putting Massa- 
chusetts upon the map. For when the 
New Bedford whalers were sailing 
about the globe in large numbers and 
were entering the ports of every con- 
tinent, they carried with them painted 
on their sterns the words "Of New 
Bedford." And when people with in- 
quiring minds in distant lands took 
down their atlasses to ascertain the 
exact location of New Bedford, they 
found that it was situated in a little 
corner of the United States of 
America called Massachusetts. The 
wealth which the whalers brought to 
New Bedford did not enrich New Bed- 
ford alone, but it added also to the 
prosperity and resources of the com- 
monwealth. The whaling merchants 
and masters were not only the prom- 
inent citizens of this locality, they 
were also among the leading men in 
the state, and did their share in di- 
recting its destinies. And so today 
the interest in his whaling museum 
and what it commemorates is not 



confined to Ntw Bedford, but is 
shared by the whole commonwealth. 
It is fitting therefore that a representa- 
tive of the commonwealth should join 
with us today in these dedication ex- 
ercises. I have the privilege of in- 
troducing his honor, the lieutenant 
governor of Massachusetts, Hon. Cal- 
vin Coolidge." 



Calvin Coolidge. 

The lieutenant governor spoke in 
part as follows: 

"It is one of the pleasantest duties 
that come to those who are in public 
life in our commonwealth, to be 
brought more intimately in touch with 
the highest ideals, the highest aspira- 
tions, of the past, — the inspiration 
from which makes for good citizen- 
ship. The present, of course, is al- 
ways influenced by the past. Your 
chairman has referred to the great 
industry which has made the name 
of New Bedford famous throughout 
the world, even beyond perhaps the 
name of Massachusetts; and though 
those ships which made New Bedofrd 
great no longer sail the seas, and the 
men who commanded them, the men 
who manned them, and the men who 
financed them are all now a part of 
the past, — the character of those mas- 
ters, the courage of those men, and 
the business sagacity and ability of 
those merchants who carried on this 
industry have left their influence upon 
the present. 

'Jonathan Bourne was one of the 
successful merchants of this city. Not 
only was he active, however, in the 
whaling industry, but a large part 
as well in other developments which 
have helped to make New Bedford 
what it is today. He was not a man 
who sought public office, but he did 
consent to serve on the governor's 
council." 

The lieutenant governor, after prais- 
ing Jonathan Bourne's character and 
his business sagacity, industry and 
thrift, continued: "It is as the result 
of these strong characteristics that we 
are able to come here today to wit- 
ness these unusual exercises. It 
seems to me that we are here, not 
only to dedicate this enterprise to the 
memory of the father, but we are 
here also in grateful recognition of 
the kindly impulse which led Misa 
Bourne to bestow this great gift upon 
her native city. 

"So that I take it we should dedi- 
cate this Jonathan Bourne Whaling 
Museum not only to the strength and 
character of the man whose name it 
bears, not only to the charitable im- 



pulses which have led the daughter 
to make this splendid gift; but we 
are here also to dedicate it to com- 
mercial enterprise and to every worth- 
while enterprise in life, in order that 
wo may go forward together to a hap- 
pier and more prosperous day." 



William W. Crapo. 

William W. Crapo was the next 
speaker, and in behalf of Miss 
Bourne presented to the Old Dart- 
mouth Historical society the me- 
morial museum and the bark, after 
a resume of the whaling industry. Mr. 
Crapo was introduced by Mr. Pres- 
cott as follows: 

"This magnificent museum is to 
stand for all time as a memorial not 
only of the whaling industry of New 
Bedford but also of a man who in his 
time was one of its leading spirits — 
one of the captains of the industry. 
There are but few men left who were 
themselves in close touch with the 
whaling industry when it was in its 
prime and who also had a close per- 
sonal acquaintance with Jonathan 
Bourne. But even though there were 
a multitude thus qualified by experi- 
ence to speak, I am sure there would 
he no man who could do it as appro- 
priately and as gracefully as the man 
whom Miss Bourne has asked to speak 
for her in the presentation of her gift 
today, — her old friend and neighbor 
William W. Crapo." 

William \V. Orapo's Speech. 

William W. Crapo's historical ad- 
dress in its word pictures of the whal- 
ing village of years ago and of the 
men who built up the whale fishing in- 
dustry was one of the most interesting 
features of the day's program. Mr. 
Crapo said: 

The picturesque figure in the <*.'ap- 
ture of the whale is the man standing 
in the bow of the boat, who, with a brave 
heart, steady nerve and strong right 
arm thrusts the harpoon into the body 
of the monster of the sea. The whale 
in its efforts to escape plunges deep in 
the ocean, and, as the line attached to 
the harpoon leaves the boat, rapid- 
ly passing around the loggerhead, the 
harpooner is proudly conscious that 
the boat is fast to the whale. The 
oarsmen are exultant for they have 
outrowed their companions in the 
chase, and when the whale arises to 
the surface they will have the ad- 
vantage of position in the conflict 
which must end in the dea + h of the 
whale or the destruction of the boat. 



Their skill, daring and endurance de- 
serve our hearty praise. 

Yet we should not forget the men 
in the counting room. The men who 
planned the voyages and who risked 
their fortunes, in the ventures. The 
men who procured the ships, adapted 
them for their special service and pro- 
vided the equipment, munitions and 
outfits for the long voyages. The 
men who designated i^ what oceans, 
seas and bays the ships must make 
their cruising grounds, and who, after 
careful deliberation, selected the of- 
ficers and men who were to execute 
the undertaking. The motive power 
of the enterprise in its inception from 
start to finish was the man to be 
found on tho wharf or in the counting 
room. In some of the earliest log 
books there may be seen written on 
the fly leaf, or pasted on the inside of 
the cover, a communication signed by 
the managing owner addressed to the 
master and officers. Tt described the 
contemplated voyage and the manner 
in which it must be conducted There 
were suggestions and advice in the 
event of casualties. The instructions 
and directions were as positive and ex- 
plicit as a law written on the statute- 
books and probably as faithfully ob- 
served. Indeed it was a common 
saying along the wharves — "Obey or- 
ders even if it breaks owners." 

TJie Earliest Days. 

In the early days of the colony the 
men who had settled near the shore, 
not satisfied with the scanty returns 
obtained from the somewhat sterile 
soil, sought to gather harvests from 
the ocean. In boats and small craft 
they cruised along the coast and 
taking a whale towed it into this or 
another harbor, and by the use of 
tri-pot on the beach the blubber was 
rendered into oil. As the years went 
on there were larger vessels and long- 
er voyages, but progress was slow 
the fishermen and farmers of the 
hamlet lacking capital. 

In the year 17 65 Joseph Rotch of 
Nantucket, realizing that the island 
could not afford a seaport adequate 
for a large maritime commerce, vis- 
ited the mainland. He came to Dart- 
mouth, the ancient town, before its 
territory was divided and sub-divided 
into separate municipalities. Ho 
say the splendid opportunity that was 
offered by the Aeushnet river in pro- 
viding a safe and commodious^ har- 
bor with easy access to the ocean. He 
purchased of Joseph Russell, a large 
landed proprietor, ten acres of land 
in that part of the town known as 
Bedford Village. This tract, starting 
from the river, near the foot of Cen- 



ter street, extended westerly up the 
hill nearly to the present line of 
Pleasant street. Later on there came 
his son, William Rotch who, in the 
interval, had carried on a whaling 
business both at Nantucket and this 
place. He brought with him his son, 
William Rotch, Jr., and his son-in- 
law, Samuel Rodman. 

Men of Large Wealth. 

They were men of large wealth as. 
estimated in those days and with an 
unquestioned credit. They erected 
their mansions and had their gardens 
on this ten acre lot, as it was familiar- 
ly called for many years. On the 
shore they built wharves and im- 
proved landing places. They brought 
many of their ships to this harbor, 
where their cargoes were discharged 
and prepared for market, shipping 
some of the product in their vessels 
to European ports, bringing back arti- 
cles of merchandise needed by the 
colonists. It was the ship Dartmouth, 
owned by William Rotch, that carried 
the tea into Boston harbor that was 
thrown overboard by the revolution- 
ary patriots. These men entered up- 
on the transaction of the whale fishery 
at Bedford Village with intelligence 
and vigor. They furnished employment 
to many ariisans, shipwrights, ship- 
smiths, sparmakers, riggers, sail- 
makers, boatbuilders and coopers. 
Their ships were officered and manned 
by young men from the town and sur- 
rounding country. The little village 
became a thriving community. Water 
street from Union street, formerly 
called King street, extending to Wil- 
liam street was the center and finan- 
cial heart of the business activities, 
and the busiest spot of all was the 
site now occupied as the home of the 
Old Dartmouth Historical society and 
the Whaling Museum. 



A Stunning Blow. 

William Rotch was a great mer- 
chant, broad-minded and far-sighted. 
It may not be amiss to mention an 
incident in his life that recalls an 
event which was of absorbing inter- 
est to those then living here. The 
war of the Revolution had crippled 
but not destroyed the whale fishery, 
and when peace was declared there 
was great rejoicing for the villagers 
were ready and eager to resume in 
their fullness their various occupa- 
tions, and they were cheered in the 
expectation of an expansion of their 
business. But almost at the outset 
there came a stunning blow which 
brought dismay and forebodings of 
grave disaster. 



Great Britain had enacted a law 
which in effect prohibited the im- 
portation of American caught oil into 
the kingdom. The purpose of the 
law was apparent. The New England 
catch was in excess of the demand 
for home consumption, and unless 
there was an outlet for the surplus 
which had been largely through Lan- 
don there could be no extension of 
the industry, and the surplus thrown 
upon a market which did not require 
it the return would be unremunera- 
tive, which would lead to reduction 
of the fleet and the possible ajj>ndon- 
ment of the enterprise. Great Britain 
did not pass this law for the purpose 
of protecting an existing British in- 
dustry, nor to encourage or promote 
a new British industry. Far from it. 
The words of Edmund Burke in his 
famous speech in parliament, a few 
years before, when remonstrating 
against the war with the colonies 
were still ringing in the ears of the 
Britons. He told them of a people 
living on the New England coast, few 
in number, who surpassed in mari- 
time adventure and daring the people 
of every nation in Europe. With rare 
and impressive eloquence he had por- 
trayed their marvelous triumphs on 
the ocean. He said they were a peo- 
ple whom equinoctial heats did not 
disturb, nor the accumulated winters 
of the poies. That there was no 
ocean that was not vexed with their 
vessels and no climate that did not 
witness their toil. He spoke of them 
as a people still in the gristle as it 
were and not yet hardened in the 
bone of manhood. England was am- 
bitious to be the mistress of the seas 
and she feared that the new nation 
should it become strong and powerful 
might some day challenge her sov- 
ereignty ot the ocean. Hence she 
would throttle and destroy at the out- 
set an industry that bred such a race 
of seamen. 

William Rotch went to London. He 
interviewed the leading public men of 
that time. He met members of 
parliament and urged the repeal of 
the obnoxious law. He was received 
with coldness. After long and vexa- 
tious delay, the matter was referred 
to the first lord of the admiralty, Lord 
Hawksbury. Realizing that he could 
not obtain the annulment of the law, 
Mr. Rotch still hoped ,that some 
agreement would be reached whereby 
to secure the continuance of the New 
England whale fishery. He suggested 
that an English port be designated 
where American whaleships could en- 
ter to make repairs and to purchase 
the equipment and supplies for their 
voyage, thereby furnish' ng employ- 
ment to English workmen and profit 




&£ i«ft«*v^ \*&$PWtiHHi 



THE WHALESHIP IN THE BOURNE MEMORIAL.. 

rtesy of New Bedford Standard. 



10 



to English tradesmen, and on the 
completion of the voyages such ves- 
sels might reenter that port and dis- 
charge their cargoes, which would be 
sold and distributed by English mer- 
chants who would receive a liberal 
compensation for their service. Mr. 
Rotch had in mind, if this concession 
were granted, that the ships owned in 
Dartmouth and Nantucket would still 
fly the American flag and be manned 
with American sailors. 

Would that some of our statesmen 
of today were moved by the same pa- 
triotic spirit and instead of repelling 
and obstructing would encourage the 
display of the nation's flag on the 
ocean. 

The concession was not granted, — 
Lord Hawksbury scornfully saying — 
"Mr. Rotch, we do not want your 
ships. England builds ships. What 
we do want are your men." 

And so he went to France. He met 
there members of the ministry \nd ex- 
plained to them what he wanted to 
accomplish and asked for certain priv- 
ileges and protection. These vvere 
granted to him by the government. At 
Dunkirk he established a business for 
the marketing of American oil which 
he placed in charge of his son Ben- 
jamin. Returning to this country 
he ever afterwards lived in New Bed- 
ford, which had separated from the 
mother town, and never ceased his ef- 
forts for the success of the whaling 
industry for the community to which 
he had attached himself. 

In the succeeding generation the 
prominent whaling merchants were 
John Avery Parker and George How- 
land, Senior. They were si hie men 
with lull UnovvledKo • •!' nil miillem pei 
li.inhiH •«' 1 1"- fishery. They were en- 
terprising", venturesome, efficient and 
successful. They added many ships 
to our fleet and they greatly increased 
the wealth of the town. 

Among the men of that period who 
had an important part in our special 
industry was Isaac Howland, Jr., the 
founder and active manager of the 
firm which bore his name. His firm 
is remembered by the magnitude of 
its operations and the gainful re- 
sults. Its ships plowed the seas and 
returned with rich cargoes. Then 
more ships and more cargoes, and 
when the limit of prudent manage- 
ment had been reached their earnings 
were invested in revenue bearing se- 
curities. The firm was a family af- 
fair and its members retained the 
plain and simple manners of former 
years and were immune from the ills 
of wastefulness and extravagance. The 
firm ceased to exist upon the death 
bf all of its members and when the 
books were closed the assets figured 
in millions. The corner stone of this 



accumulated wealth was the whale 
fishery, and now, after fifty years, a 
goodly sum of this wealth is awaiting 
distribution to the descendants of 
Gideon Howland through the thought- 
fulness of his granddaughter Sylvia 
Ann Howland, who was a partner in 
the firm. 

Then followed what might be called 
the golden era of New Bedford when 
its whaling vessels in number and ton- 
nage exceeded the combined fleets of 
all other whaling ports and New Bed- 
ford became known as the foremost 
whaling port of the world. 

In this customs district in 1856 
there were registered at the customs 
house 418 vessels employed irr"whal- 
ing, and of this number 368 hailed 
from New Bedford and Fairhaven, 
the remainder sailing from Westport, 
Mattapoisett and Wareham, and these 
vessels were manned by nearly 15.0 0U 
sailors. This vast business was con- 
ducted by a score or more of manag- 
ing owners, as they were called, whose 
counting rooms and storage buildings 
occupied practically the entire water 
front from Hathaway and Luce's 
wharf at the foot of Walnut street to 
the Parker block at the foot of Middle 
street. They were men trained to 
work. They had the benefit of a 
hundred years of the experience of 
their predecessors, during which time 
there had been devices which ren- 
dered less hazardous the service on 
the ocean. There had been improve- 
ments in the manipulations of the 
crude material, newer uses for the 
product and wider markets. The busi- 
ness was lucrative. I) In true there 
Were ilinii ppnlnl ineulH. Them were, 
perils I'm m iee in the Arctic and from 
typhoons in the Indian ocean, and at 
times whales were not found in plenti- 
ful numbers on the usual cruising 
grounds. But in the aggregate the in- 
dustry was exceptionally prosperous 
and profitable. It was the intelligence, 
sagacity, efficiency and foresighted- 
ness of these whaling merchants that 
made the New Bedford thai: was and 
laid the foundation of the New Bed- 
ford that is. I need not repeat their 
names. Some of them were known to 
and are remembered by many who 
are present, but there was one among 
their number, a prominent leadei*. 
who is in our thoughts today and to 
whose memory we pay a tribute of 
regard. 

After leaving school Jonathan 
Bourne came to New Bedford from a 
nearby town He found employment 
as clerk in a grocery store. In a few 
years he was its proprietor. He was 
diligent in business, attentive, active 
early and late, for he was ignorant of 
the modern limitation of working 



11 



hours. He was successful, and his 
Havings he invested by becoming a 
part owner in sailing vessels. In 1836, 
when 25 years of age, he purchased 
for himself and others the bark Ros- 
coe which he, as managing owner, 
fitted out on a whaling voyage. Other 
ventures followed, and his name soon 
became prominent in the list of whal- 
ing merchants. 

Mr. Bourne was forceful and self- 
reliant, positive, earnest and untiring. 
Having carefully formed an opinion he 
was slow to relinquish it. A notable 
quality of his business methods was 
thoroughness. There was no detail 
so insignificant that it did not have 
his personal supervision. He appear- 
ed to have an innate and intuitive 
knowledge of men, was quick to dis- 
cover their weak points and their 
strong points, and when a position was 
to be filled and the selection made, 
the result showed the accuracy of 
his judgment. His ship masters and 
otlicers were loyal to him and they 
were rewarded with promotions al- 
ways based absolutely upon merit. A 
man before the mast whatever his 
birth or early surroundings, if he 
showed ambition and excellence in the 
discharge of his work, was moved step 
by step through the grades of promo- 
tion till he reached the quarter deck. 
In sending a ship to sea he did not 
count good luck as an asset, his reli- 
ance was upon completeness of prep- 
aration. 

It has been said that the importa- 
tions of oil and bone into this harbor 
by Mr. Bourne were not exceeded in 
value by any other individual or firm 
During his long service he was sole 
or managing owner of a iarge num- 
ber of vessels and at one time there 
were fourteen ships and barks sailing 
in various parts of the globe that car- 
■ ried his private signal, a larger num- 
ber than could be claimed by any 
other whaling merchant. 

Among his early ventures was the 
Lagoda. Ships have a certain per- 
sonality. Their names appear on the 
pages of the ledger in the count- 
ing room. An account is opened in 
the name of the ship the same as 
with an individual and the ship is 
charged with its first cost and all ex- 
penditures in connection with the ves- 
sel and her employment, whether 
made at the home port or abroad, and 
the ship is credited with the proceeds 
of the inward voyages. Mr. Bourne 
had larger vessels, of greater 
tonnage, more modern in con- 
struction and equipment, but 
the one which he prized above all 
others was the Lagoda. In a conversa- 
tion one day he told me the story of 
his favorite. He was in a reminiscent 
mood and it was after he had with- 



drawn the vessel from his further 
service on account of age. Ships like ' 
men deteriorate with age. Under his 
control and direction the Lagoda had 
sailed the seas for 44 years, during 
which period it had made 12 voyages, 
the shortest was two years, lacking a 
few days, and the longest was four 
years and eleven months. In the final 
summing up of these voyages from 
accounts accurately kept and com- 
piled carefully and correctly, there 
appeared a balance of receipts over 
expenditures that showed a net profit 
which had been paid and distributed 
to the owners amounting to $052,000. 
It has been the wish of the Old 
Dartmouth Plistorical society to ha#*f 
a representation or exhibit typical of 
a whaleship, not a painting or a pic- 
ture, but a model in wood and metal 
and other materials, showing the com- 
plete vessel and its appurtenances, the 
hull, masts, spars, rigging, sails, the 
boats hanging on the davits, the try- 
works on the deck, the crow's nest at 
the mast-head for the lookout, and 
the other implements used in its em- 
ployment. This wish has been grati- 
fied. You have before ^you a fac- 
simile, half size, exact in all its de- 
tails and dimensions of the Lagoda as 
she appeared in the lower harbor 
ready to start out on the ocean 
voyage. Its presence here is a dis- 
tinction which worthily belongs to the 
Lagoda. 

Mr. Bourne is remembered not only 
as the merchant but as an influential 
citizen, taking an active part in move- 
ments for the welfare of the com- 
munity. He promoted by his capital 
and advice the introduction of the 
new industry to take the place of the 
old which he foresaw was destined to 
decline through causes which could 
not be prevented. During five years 
he served the city as alderman and 
during another period of five years he 
was a member of the governor's coun- 
cil, acting under two governors. 1 re- 
call the commendation made by Gov. 
Robinson in speaking of the excellent 
service rendered to the commonwealth 
by Mr. Bourne through his business 
experience and practical knowledge 
in the inspection of the state institu- 
tions. He took a lively interest in 
local, state and national politics. 
Three times he represented this dis- 
trict as a member of Republican na- 
tional conventions, and in 18 60 as a 
delegate he cast his vote for the nom- 
ination of Abraham Lincoln for 
president. Mr. Bourne was a man 
of action, not a dreamer, intense, 
never timid or evasive. 

This Museum has been erected in 
honor of the men on land and sea 
who commenced and developed and 
prosecuted with remarkable success 




THE STEKN OF THE »LA(H)I) A.* 
Courtesy of New Bedford Standard. 



13 



the American whale fishery. It 

bears the name of one who was a 
conspicuous factor in the work. It 
Comes as the gifts from his daughter, 
Emily 1 lowland Bourne. It has been 
prompted .by filial affection and the 
desire that in a memorial to her 
father there shall be some represen- 
tation of the industry with 
which his long business life 
was so closely connected. It is 
n oreover an expression of her 
regard for the city of her birth. Tts 
beneficiaries are the people, present 
and future, of this locality who will 
leek upon it with pride and study it 
with satisfaction, and in the years to 
come the student who desires to know 
more about an industry once flour- 
ishing and prosperous, but which in 
the lapse of years has faded away, an 
Industry whose exploits in far off seas 
and among islands inhabited by sav- 
Bge tribes abounds in romance and 
tragedy will And here the most com- 
plete and perfect collection of whal- 
ing data in the world. While the 
Museum has a certain public signifi- 
cance since it is for the gratification 
of all who choose to visit it, its cus- 
tody has not been entrusted to the city 
government. Its care, keeping, man- 
agement and ownership has been be- 
stowed upon the Old Dartmouth His- 
torical society, an institution organ- 
ized to keep alive the story of the 
past, organized to collect and pre- 
serve and hand down to the future the 
evidence of the events in our local 
past, to tell of the men and women 
who have lived here and labored here 
and what they did and what they 
accomplished, and to save from the 
destructive and consuming tooth of 
time the traditions, documents, 
manuscripts, correspondence and 
even the sayings and the articles 
used in the early days that illus- 
trate the industrial, social and 
home life of those who have pre- 
ceded us. The present owes much to 
the past for the inheritance it re- 
ceived in the example of fortitude 
and self-denial, of sturdy integrity, 
the example of frugality and sim- 
plicity and of courage to meet and 
overcome diificulties. It is in histori- 
cal societies and museums that the 
present is helped to recognize its 
obligation to the past. 

What is asked of the Old Dart- 
mouth Historical society in its accept- 
ance of this gift is a pledge of fidelity, 
faithfulness in its keeping and man- 
agement and maintenance, and faith- 
fulness in its protection and preserva- 
tion, that it shall be held as a cher- 
ished treasure and that its administra- 
tion shall be in harmony with the en- 
lightened purpose and kindly spirit 
of its generous donor. 



At the conclusion of Mr. Crapo's ad- 
dress, Mr. Fresco tt said: 

"It is fortunate for any community 
when it has a benefactress with the 
will and the means combined to pro- 
vide it with such a splendid posses- 
sion as this Whaling Museum. It is 
also fortunate when it has in its midst 
an institution well fitted to be en- 
trusted with the care and custody of 
such a possession. That the Old 
Dartmouth Historical Society is today 
strong enough and vigorous enough 
to undertake this responsibility is due 
largely to the energy, enthusiasm and 
ability of its president, Herbert E. 
Cushman." 

Mr. Cushman said: 

"Duty becomes a pleasure when i 
calls upon the president of the Old 
Dartmouth Historical society to accept 
in behalf of its officers and members 
this beautiful building and tine bark 
La god a. 

"We all have dreams of what we 
really wish. It is seldom that those 
dreams are realized. Less frequently 
are they idealized. Our dream was of 
a building on historical Johnny Cake 
hill, located on the land which we 
owned, about 5 0x3 0, in which to place 
the apparatus having to do with the 
whaling industry, which we had col- 
lected. You have only to lowk about 
you today to see how far beyond that 
dream is the reality. 

"No one can add one word to what 
has already been said by our venerable 
friend and ex-president, William W. 
Crapo, of the industry which this 
building will commemorate, or the 
man to whose memory it lias been 
erected. 

"It was not my privilege to know 
Jonathan Bourne, but I only have to 
look at the bronze face yonder, and 
from what I hear from people who 
knew him, to know that he was a 
man who was thorough in every 
detail, and when he fitted out a ship, 
it was complete from truck to keel. 

"Is there any question in your 
mind today but what the spirit of the 
father has certainly descended upon 
the daughter? We extend to her our 
sincere thanks and appreciation. 

"There are many who with their 
hands and with their minds have 
helped to bring about the results that 
you see before you, and they are here 
to enjoy it, but there is one whose 
presence we miss — the first one to 
bring to our good friend the suggestion 
as to a whaling museum, and one 
who would have been as proud and as 
happy as any of us if he were here. 
You all knew him and loved him. I 
refer to the Rev. Matthew C. Julien. 
Let us pause in the midst of our joy, 
out of respect to his memory. 



14 



"Miss Bourne, as president of the 
Old Dartmouth Historical society, I 
accept in behalf of its officers and 
members this beautiful building, and 
express to you our sincere gratitude. 

"When your father was ready to 
fit out a ship, they tell me he was 
careful in the selection of his captain, 
and that when the ship was ready 
for sea, everything complete, he 
turned the ship over to that captain 
and gave to him his utmost confidence, 
and his command was to take the 
ship and do the best that he could 
with it. 

"In that spirit, we take command 
of the good bark Lagoda today, 
promising to make it do its best to 
commemorate the whaling industry, 
and to do honor to your father's 
memory in this generation, and we 
will pass that same command on with 
enthusiasm to the generations that 
are to come. 

"Members and friends of the Old 
Dartmouth Historical society: I know 
full well how much you appreciate 
this gift, and how strongly you desire 
to in some way express it; and in order 
that you may do so, I will kindly ask 
you to rise for a moment." 

Mr. Prescott in introducing Profes- 
sor Francis Barton Gummere, said: 

"In the early days of our country 
when our forefathers were engaged in 
their struggle to make the thii teen 
colonies one of the free and indepen- 
dent states of the world it was the 
great nation France which came to 
their assistance at a critical period 
with men and ships and assured the 
success of the American Revolution. 
It is not for us who profited by the gift 
to question the motive of the giver. We 
know that there were some French- 
men at least who shed their blood on 
American soil who were actuated only 
by the love of liberty. In later years, 
as Mr. Crapo has pointed out, when 
the prosperity of our whaling indus- 
try was seriously threatened, it was 
France again who came to the rescue 
by giving us the hospitality of her 
ports. Today as we watch the fright- 
ful conflict which is raging across 
the Atlantic our hearts go out in sym- 
pathy and admiration to the men and 
women of France who are giving of 
their life and treasure without stint, 
not only for their own country but to 
preserve the liberties of all the peo- 
ples of Europe, yes and of the whole 
world. As a symbol of the ties which 
bind together the two great Republics 
of modern times, Miss Bourne would 
like to have us stand while our singers 
sing to us those two great songs of 
freedom — 'The Star Spangled Ban- 
ner' of America and 'The Marseil- 
laise' of France." 



"It should not be assumed that the 
people of New Bedford in the old 
whaling days thought only of whale 
bone and blubber. On the contrary 
they took an active interest in the 
higher things of life. The whaling m<T- 
chants and masters and their wives 
were men and women of keen minds 
by no means dull to the appeal of the 
best in literature and thoroughly alive 
to the advantages of learning. The 
New Bedford Free Public Li- 
brary, which had its begin- 
ning in the whaling days was 
one of the very first in the country. 
Lecture courses on serious subjects 
were well attended. The Lyceum 

flourished. The people of New Bed- 
ford in those days believed thoroughly 
in the necessity of sound education. 
William Rotch, Jr., one of the leading 
whaling merchants in the early years 
of the last century, founded the 
Friends' academy, for the better in- 
struction of the youth of the com- 
munity. In later years another New 
Bedford citizen, William W. Swain, es- 
tablished the Swain Free school as an 
institution for the higher education of 
the people. This school has done much 
for New Bedford, but it never per- 
formed a greater service than when 
it brought Francis B. Gummere to 
the city and kept him here among 
us for several years. The occasion that 
brings him back again, if only for a 
day, is a happy one and I can assure 
Dr. Gummere that New Bedford has 
not forgotten him in the many years 
which have elapsed since he left us." 

Mr. Prescott then presented Profes- 
sor Francis B. Gummere. 



Prof. Gummere's Speech. 

Professor Francis Barton Gummere, 
professor of English at Haverford, 
and the first director of the Swain 
school in this city, came back today to 
speak at the dedication, and his ad- 
dress was listened to most attentively, 
as he spoke of the history and romance 
and glory of the old industry. 

Professor Gummere spoke as fol- 
lows: 

Miss Bourne, Mr. President, ladies 
and gentlemen: 

It seemed on the whole unlikely, 
though possible, that for the sake of 
what is called local color, one should 
be announced from the mast head, or 
crow's nest, or whatever the right 
place may be, with a proleptic cry of 
"There he blows!" Some of this audi- 
ence, who remember early days of the 
Swain Free school, might murmur 
"Again!" But local color, when faded 



15 



like this jest, or yellow like this impli- 
cation, should he shunned. And that 
wholly surprised and spontaneous re- 
ply, which must have occurred to 
many a speaker under similar circum- 
stances—that lie rose, spouting, not to 
the spur but to the harpoon of the oc- 
casion — should also be unsaid, were it 
not for its serious side. The spur of 
this occasion has a harpoon's trick of 
striking deep. It is a complicated task, 
both in dedication and in memorial, to 
stand thus, armed with a little brief 
authority of speech, linking the future 
with the past. It is doubly hard, after 
the lapse of a full generation, after 
the roll-call of your worthies has 
boen revised so often and so far, to 
avoid the elgaic note. That ubi suit 
of the pious chanson keeps ringing in" 
one's ears. Where are they all? The 
hundred or so teachers in your city 
schools, for example, whom it was so 
delightful to meet, in or out of the lec- 
ture-room, thirty years ago, are surely 
not all teaching still — though I know 
no habit so persistent as the peda- 
gogic. Myself, moi qui vous parle, am 
doing my forty-second year of what is 
called "time;" and indeed Dr. Holmes 
once said teachers lived so long be- 
cause they drew their pay with such 
soothing regularity. 

But this is no matter for jests. It 
is well not to joke about roll-calls or 
to coquet with ubi sunt; although that 
motto of the Paris Figaro is in point, 
taken from the namesake drama of 
Beaumarchais: "I make haste to 
laugh at things for fear I should else 
have to weep at them." And we are 
not going to be lachrymose. Not 
even the scented handkerchief of rem- 
iniscence shall be waved in excess. 
Yet it is out of the question, under 
these circumstances, not to feel at 
the heart an irresistible pull to the 
past. Life was simpler in many ways 
thirty odd years ago; it seems in 
retrospect as if characters, too, were 
simpler. The census then gave the 
city only six and twenty thousand in- 
habitants; and with the smaller num- 
bers went a larger familiarity of man 
with man. It is true that the familiar 
places, the cari luoghi, seem now 
much the same as then; although if 
I wished to get the real flavor and 
sensation of old days, I should go 
where they are tearing up the streets. 
And that reminds me — dear and men- 
dacious old phrase — of a story I got 
the other day fresh from the great 
war. An Irish soldier, brought back 
wounded from the front, passed 
through Dublin, where some of the 
streets are in sheer ruin from the 
late rioting. Looking at these ruins 
in surprise, Pat exclaimed: "I didn't 
know we had home-rule already." 



It is not the familiar scenes, how- 
ever, that move to such sentiment of 
the past, but rather those old familiar 
faces which I do not see, and for 
which the quest is vain. You remem- 
ber- cerkiin beautiful and haunting 
lines of Stevenson about the high- 
lands, the country places, where the 
kind old men have ruddy faces, and 
the youth and maidens quiet eyes. 
Perhaps it would be better to say of 
the maidens of New Bedford four and 
thirty years ago, when I first saw 
them, that their eyes were rather dis- 
quieting than quiet (local papers 
please copy'); but of the kind old men 
there can be no manner of doubt. 1 
used to wonder whether it was their 
personal and ancestral tralfic with the 
seven seas that put the wide and tol- 
erant and kindly look into those eyes 
of theirs. In any case it was the 
thought of one of those kind old men, 
who still look out upon us from quiet 
places of memory, that linked for me. 
happily enough, a very early experi- 
ence of mine, as citizen of New Bed- 
ford, with the amiable task which your 
thoughful and generous benefactress, 
— today easily your "first citizen" — 
has entrusted to my hands. 

Many of you doubtless recall the 
kindly face of the elder William C. 
Taber, one of mine own people, the 
people called Quakers. Him I met 
of a fine Sunday morning as 1 was 
on my way, not to divine worship, 
which came later, and not to golf, 
which came later in another sense, but 
to the postottiee, — a secular errand 
which our highly religious modern 
government has put out of the list of 
our temptations. As his way and mine 
lay for a little time together — I think 
we were on Fourth street — I joined 
him! and, mindful of the fact that 
I was now in that New England where 
conversation is inevitably upon the 
high culture levels, — although the 
converser cannot rival the American 
girl abroad who always began a con- 
versation, and always began it with a 
repartee, — I girded myself for an. in- 
terchange of positively brilliant 
thoughts. Now, thought I, for lumin- 
ous ideas in adequate expression. 

And this, aa nearly as I can recollect 
it, was the portentous and polysyllabic 
question which I fired, full broadside, 
at this quiet and inoffensive citizen: 
"What," I asked, "What, AVil- 
liam C. Taber, in thy opin- 
ion, are the causes, primary and 
secondary, of the amazing decline 
which is so noticeable in that great 
industry which has made New Bed- 
ford famous throughout the length 
and breadth of our land, I mean the 
whaling industry?" And this, in a 
voice slightly touched with a falsetto 
of age, possibly — why not? — of hu- 
mor, was his reply: — "No whales." 



17 



Ladies and gentlemen, my good old 
kindly friend said "no whales"; he 
did not say "no whalers." And here 
lies such point, or such moral, as these 
words of mine, on this happy occasion, 
are intended to convey. There were 
."till whalers at that time in both 
senses of the term, ships and men. I 
went over one of Edward D. Mandell's 
ships, just home from a two years' 
cruise: and I think saw and smelt 
enough to know something of the 
glorious truths of that calling. 

Ten years later, by the bye, I saw 
that same ship, or its mate, beached 
at Atlantic City, and open to the in- 
spection of the cheapest of cheap 
trippers (I went over it again myself) 
at ten cents a head. But those base 
uses had not been imagined in the 
year 18S5. Moreover, the human 
whaler was still in evidence. My 
friend and colleague of that time, the 
late Nathaniel Hathaway — another 
face untimely lost from view — took 
me once to an old sail-loft, not far, 
I think, from this very spot, where I 
saw sundry mariners, home forever 
from sea, solacing their declining 
years with the most extraordinary 
games of euchre that it was ever my 
fortune to behold. It was not hard to 
induce these heroes, after the violent 
exertion apparently necessary to this 
game — for every card was raised to 
arm's length, and then deposited on 
the table with a desolating slam, — it 
was not hard, I say, to get from these 
veterans sundry yarns of their old 
trade. Yes, I know what sailors' yarns 
are, and what measure of exaggeration 
is dealt out to the credulous lands- 
man; but you and T also know how 
much solid truth lay under the neg- 
ligible flourishes of those whalers' 
stories. And you and I know, also, 
what the truth of those yarns be- 
tokened in attestation of the glory of 
American seamanship in days before 
our Civil war. History and romance 
have alike done justice to that breed 
of brave men; we are now concerned 
only with the whalemen's share in our 
ancient pride of the sea. No, my 
kindly friend could not ss.y that there 
were no whalers left. 

Both of his own and even of a 
younger generation, they were there; 
he met them daily on the street and in 
the counting-room, potential if not ac- 
tual masters of the harpoon, and fit 
to sail a ship around the world. But 
what of one generation, of the next, 
and of the next again? Do we, our 
children, our children's children, know 
the whalers; and do we keep in mind 
the lesson which they taught? I am 
not going to to labor the point, obvi- 
ous as it is, but there is good reason 
to apply it. 



The old order chaugeth — not the 
problem or the strife. The old 
weapons grow obsolete, but not the 
heart and hand to wield them. True, 
one says, and trite. But the attitude of 
modern thought towards ancient 
methods, discarded means of attaining 
the external and superseded machin- 
ery of accomplishment, precisely 
such things as this museum is meant 
to keep before the eyes of men for 
"a life beyond life" — this attitude, I 
say, involves too often a state of mind 
which can be translated only into 
such words as must demand a con- 
tradiction and prompt an affirmative 
very far removed from what is trite. 
In our contempt for ridiculous and in- 
adequate machinery we involve the 
machinist; and we think we have 
nothing to learn from him. Tell the 
class in history about those clumsy 
muskets of infantry used by 
the soldier, three centuries or 
more atro; how each man 

had to carry with him a sort of stand 
or unipod which he planted in the 
ground for support of the piece he 
was going to discharge. Clumsy and 
ridiculous, they say; and then the ad- 
jectives are insensibly transferred to 
the soldier himself, and so to his 
time. Then we pass to the inevitable 
phrase about "the wonderful age of 
invention in which we live;" and so 
to the concluding and offensive dox- 
ology which praises God because he 
has made* us so much wiser and bet- 
ter than our sires. To combat this 
mood, one does not need to quarrel 
with inventions, or to agree with Rus- 
kin, in his famous comment on the 
railway which spoiled a pet landscape, 
that the only good it did was to al- 
low a fool in one town to play the fool 
in another town an hour sooner than 
he could have done in coaching days. 
We do need, however, to combat the 
fallacy of inference from tool to 
workman. We need to remem- 
ber that men who read by the 
light of whale-oil did not sit in other 
darkness of the intellect. We need to 
substitute for the offensive doxology 
of self-praise that splendid old bid- 
ding prayer of Bcclesiasticus, "Let 
us now praise famous men and our 
fathers that begat us." 

We need to reflect in the same 
words of wisdom, that "Some there 
be which have no memorial," and to 
make good, as our generous friend 
has done here, the defect, the oblivion, 
the shame. We need more history. The 
so-called romantic school, in which 
the great historians of the preceding 
century were born and bred, laid, per- 
haps, too great stress upon lessons of 
the past and neglected too much the 



ap58* w - 




19 



economic interests of the present. I 
heard President Wilson, then governor 
of New Jersey, in his address at the 
dinner given in Philadelphia by the 
periodical publishers, llout this doc- 
trine of security on our national past. 
We must not, he said, stand at the 
stern of the ship of state and steer 
by the wake. True. 

But it is well to steer by a chart as 
well as by a compass; and Monter- 
quien, the real founder of republican- 
ism, and incidentally, of our form of 
government, said that he knew no 
chart by which that ship of state could 
he steered if it were not the chart of 
history. Yet we discourage all en- 
thusiasm born of praise for famous 
men of our past, in what I • make 
bold to think to think the most "Ro- 
man" passage of all Latin poetry, not 
even barring the Marcellas episode on 
the sixth /Hneid, — Horace, epicurean, 
practical, up-to-date Horace, tries to 
call back degenerating Rome to its 
civic pride and civic duty by telling 
in splendid verse the familiar story of 
Regulus. Did some Alexander sa- 
piens of the day, I wonder, snub Hor- 
ace with a life of "The Real Regu- 
lus"? We give our youth a "real" 
Washington, a "real" Jefferson, a 
"real" William Penn, to show not only 
that they didn't know everything 
clown in Judee, but that they didn't 
do much of anything down in Virginia 
or at Valley Forge. I am told that 
a book has :ust been written by one of 
our university professors to say that 
American children should not iearn 
history, because it spoils their efficien- 
cy, and should not be made to respect 
their elders even, for that would ruin 
their independence. It is notorious 
that standards of all kinds are now 
suspect, and that so-called classics 
have no value. We want no checks 
on eccentricity either in arts or in let- 
ters; we are going to build up our 
world by centrifugal forces alone. 
Dead authors are dead. If you wish 
to give your neighbor's very dog a 
bad name, call him mid-Victorian. 
Such praise as is left to mor, and 
things of the past is like the doubtful 
eulogy or eiegy pronounced over a 
Maine farmer whom we may call Eli- 
phalet. [n rural regions there, a 

friend tells me, it is custom at a fun- 
eral, after the religious rites are 
done and before the grave is filled, for 
the neighbors to utter, one after the 
other, some kindly word of farewell 
and praise for the deceased. But when 
Eliphalet was laid away, no neigh- 
bor stepped forward; silence reigned; 
and the situation grew tense. At last 
one kindly old man, who could bear it 
no longer, came out and spoke. 
"Well." he said, pleadingly, "we kin 
say of Hliphalet that he wan't as 



ornery all the time as he was most of 
the time." Such is the praise which 
we are wont to spend upon men and 
things of the past. 

Surely we know a more excellent 
way, and this occasion as earn- 
est of our knowledge. Time 
and circumstance have swept 
away one of the great types of 
our American manhood, along with a 
handicraft in which courage, re- 
sourcefulness, agility, clear eye, and 
steady nerve, were the very common- 
places of the calling. The individuals 
have gone forever with the passing 
of their trade; but the type is not to 
vanish from memory. Out of sight 
is indeed out of mind; love left un- 
shown, as Shakespeare prettily tells 
us, is too often left unloved. And so, 
in this city of the whaler, there has 
stood, for some years, in plain view of 
all who go to and fro, the figure of 
that hunter of the seas in his typical 
act of courage, energy and skill. 

And here, now, for all to see who 
will see, is to stand a memorial and 
faithful copy of the whaler's floating 
home, here are the tools of his trade, 
the focal point of his habit and disci- 
pline, the scene and the secret of his 
daily life. 

The merest glance shows that he 
went down to the sea, not in hotels 
or palaces, but in ships; and that in 
the great waters be did not pleasure 
but business,- — business perilous and 
grim. What be learned, and what he 
came to be in the course of this busi- 
ness of bis, he brought back to his 
civic and national life. What he con- 
tributed to that life no man may 
measure. It is impossible to draw the 
ultimate circle of influences for good 
in American development which had 
beginning when the keel of the first 
New Bedford whaleship struck the 
foam. 

Let us be done, then, forever, with 
the deplorable fad of blackwashing 
our past and depreciating old types 
of manhood. Let us rather idealize 
them. R is right to do this. No na- 
tion ever lived on its contemporary 
greatness; it needs to keep its stand- 
ards, its types, its classics ever in 
mind. And classics are not always 
preserved by planter's ink. Is not this 
building, this memorial a classic, a 
faithful transcript from the life 
which was so full of what is best in 
life that the memory of it must not 
perish? Fitting, too, is the dedication 
in the name of that sterling merchant, 
who, at the time of his death, owned 
more tonnage in this industry than 
any firm or individual of his day. 

The old Puritan and Pilgrim type 
we know in many a classic, now set 
down in verse, and now carved in 
stone. As fine as any is Whittier's 




Z: 



'/, 



- 




i^::fe:SS? 



^if:,:^ 



tiii<: jioav of the model whaleshi 



of New Bedford Mercury, 



21 



memorial of Abraham Davenport and 
the dark day in Connecticut. The 
later type of farmer-warrior in revo- 
lutionary days is secure forever in 
lOmerson's lines on Concord Bridge. 
Now we are ready to immortalize 
the type of nation-builder so 
finely embodied in these simple-heart- 
ed heroes of the sea. They have no 
port yet — at least I know of none — 
and hardly an adequate chronicler in 
prose, unless Melville be accepted with 
His "Moby Dick." But here now is the 
whaler's habitat. To understand all, 
the French have long since said, is 
to pardon all; but, on the positive side, 
to understand and know is to appre- 
ciate, to admire, perhaps to imitate. 
Here, then, in this realization of the 
whaler's ancient world, young Ameri- 
cans of generation after generation 
shall best learn what he was and 
why his type is a precious heritage of 
the American people. Like Abraham 
Davenport, he too shall stand in 
memory. * * * 

Erect, self-poised, a rugged shape, 
I* * * a witness to the ages, as they 
pass, that simple duty hath no place 
for fear. 

After the singing of America by all 
present, the Rev. Raymond H. Ken- 
drick offered the benediction. 

Among those present was Gutzon 
Borglum, the noted sculptor, of New 
York. 



From Morning Mercury. 
Nov. 24, 191C. 

Captain E. D. Lewis, who was on 
for the dedication yesterday, was com- 
mander of the Lagoda for three voy- 
ages from 18 73 to 188(5. 

Captain Lewis, who is 7 5 years old, 
is still hale and hearty, and enjoyed 
the celebration immensely, for the 
Lagoda was the last ship he went 
whaling in, making his sixth, seventh 
and eighth voyages in her. 

Captain Lewis's whaling career 
lasted 33 years, and in that time he 
was shipwrecked once, and nearly 
wrecked two other times, all in the 
Arctic ocean, where the ice floes are 
nor respecter of ships or whaling 
masters. 

Captain Lewis when only 14 years 
of age fell for the illuminated whaling 
pictures of the time that started many 
a lad on a career that led him to 
hard knocks, but later to a command 
and wealth. 

Captain Lewis's own story of how he 
became a whaleman he tells as fol- 
lows: 

"1 was brought up till T was 14 
years old in the village of Orisconc, 
on the Erie canal and New York 
Central railroad, seven miles from the 



city of Utica, N. Y. One day in June 
I was fishing in a lonely spot on the 
bank of the canal, when I was hailed, 
from a passing canal boat, and was 
asked if I would like to hire out to 
drive a pair of mules. I said 1 
thought I would. 

" 'Well, -jump on here then, and 
get your dinner,' the captain said, and 
he steered the boat up to the bank, 
and 1 jumped aboard. 

"I had caught a few fish. I left 
them and all my fishing tackle right 
there on the bank. No one saw me 
go on the boat. That night when I 
didn't show up, the neighbors got 
busy and searched for me till all hours 
of the night, but of course I was not 
to be found. 

"The next morning they resumed 
the search, and came across my lish- 
ing tackle right where I had left it. 
Well, that settled it. I had fallen into 
the canal and was drowned. They got 
grapplings, and dragged for me, and 
fired cannons over the water to bring 
me up, all to no avail, for I was get- 
ting farther and farther away, on my 
way to New York'. 

"The next day after I got there, 1 
was strolling around the wharves, 
when a land shark picked me up and 
asked me if I wouldn't like to go 
whaling. I said I didn't know whether 
I did or not. lie took me into a 
nearby office and showed me some 
whaling pictures. They took my eye 
right off. I told him I thought I 
would like it. He gave me a paper to 
sign, then took me over to the Fall 
River boat and turned me over to 
some one and told him to take me to 
New Bedford and turn me over to 
Potter & Doane. 

"My canal boat friends knew 
nothing of this. I don't know whether 
they dragged the East river for me or 
not. [ arrived in New Bedford June 
•1 4 th, and the next day shipped as 
cabin boy, and on the 3 0th sailed as 
such in bark Peri, with Captain 
George H. Macomber. Rodney French 
was her owner." 

On this first voyage the bark 
cruised to the Indian ocean and China 
sea. She arrived home October, 1856. 

Lewis came home before the mast. 

On his second voyage, Captain Lewis 
sailed again on the Peri under Captain 
Macomber, this time as boatsteerer, 
the Peri cruising to the Indian ocean, 
to Desolation, Crozets a nd Mozam- 
bique channel. She filled up with 
sperm and right whale oil, and arrived 
home October, 1859. She was gone 
two years and four months. 

This time Captain Lewis came home 
as third mate and boatsteerer. 

"On my third voyage I sailed in July, 
18 60, as fourth mate of the bark 



22 



Poseoe, with Captain G. II. Maeom- 
ber," says Captain Lewis. "Lourn 
Snow & Son were her owners, and Mrs. 
Maeomber and two sons were with ns 
all the voyage. Two daughters were 
born on the voyage, one at Fayal, 
Azores, and the other at Paita, Peru. 
When the youngest was a little over 
one year old, she died at Valparaiso, 
Chili. She was put in a metallic 
casket, and we carried her lor over a 
year, and when we got home she was 
buried in Westport. When three years 
out the third mate was discharged, 
and 1 took his place for the remainder 
of the voyage. We came home in the 
fall of 1804, having been gone nearly 
four and a half years. 

'•June, 18 6 5, I sailed in the Roscoe 
as second mate with Captain Maeom- 
ber, for the Arctic ocean. On "July 
20 we ran into a cake of ice and had 
three timbers and live planks stove in 
her starboard bow. We managed to 
get her down to St. Lawrence bay for 
repairs. We got back to the whaling- 
grounds late in the season and got one 
whale. We then went down to 
Honolulu and repaired ship. We 
cruised between seasons on the line, 
ami took 2 00 barrels of sperm oil. 

"The next season we went to the 
Arctic again and got Hi whales, mak- 
ing 1,2 00 barrels of oil and 2 2.00U 
pounds of whalebone. We went down 
to San Francisco and shipped our oil 
and bone home. The first mate was 
discharged and Ishipped in his place 
for the remainder of the voyage. Mrs. 
Maeomber joined us there and was 
with us the remainder of the voyage 
sperm whaling on the oft shore 
ground. We were gone nearly live 
years and made a big voyage. We 
came home May, 187 0. 

1 sailed on my fifth voyage in Octo- 
ber, 187U, as master of the bark Roscoe 
on a four-year voyage sperm whaling 
in the Pacific. When one year (nit we 
went to Panama to ship oil home, and 
while there received orders from 
Loum Snow, the agent of the Roscoe, 
to go to the Arctic. On August 2 0th, 
1872, the ship was crushed in the ice 
off Point Barrow, and was a total 
wreck. 

"As 1 was the youngest captain in 
the whaling service at that time, being 
only 3 0, I thought my career was at an 
end. I went from my ship to the Live 
Oak, Captain Weldin, and 3 hours 
later she was badly stove. She was 
saved, and my crew left her and went 
on board the Jireh Perry, Captain 
Owens, and were taken in that ship to 
San Francisco. On arriving there I 
found a letter from Jonathan Bourne, 
for me to come home, as he would 
have a ship for me. I arrived in New 
Bedford December, 1872, having been 
gone two years and two months. 



"In J ub', 1873, I sailed as master of 
the bark Lagoda, Jonathan Bourne, 
owner, on a four-year voyage sperm 

whaling on the New Zealand grounds. 
When three years out My. Bourne 
asked me to stay out two years longer, 
making the voyage five years. 

"I wrote him that I would, provid- 
ing he sent my wife out to join me, 
and he agreed to do so. I met her in 
the Bay of Islands, New Zealand. 
When the four years were up 1 had to 
discharge my crew or go home, as 
then- voyage was up. 1 found that it 
was impossible to ship another crew, so 
1 came home, arriving in New Bed- 
ford October, 1877, having been gone 
four years and three months. 

"1 sailed again in December, 1877, 
as master of the Lagoda on a four-year 
voyage sperm whaling in the North 
and South Atlantic oceans. We cruised 
on the Commodore Morris ground 
and down to the River Platte. Mrs. 
Lewis was with me all this voyage and 
we got home October, 1881. We were 
away three years and ten months." 

On his eighth, and last voyage, 
Captain Lewis sailed in the spring of 
LS82 as master of the Lagoda on a 
four-year voyage sperm whaling in 
the Pacific ocean. The Lagoda cruised 
on Chile and the off shore grounds. 
Mrs. Lewis was with her husband on 
this voyage. The Lagoda arrived home 
in June, 1880, having been gone four 
years. 



editorial Morning Mercury. 
Nov. 24, 1!)1G. 

The sadness of that melancholy day, 
not many years distant, when the last 
of our whalers will have gone to its 
last port, will be ameliorated by th-? 
fact that in the Jonathan Bourne 
Whaling Museum on the historic hill- 
top, we have a reproduction of one of 
the most representative types of whal- 
ing bark, with an outfit complete in 
every detail. A few years hence it 
would be impossible to construct such 
a, model. The last of the whale crafts- 
men have been employed in reproduc- 
ing the Lagoda. There are tricks of 
l'ig in an old whaler that will be a 
lost art but a little later. In fact it 
was difficult even now to find artisans 
familiar with the building, the rig and 
equipment of a whaleship. Those 
who have looked in upon the work 
in its progress have realized the 



23 "Vt 



lituatlon for the specialists on the 
Job were mostly old men. The visitor 
w.»h further struck with manifestation 
of enthusiasm over the work. The 
old whaleman loved to fashion ship's 
models. There was a time when the 
■hop windows in the sailor quarter on 
Water (street displayed full rigged 
models of wood and ivory, perfect in 
the most intricate detail. The build- 
ing of this larger model has gratified 
the love of the whalemen for the 
pastime which occupied his idle hours 
Aboard ship. These are the days of 
wire rigged ships and steam hoisting 
apparatus. The technique of an old 
whaler is infinitely more complicated 
and we no longer create sailors with 
the shiftiness to fashion knots, not 
to mention whittling with a jackknife 
a quadrant, tear off the rim of the 
compass focal for an arc and break 
up a Wvq cent mirror for a speculum 
with which to navigate in an emer- 
gency. 

Generations to come will be grate- 
ful for the chance to see the type of 



whaler which brought us fame and 
gave us a place in a brave chapter 
of history. The opportunity came to 
Miss Bourne to create a unique me- 
morial to her father, the late Jonathan 
Bourne, one of the whaling mer- 
chant princes of New Bedford, a 
man who owned at one time, more 
ships than any man in New England. 
This museum will impart distinction 
to New Bedford and will give a sight- 
seeing attraction to the city that 
will bring visitors from all the world. 
The exercises at the dedication yes- 
terday were an education to New Bed- 
ford people for the younger genera- 
tion has little idea of the importance 
of the old industry. Any occasion 
which gives us an opportunity to have 
an address from William W. Crapo is 
worth while. Mr. Crapo r s story of 
the creation of our first industry, and 
his tribute to the merchants, pro- 
vided an entertaining recital of local 
history which the younger generation 
should know. 



First Meeting in the Jonathan Bourne 
Whaling Museum 



Standing On the main deck of the 
good bark Lagoda in the Jonathan 
Bourne Whaling Museum Saturday 
afternoon, President Herbert E. Gush - 
man called to order the first meeting 
of the Old Dartmouth Historical soci- 
ety to be held in the line new build- 
ing that has just been donated as a 
memorial of whaling. Aboard the 
bark were nineteen of the sturdy cap- 
tains who sailed from this port for 
many years and carried New Bedford's 
name to the farthest corners of the 
earth. 

The value of the whaling museum 
to New Bedford was presented in an 
address by Mayor Edward It. Hath- 
away, its value as a memorial to the 
whaling industry was discussed by 
Edmund Wood, and its value to the 
Old Dartmouth Historical society way 
set forth by George II. Tripp. To 
the large audience of members of the 
society seated on both sides of the ves- 
sel, the exercises were very impres- 
sive, and their enthusiastic apprecia- 
tion of the gift that they have re- 
ceived was shown very forcefully by 
the vim with which they responded 
to President Cushman's call for three 
cheers for the Lagoda, for Miss 
Bourne, for the builders of the La- 
goda, and for the captains. 

Besides Mr. Cushman, the speakers 
of the occasion, and the nineteen cap- 
tains, there were aboard the vessel 
during the exercises Edgar B. Ham- 
mond, the designer; Benjamin Baker, 
who was Jonathan Bourne's book- 
keeper; Henry B. Worth, secretary of 
the society, and Mrs. O. S. Paige of 
the Old Colony Historical Society of 
Taunton. 

The eaptains who were aboard the 
Lagoda were John T. Besse of Padana- 
ram, William 11. Poole of North Dart- 
mouth, Timothy C. Allen of New Bed- 
ford, James Marquand of New Bed- 
ford, Henry C. Hathaway of New Bed- 
ford, Andrew D. West of New Bedford, 
Alden T. Potter of North Dartmouth, 
James A. Tilton of New Bedford, Jo- 
seph H. Senna of New Bedford, Theo- 
dore S. Morse of Mattapoisett, John J. 
Gonsalves of New Bedford, Manoel F. 
Santos of New Bedford, James Henry 
Sherman of New Bedford, George L. 
Dunham of New Bedford, George L. 



Howland of New Bedford, Giles P. Slo- 
cum of New Bedford, Gilbert L. Smith 
of Vineyard Haven, J. P. Avery of New 
Bedford and E. D. Lewis of Utica, 
N. Y. 

The ushers were "William C. Hawes, 
A. P. Smith, Andrew Snow, James O. 
Thompson, Jr., Eliot H. Wefer, May- 
hew R. Hitch, W. Kempton Read, Wil- 
liam T. Read, and George E. Briggs. 
The men's reception committee con- 
sisted of Henry 11. Crapo, Arthur Grin- 
nell, Oliver P. Brown, Walton Ricket- 
son, Edward L. Macomber, Robert 
C. P. Coggeshall, and Harry L. Pope. 
The women's reception committee 
included Mrs. Frank Wood, Miss Mary 
K. Taber, Miss Elizabeth H. Swift, 
Miss Florence L. Waite and Miss 
Mary E. Bradford. 

Mayor Hathaway said in addressing 
the society: 

Mayor Hathaway. 

It is pleasant in the midst of the 
rush of present day business to pause 
for a moment to bring back the 
memories of the past. It is pleasant to 
call to mind the line things which 
have happened in times gone by, and 
to preserve the lessons which they 
teach. It is to such organizations as 
the Old Dartmouth Historical society 
and to such institutions as this that 
are dedicated to this work of pre- 
serving the tine things of the past, 
without which the present would be 
poor indeed. 

For that reason I want to express in 
the strongest possible terms, on be- 
half of the citizens of New Bedford, 
the deep appreciation that such a 
splendid gift to the city inspires. 

There was a time when the name 
of New Bedford was better known 
in the sea-ports across the 

seas than any other city in 
this whole United States. I dare say 
that there were many in these foreign 
parts who thought that most all the 
business activity of the whole United 
States was carried on at New Bedford. 
The whaling vessels of the type so 
well portrayed by this model of the 
good bark Lagoda carried the name 
of the city into every sea-port in the 
world, and the high reputation es- 



26 



tablished through them by the whal- 
ing merchants of New Bedford played 
no small part in establishing the 
foundation for the foreign trade of the 
United States today. 

There was a time when the whale 
oil from New Bedford was the prin- 
cipal instrument in lighting the world 
after sun-down. Everyone who burned 
a whale oil lamp was dependent upon 
the fearless enterprise for the doughty 
captains and sailors of the New Bed- 
foid whalers for their supply of fuel. 
In fact, it was this point that is so 
fittingly the basis for the city seal 
which we are using today. 

The march of progress in time 
sounded the knell of the whaling in- 
dustry, but not before the name of the 
city of New Bedford and the reputa- 
tion of her citizens had been so well 
established that it endures today. The 
fortunes that were built up in those 
days form the foundation for the 
wealth of the city today. The courage 
and enterprise which served so well 
in the whaling industry made it pos- 
sible for the business men to turn to 
the cotton business which today has 
brought to the city new laurels. 

It is fortunate indeed that the in- 
dustry which was so largely responsi- 
ble for the prosperity and culture of 
the city should be commemorated. It 
is well that the future generations be 
reminded by this splendid memorial, 
of the days when New Bedford gen- 
tlemen wrested their wealth from the 
seas, and visited every foreign sea in 
the pursuit of the whaling business. 

It is fitting that this museum should 
bear the name of Jonathan Bourne, 
one of the greatest of New Bedford's 
whaling merchants. His name is 
written large not only in the whal- 
ing industry but in the history of the 
city, and no other name would more 
appropriately represent the fearless 
pioneer spirit which fired the whal- 
ing industry and made the name of 
New Bedford so widely known. 

A worthy daughter of a worthy sire 
has presented this splendid memorial 
to the public. I am sure that there 
is not a person in the city that does 
not have a deep feeling of appreciation 
for the gift. Fortunately we have an 
organization which is able and willing 
to take over the building, and its con- 
tents, care for it and develop its use- 
fulness to the highest point of effi- 
ciency. 

New Bedford is to be congratulated, 
the Old Dartmouth Historical society 
,is to be congratulated, and each and 
every person in New Bedford is in- 
finitely richer as a result of the gener- 
osity of Miss Bourne. 



Edmund Wood. 

We are having a revival in New 
Bedford — a renewal of interest in the 
whaling industry. 

The historical colebration of this 
week has brought up so vividly the 
glorious remance of those early whal- 
ing days, that the past seems to be 
present. 

A new ship has been built, ap- 
parently as complete in its whaling 
gear and outfits as any that ever 
sailed forth hopefully from the harbor 
of New Bedford. People are talking 
of the huge profits taken from the 
ocean. We already begin to feel rich 
with the psychological wealth of a 
promoter — that feeling of riches which 
comes from hearing of the vast for- 
tunes accumulated by other people. 

Our loyalty and our pride is not 
present prosperity of our city is not 
diminished in any way by this tem- 
porary lapse into the past. We have 
a past that we can take pride in — 
and it is profitable that we recall it 
on occasions like this. 

We have received a beautiful gift of 
a building and a ship which will stand 
it; all future years — nut only as a 
reminder of the bountiful giver — not 
only as a monument to the father, the 
successful whaling merchant, but al- 
so as a memorial to the whaling in- 
dustry, the source of our city's early 
pride and most of its wealth. The 
mayor of the city has told us what 
this gift will do for New Bedford, and 
in the sense that this building and 
ship symbolize the whole industry we 
are brought naturally to the inquiry: 
What has the whale fishery done for 
New Bedford. Why! to put it strongly, 
whaling is responsible for New Bed- 
ford. Without the impetus and the 
development which whaling gave to 
us at the beginning why should we 
be much bigger or prouder than 
Dartmouth or Fairhaven or Matta- 
poisett? The industry centered on this 
side of the Acushnet river, and we 
have expanded with it from a small 
fishing settlement, which existed as 
a mere outlying suburb of the gov- 
erning center in old Dartmouth, we 
expanded from Bedford Village into 
a separate town, and then into a pros- 
perous city. 

We like to say that it was the sturdy 
character of our early citizens that 
expanded and built up New Bedford. 
But it was the peculiar nature of this 
whaling business that developed the 
hardihood, the endurance, the initia- 
tive of our people, while the romance 
of whaling broadened their horizon 
and stimulated the imagination. 

And, of course, it was the profits 
yielded by the whaling industry that 
created our wealth, and this was con- 







STERN VIEW OF THE MODEL WHALESHIP. 

iy of New Bedford Mercury. 



28 



siderable. For many years New Bed- 
ford was the richest city per capita in 
the United States. We reveled in that 
reputation. 

We were engaged in a hazardous 
business, but it was more than that. 
It was one of the greatest games of 
chance ever organized, and steadily 
played. It not only appealed to the 
romantic side of our nature, but it 
had all the fascination of a lottery. 
We picked out our favorite captain, 
or we selected a ship that had the 
name of being lucky, and we bought 
a small interest in it, a 16th or a 
32nd or a 64th, and then we watched 
the revolution of fortune's wheel, and 
waited with patience one, two, or 
three years for her return with a good 
catch and abundant profits — or a 
broken voyage and the loss of a large 
part of what we had put in. It was 
a gamble for all concerned. The cap- 
tain and the crew were paid on shares, 
or, as it was called, a lay. The own- 
ers received their proportion only. It 
was the custom for the mechanics of 
New Bedford, the carpenters, the 
coopers, the riggers, the dealers in 
ship stores, to take a share in the 
vessel in return for selling the goods 
Everyone bought on long credit and 
waited for their ship to come in be- 
fore they paid their bills. 

When we consider the desperate 
risks of whaling and the (raining of 
our whole people in the calculation of 
chances win or lose, double or noth- 
ing — 1 wonder sometimes that all 
their descendants do not crowd around 
the brokers' blackboards and buy and 
sell pieces of the ship Bethlehem 
Steel or of the Electric Boat as their 
only occupation in life. 

And ships were not always success- 
ful. There were disasters and fail- 
ures and total losses. 1 can remember 
the keenest disappointment of n.y early 
youth; what seemed at the time a 
tragedy to me. I was promised a 
complete chest of carpenter tools 
when the good ship Brewster returned. 
The vessel had been reported as nearly 
full of oil. One more short season 
and she would sail into our harbor 
with a notable catch, and the price of 
oil extremely high. Weeks and 
months passed. Other ships came in 
and gladdened their owners and wait- 
ing families. But no ship Brewster 
and no chest of tools. And she never 
came. Nor did any report of ship or 
crew or valuabale cargo ever reach 
New Bedford. It remained and will 
remain one of the unsolved mysteries 
of this uncertain and perilous pursuit 
until such time as the great deep, cruel 
and remorseless, shall give up its 
dead. 



This ship that we help to dedicate 
today is worthy to be located in a 
historical collection for it is historical- 
ly correct. The faithful reproduction 
of every detail is surprising. It 
would have been easy to get the ef- 
fect, and less expensive and diflicult 
materials would have lasted indefinite- 
ly under this roof and with faith- 
ful care. But no. This ship is a 
memorial, arid as such it is an honest 
example of the best work and materi- 
als of the* tune. Our old whale- 
men who are present today will bear 
testimony to the stanchness and sea- 
worthiness of this craft, — at least 
above the waterline. They will see 
more about the vessel and on the deck 
than you will see. Days and weeks 
and many months have engraved on 
their vision the routine of the life on 
this deck. To their eyes the shadowy 
forms of the past are moving here 
before them. It is the second dog 
watch. The captain paces the weath- 
er kuarter, and the mate stands on 
the lee quarter and converses when 
the captain speaks first. The sec- 
ond, third, and fourth urates stand 
in the waist by the main fife rail and 
swap yarns of old days in Nan- 
tucket and orr the Vineyard, 
or in Fayal and Pico I 'ike. The car- 
penter and cooper are scrimshorn- 
ing at the bench, the boasteerers 
are up in their boats taking off tho 
sheets and lances and harpoons to 
lest, the sharpness of lie- cutting edge.i 
Tie- lookouts are still aloft in tin- 
rings hoping that the last minutes of 
fading daylight may yet reveal a wel- 
come spout; and forward on the bow- 
sprit heel and windlass bits the crew 
are gathered. The low music of a 
concertina is heard, and there is some 
shuffling of feet on the deck, but there 
is not much noise and things are quite 
subdued, for they have not seen 
wiiales for several weeks, and the 
older sailors glancing aft don't like 
the looks of the old man. The sun 
sets low below the gorgeous red banks 
of clouds, the round disc cut by the 
sharp horizon — the dark comes at 
once. Sail is shortened for the night. 
Eight bells sounds loud and clear in 
the quietness, and the starboard watch 
goes below. 

Only once before in my life have I 
spoken on the deck of a whaleship, 
and that was when a very young man 
I read the service and said a few 
words at a burial at sea. The cabin 
steward had hung himself in his own 
pantry within a few feet of me as I 
slept, and the captain was angry be- 
cause he did it. He said he had mild- 
ly chided the steward because he 
wiped his hands on his dish towels, 
and he didn't deserve a decent burial. 



29 



and ordered him thrown overhoard. I 
rather timidly remonstrated with him 
and said we had plenty of time and 
plenty of room to give him a funeral. 
Finally the eaptain sulked and went 
below and said I might bury him if 
1 wanted to, but he would have noth- 
ing to do with it. After consulting 
with the mate the body was nicely 
sewed up in canvas and lay on the 
portion of the rail taken out at the 
gangway. AH hands were piped aft 
and stood at attention while in a 
drizzling rain I went through the ser- 
vice. When it \viis finished, at a sig- 
nal, the plank was slowly raised, and 
the body, weighted at the feet with a 
cannon ball, shot down into the depths. 
Then suddenly I had a demonstration 
of the natural impulses of the untu- 
tored man. 

The crew was made up of all sorts, 
Malays, Filipinos, Kanakas and Portu- 
guese. They had stood perfectly still 
and attentive, but at that moment 
they all leaped as one man to the rail 
to see that body sink. 

But much of the success and the 
glory and the romance of whaling 
vanished with the discovery of coal 
oil. What should we put our money 
into, for New Bedford had its money 
it had only lost its occupation. It 
was a time of groping. We had only 
learned one trade, and we didn't at 
once succeed in teaching ourselves 
new tricks. Some of us remember 
an unsuccessful glass works, two 
shoe factories, an iron rolling mill. 
and so forth. Finally capital gave up 
attempting home industries, and our 
money flowed west to develop new 
lands and construct great railroads. 

This was the darkest time for the 
old city of New Bedford. We were 
drifting into that stagnant life, the 
chief occupation of which was to 
recall the glories of the past, and to 
worship it. We were not alone. We 
were running with Nantucket and 
Salem and Newburyport. "With them 
we were satisfied to say we were a 
beautiful city to live in. 

Then it was that the superior char- 
acter of our people asserted itself and 
saved us. The sturdy stock which 
had sailed uncharted seas and had 
braved every danger, refused to settle 
into a life of rust and decay. The 
Wamsutta Mills had been successful, 
— so we tried a new Potomska and an 
Acushnet. Capital came [lowing 
More mills followed with almost un- 
varying success, and it seems only a 
few years and we were the second 
city in spindles, the first city in the 
United States in weaving fine goods. 

We had finally struck our gait. More 
mills followed. Outside capital was 
attracted. Our population rapidly 



changed. Our attractive and roman- 
tic past was not only fogotten. It was 
actually repudiated. We were on 

with the new love. We were irritated 
to be reminded of our long continued 
amours with the old. The Board of 
Trade actually became incensed be- 
cause some one alluded to New Bed- 
ford, the new born queen of fine tex- 
tiles, as an old whaling town, — almost 
as much incensed as when some Bos- 
ton newspaper alluded to us as lo- 
cated on Cape Cod. 

This was the extreme that we reach- 
ed in our infatuation with the new, 
when we tried to forget the parents 
who bore us, the industry which not 
only gave us the sinews for the newer 
competition, but the industry that had 
.developed our manhood, had fitted us 
for any contest, which had given us a 
reputation for hardihood, for courage, 
yes, for reckless daring, throughout 
the known and unknown seas. 

Gradually we came out from the 
infatuation of our new success enough 
to recognize again our noble heritage 
and the allegiance we bore to an hon- 
ored past. 

• Three events have happened in the 
more recent history of New Bedford 
which bear testimony to this awaken- 
ed recognition of what we owe to those 
early days and to the whaling indus- 
try, and it is these three events which 
by the forces which they exert and 
the life that they recall will serve 
to keep us ever mindful and loyal in 
the years that are to come. 

The first was the founding of this 
historical society. It is not for me 
to speak now of what our society has 
done to gather and preserve the treas- 
ures of our early history and to record 
the virtues of our illustrious forbears. 
It is enough to say that hero is an 
active working memorial to those ear- 
lier times. 

The second was the gift to the city 
of the bronze figure of the New Bed- 
ford Whaleman by the honored first 
president of this societv. 

This imposing statue, located on 
one of our main thoroughfares will, 
through the coming time, be our fit- 
ting memorial to the men who manned 
our ships, who braved the sea and its 
leviathan, who wrested fortunes from 
the treacherous ocean, and helped to 
found the prosperity that we now en- 
joy. 

And the third event which will hold 
us steadfast, lest we forget, is the 
erection of this magnificent building, 
and this ship which stand as a mem- 
orial to the successful whaling mer- 
chant. The owner of the ship, the 
man with money who was willing to 
risk it, the man of courage, above all 
the man of faith who believed in his 



30 



ship that he had built, in the captain 
he had personally selected, in the 
crew he had shipped, and in the 
whaling enterprise he was engaged in. 

Here is a fitting monument — a 
beautiful tribute from the daughter to 
her father — a cenotaph at once to the 
successful merchant and to the whal- 
ing industry, which is symbolized by 
the ship. 

We have met in this new addition 
to our home to express our gratitude 
to the donor for her most generous 
gift; to honor the name and the ex- 
ploits and the success of the merchant, 
the loving memory of whom has in- 
spired the filial gift; and while doing 
this to express anew our obligations 
as citizens of this community for this 
rich inheritance which has come down 
to us from those brave men, who on 
land and sea prosecuted the whale 
fishery. 



George IT. Tripp. 

The Old Dartmouth Historical so- 
ciety has been peculiarly fortunate in 
the gifts which have been bestowed 
since it was organized thirteen years 
ago. In the very infancy of the so- 
ciety we were presented with an is- 
land with a monument to the first 
English explorer who attempted to 
make a permanent settlement in 
America, Bartholomew Gosnold. This 
was the first piece of real estate which 
the society owned, and it will always 
be a notable possession. Within a few 
years we were given the building 
standing on Water street overlooking 
the seat of the whaling industry as it 
thrived fifty years ago. The building 
presented by Mr. Rogers has served 
most admirably the purposes of the 
museum, and as a headquarters for 
the activities of the organization, and 
now this week the wonderful gift of a 
whaling museum with a full rigged 
ship, perfect in every detail, presented 
to the society by Miss Emily H. 
Bourne as a memorial to her father, 
the most successful whaling merchant 
of his time, a man whose resourceful- 
ness and great ability maintained for 
years a large fleet of whaling ships 
that sailed in every quarter of the 
world bringing golden harvests to New 
Bedford. 

AVhat does this museum with the 
model ship mean to this society? It 
means that the history of this waning 
industry will be preserved forever; it 
means that students and historians 
can here find all the implements of 
the labor that made New Bedford 
famous, of the industry so profitable 
that when at the turn of fortune it 
had to be relinquished, the capital ac- 
cumulated in this pursuit was ready 



to start on a successful career another 
great industry which in the flood of 
years has again made New Bedford a 
leader of enterprises; it means that 
the youth of New Bedford can here 
see the history of their city as it was 
made during the century that is past. 
There was danger that the boys of 
this city would grow up in ignorance 
of their romantic heritage. Gone are 
the picturesque days of 5 years ago. 
Boys then were indeed fortunate. It 
has always seemed to me that boys 
living away from the coast were to 
be pitied, and now as I assume the 
role of laudator temporis acti the 
feeling is intensified. What glorious 
days were they when we could watch 
the ships building on the stocks from 
the time the keel was laid and the 
great white oak ribs were hewn out. 
and put in place — the carpet of fra- 
grant chips covering the ground some- 
times to the depth of a foot — to 
the launching day when at the risk of 
being late at school we were invited 
to clamber on the deck and run back 
and forth to give the initial start to 
the ship as the blocks were cut away 
below, and the great hull finally 
slipped into the water. What thrills 
as the ship slid down the ways! Hon 
pleasant in retrospect even our task 
as we would turn the grindstone to 
sharpen the tools which shaped the 
staves which were assembled into the 
casks to hold the oil which the ships 
were to bring home; how we loved to 
pack the casks of hard-tack, being al- 
lowed to stuff our jackets with the 
sweet smelling biscuits as they came 
hot from Jonathan Buttrick's oven; 
how sweet to the memory was the 
fragrance of the tarred rope; how 
melodious the song of the caulking 
mallets as they pounded the oakum 
into the seams of these stout craft; 
how the boys would climb the rig- 
ging of the vessels at the dock, ex- 
plore the hold, the forecastle, and 
even the after-cabin. Then what joy 
to ride down the harbor on the ferry- 
boat when it was requisitioned as a 
towboat! Often in those happy days 
when we would go to take the boat 
to cross the river, we would have the 
chance to sail down to C larks Boinc 
towing a ship out of port. We in 
imagination followed the ship on her 
voyage buoyed up by promises of rich 
rewards when our father's ship came 
home. In those care-free days we had 
not learned to differentiate the New 
England housewife's love of a clean 
hearth, and the dismay to the ship 
owner on the report of a "clean" ship. 
We were joyfully unaware of philo- 
logical distinctions. If the memories 
of the boys of those days are so pleas- 



3i 'by 



ant, how rich in retrospect must be 
the thoughts of the men who actually 
worked on the building of these 
staunch ships, and of the captains — 
.some of whom are present here to- 
day — who guided these vessels upon 
their successful voyages. How proud 
must they be to behold this perfect 
model of the whaling craft which 
made our city famous. No wonder the 
successful carpenter who has been 
working so faithfully on the new La- 
goda has voiced his sentiments that 
lie wanted to hand down to his chil- 
dren and grandchildren the proud 
tradition that he had worked on this 
vessel which should show to all the 
kind of ship that carried New Bedford 
sailors — the modern Argonauts — 
through the seas from the Arctic to_ 
the Antarctic. 

In future days, visitors to New Bed- 
ford arriving at what has been called 
the civic centre of the city will see 
the spirited whaleman statue, pre- 
sented by the first president of our 
society, will see the noble figure of the 
harpooner poising his harpoon, which 
points towards the harbor. Following 
the direction of this harpoon on the 
parallel of 41 degrees 4 minutes lati- 
tude, within a few minutes they will 
reach the Whaling Museum, and 
here they will iind this ship, perpetual- 
ly docked in this most sumptuous 
berth on Johnny Cake hill. 

It should be an unwritten law that 
no one should refer to this location 
as Bethel street. All honor to the 
Bethel and its great work for the 
sailors, but the locality is known as 
Johnny Cake hill, and that should be 
its designation on signboard and docu- 
ment. The modern habit of changing 
old names to new ones of little or no 
significance is unfortunate, and the 
Historical society should set the ex- 
ample correcting this perverted 
tendency. Who would want to change 
the local names to conform to the ver- 
nacular of the twentieth century? In 
an early paper read before our society 
Mrs. W. N. Swift was very emphatic in 
protesting against the village of Hart- 
mouth being called Padanaram, Dart- 
mouth being peculiarly appropriate 



from a historical and traditional 
standpoint. So when a locality has a 
name attached to it, quaint and sig- 
nificant, that name should be retained. 
In New York, the Bowery, Maiden 
Lane, Coenties Slip will probably al- 
ways be kept as historical names; 
Fleet street, Thread-Needle street, 
Cowcross street, Mincing lane, and 
hundreds of other old-time names in 
London in the same way preserve the 
atmosphere and literary suggestive- 
ness of those localities. We should 
be unwilling to lose such names as 
Nonquitt, 'Sconsett, Sconticut, Nasha- 
wena, Naushoh, Acushnet. So let us 
as a society insist on Johnny Cake hill. 

When these visitors to New Bed- 
ford finally view the "ship that will 
never sail," they can study every de- 
tail of a full-rigged barque with the 
peculiarities that distinguish the whal- 
ing ship from every other. Here she 
stands, with her bowsprit ever point- 
ing to the open sea, this noble gift 
expressing the filial affection of a 
daughter to the greatest whaling mer- 
chant of all time. 

It would not require too great a 
stretch of the imagination to fancy 
during the midnight watches shades 
of bygone captains of olden days ap- 
pearing upon the quarter deck to have 
a friendly gam, to renew acquaint- 
ance and recount the deeds of valor, 
the wonderful catches, the glorious 
escapes of those olden days when they 
each commanded some one of the 400 
vessels that made New Bedford their 
home port. What better trysting place 
lor congenial spirits. 

Yes, the gift of the building means 
much to this society. It should mean 
a great increase in its active member- 
ship. Every able-bodied man and 
woman should be glad to sign the 
papers for a lifelong voyage. The 
wonderful success of the parent ship, 
the golden treasure ship, the first 
Lagoda, should stimulate great activ- 
ity and eagerness to embark on the 
voyage with the new Lagoda. Even 
the most timid need not fear the rigors 
of i lie wind, or wave, or tempest. 
They will be assured of pleasant ad- 
ventures with delightful companions, 
and a generous "lay." 



History of the Bark Lagoda of New 
Bedford, Mass., One of New Bedford's 
Most Successful Whaling Vessels. 

{Taken from a history of "The Jonathan Bourne Whaling Office and 
Some of Those Connected Wifli It," by Benjamin Baler). 

When vessels were "lucky" in the whaling industry, money rolled in 
and up fast, as witness the following returns from the Bark Lagoda, the 
most profitable of Mr. Bourne's whaling vessels. 

This Bark of 371.15 gross and 352.59 net tons, 107.5 feet in length, 26.8 
feet beam and 18.3 feet depth, was built at Scituate, Mass., in 1826 by 
Seth and Samuel Foster, and was further described as of billet head, 
square stern, two decks and three masts. 

Her owners were Ezra Weston of Duxbury, Thomas Otis, Seth Foster, 
and Samuel Foster of Scituate, Mass., and Daniel W. Brewster was the 
first master. 

As there are no records of this vessel engaged in whaling previous to 
1841, she was probably built for the merchant service. 

Mr. Bourne purchased this ship in Boston, August 3rd, 1841. In 1860, 
he changed her rig from that of a ship to a bark. 

The "Lagoda" arrived home June 3rd, 1886, under command Captain 
Edward D. Lewis and on July 10th, of that year, was sold by Mr. 
Bourne to John MeCullough for $2,475.00 who, in turn, sold her to 
William Lewis and others who continued the bark in the whaling busi- 
ness, the vessel sailing from this port May 10th, 1887, for the Arctic 
Ocean. She was condemned as unseaworthy August 7th, 18D0, at 
Yokohama, Japan, Theodore A. Lake, then being in command. 

Here; follows various data of the twelve voyages, with Mr. Bourne as 
managing owner and agent : — 



34 

FIRST VOYAGE. 

Sailed Oct. 9th, 1841, for New Holland, Indian Ocean grounds, Ed- 
mund Maxfield, master with the following officers: 

Thomas S. Dexter, 1st mate. 

Francis Russell, 2nd mate. 

Joseph Sylvester, 3rd mate. 

Her owners then were: 

Jonathan Bourne 3/8ths. 

Clement P. Covell 3/8ths. 

0. & E. W. Seabury l/8th. 

Edmund Maxfield. . . l/8th. 

8/8ths. 

The vessel arrived home in September, 1 843, having been absent one 
year, eleven months and six days (the vessel's shortest voyage) with a 
catch of : 

600 bbls. sperm oil ; 2,100 bbls. whale oil ; 17,000 lbs. whalebone. 

The outfits for this voyage were .+28,1)19.45 and the owners received 
$37,498.0!), showing a profit to them of 29.6 per cent. 

SECOND VOYAGE. 

Sailed Nov. 8th, 1843, Henry Colt, master, for North West Coast, with 
these officers : 

William M. Maxfield, 1st mate. 

John B. Winslow, 2nd mate. 

Edwin Mayhew, 3rd mate. 

This voyage ended May 26th, 1846, and covered a period of two years, 
six months and eighteen days. 

The owners were charged with the following outfits and received the 
handsome returns here shown, a profit of 120.57 per cent on the venture. 



Owners. 




Cost Outfits. 


Divisions Made. 


Jonathan Bourne, 


3/8ths. 


$5,119.96 


$11,293.03 


demerit P. Covell, 


3/8ths. 


5,119.96 


11,293.03 


O. & E. W. Seabury, 


l/8th. 


1,706.66 


3,764.35 


Edmund Maxfield, 


l/8th. 


1,706.6:") 


3,764.34 




8/8tbs. 


$13,653.23 


$30,114.75 



35 

THIRD VOYAGE. 

James Finch, master, sailed Aug. 25th, 1846 for Pacific Ocean and 
North West ('oast, with Weston A. Briggs as 1st mate, returned home 
June 13th, 1849, this voyage having lasted two years, nine months and 
eighteen days. 

The vessel's owners, cost of outfits and divisions made, were as follows: 

Owners, Cost Outfits. Divisions Made. 

Jonathan Bourne, 3/8ths. $6,534.36 $10,909.5') 

Clement P. Covell, 3/8ths. 6,5:34.36 10,909.59 

0. & E. W. Seahury, l/8th. 2,178.12 3,636.53 

Edmund Maxfield, l/8th. 2,178.11 3,636.53 



8/8ths. $17,424.95 $29,092.24 

This voyage showed a profit to the owners of 66.96 per cent. 



FOURTH VOYAGE. 
Asa S. Tobey, Master, sailed July 1st, 1850, with the following officers: 

Charles Kempton, 1st mate. 

John D. Willard, 2nd mate. 

John M. Downing, 3rd mate. 

The vessel arrived home April 23rd, 1853 having been absent two 
years, nine months and twenty-two days. 

The outfits were $19,041.56 and her owners at the end of the voyage, 
had received the following divisions, showing a net profit to them of 
177.19%. 

Jonathan ISourne, 6/16ths. $19,792.97 

(). & E. W. Seabury, 2/16ths. 6,597.66 

Edmund Maxfield, 2/16ths. 6,597.66 

(Jeorge A. Covell, 2/16ths. 6,597.66 

Asa S. Tobey, l/16th. 3,298.83 

Lemuel M. Kolloek, l/16th. 3,298.83 

Almy I*. Covell, l/16th. 3,298.83 
Almy H. Covell, guardian Clarence 

P. Covell, l/16th. 3,298.83 

$52,781.27 



36 

FIFTH VOYAGE. 
B. B. Lamphier, Master. Sailed Nov. .'Jnl, 1853, with these officers 



George W. Arrington, 
Prince A. Fish, 
James Keating, 



Isl mate. 
2nd mate. 
3rd mate. 



Arrived home May 26th, 1856, the voyage having lasted two years, 
six months and twenty-three days. 

The outfits were $31,635.47, and as a result of the thirty-one months' 
voyage the owners shared in a division of $62,570.12, a profit of nearly 
100%. 



SIXTH VOYAGE. 

John D. Willard, master. Sailed July 19th, 1856, with the following 
officers : 



George P. Smith, 
Hiram Smart, 
Frank Sylvia, 



1st mate. 
2nd mate. 
3rd mate. 



Arrived home June 28th, 1860, this voyage having lasted three years, 
eleven months and nine days. 

The outfits were $24,134.46 and the owners received from this voyage 
$47,518.08, showing their profit to have been 96.89$ . 



SEVENTH VOYAGE. 

Zebedee A. Devoll, master. Sailed Aug. 27th, 1860, with the follow 
ing officers : — 



E. H. Cranston, 
J. C. Vanderipe, 
A. II. Baxter, 



1st mate. 
2nd mate. 
3rd mate. 



Arrived home April 18th, 1864, having been absent three years, 
seven months and twenty-one days. 

, The vessel's outfits were $20,959.31, divided among these owners:— 



Jonathan Bourne, 
Edmund Maxfield, 



9/16ths. 
2/16ths. 



$11,789.60 
2,619.92 



37 

Taber, Read & Co., 2/16ths. 2,619.91 

Zebedee A. Devoll, 2/16ths. 2,619.1)2 

Lemuel M. Kollock, 1/1 6th. 1,309.90 



$20,959.31 



The sum of $97,159.10 was divided among the owners as the result of 
this forty-four months' voyage, which gave a monthly profit of SVi'/ , 
or 363 1 / 1 >% for the voyage. Gross amount of voyage was $138,156.19. 



EIGHTH VOYAGE. 

Charles W. Fisher, master, sailed July 25th, 1864, with these 
officers : — 

Peter C. Laffray, 1st mate. 

Samuel Sylvia, 2nd mate. 

Henry It. Williams, 3rd mate. 

Arrived home May 26th, 1868, this voyage having lasted three years, 
ten months and one day. 

The outfits were $37,167.77 and the profits divided among the owners 
46 months later were $118,631.94, or 219$ from their investment. 
Gross amount of voyage was $200,755.68. 



NINTH VOYAGE. 

Stephen Swift, master, sailed July 25th, 1868, with these officers: — 

Raymond Rogers, 1st mate. 

Win. B. Ellis, 2nd mate. 

John P. Smith, 3rd mate. 

John Matthews, 4th mate. 

This was the "Lagoda V longest voyage, for on her arrival home on 
June 5th, 1873, she had been absent from port four years, ten months 
and ten days. 

Following will show cost of the outfits and the owners' receipts from 
the voyage. 



38 



Owners. 
Jonathan Bourne, 
Edmund Maxfield, 
Estate Z. A. Devoll, 
L. M. Kolloek, 
Alden Besse, 
Stephen Swift, 
James V. Cox, 



10/16ths. 
1/1 6th, 
l/16th. 
l/16th. 

1/lGth. 
l/16th. 
1/1 6th. 



Cost Outfits. Divisions Made. 



$22,705.24 
2,270.52 
2,270.53 
2,270.52 
2,270.53 
2,270.52 
2,270.52 

$36,328.38 



$18,877.50 
4, 887.7G 
4,887.7;") 
4,887.76 
4.887.75 
4,887.75 
4.887.70 



$78,204.0!) 



A profit of 115.%$ for the voyage. 



TENTH VOYAGE. 

Edward D. Lewis, master. Sailed July 21st, 1873, with these 
officers : — 



George P. Allen, 
Joseph C. Nora, 
Charles E. Robinson, 
Freeman Dias, 



1st mate. 
2nd mate. 
3rd mate. 
4th mate. 



Arrived home Oet. 10th, 1877, the voyage having lasted four years, 
two months and nineteen days. Gross amount of voyage was 
$52,948.80. 



ELEVENTH VOYAGE. 

Edward D. Lewis, master, sailed Dee. 18th, 1877, with the followinj 
officers -. — 

George W. Bassett, 1st mate. 

Freeman Dias, 2nd mate. 

Joseph Grassia, 3rd mate. 

August Lewis, 4th mate. 



Arrived home Oet. 15th, 1881, the voyage having lasted three years, 
nine months and twenty-seven days. Gross amount of voyage was 
$07,777.40. 



39 

TWELFTH VOYAGE. 

Edwarn D. Lewis, master, sailed April 15th, 1882, with the following 
officers : — 

John Edwards, 1st mate. 

Aaron Burnham, 2nd mate. 

George II. Wheeler, 3rd mate. 

Alexander Wilson, 4th mate 

Arrived home June 3rd, 188(5, having been gone four years, one 
month and eighteen days. Gross amount of voyage was $33,991.43. 

Without doubt the settlement made with the officers and crew for 
this, the vessel's last voyage, was the only example of its kind that 
this office ever furnished. Mr. Ellis, for many years Mr. Bourne's con- 
fidential clerk, eould not remember a similar ease. It was usually 
expeeted that some allowance must be made in settling a voyage, 
always taking into consideration the fact that the crew must have 
their money before the catch was sold. Whether the ship arrived on 
a weak and falling market made no difference to them ; they wanted 
their share at once, the only time they were willing to allow, being the 
necessary days in which to break out and discharge the cargo, gauge 
and grade the oil, and clean and bundle the whalebone. Sperm oil 
might be $1.10 asked and $1.05 per gallon bid, in which case the bid 
price would be the one to settle by. A certain proportion of the oil 
might be found sour, burnt and of a very dark color, when an allow- 
ance thereon was made. As the owners often stored and held the 
catch for months, entailing added cost of storage 1 and insurance, besides 
loss from leaking, some consideration was very properly due them. 

When the Lagoda arrived in June, 1886, the sperm oil market was 
very quiet and the first sales reported on the 28th were at 78c per 
gallon, while humpback oil was sales at 27c per gallon. 

Here is the settlement made June 17th, 188G, with the crew: — 

1882 

Nov. 6 — Sales shipment home 3,417 galls, sperm oil @ 

$1.05 $3,587.85 

1886 

June 7 — Balance interest on above to date 755.62 

1885 

July 13— Sales 478 lbs. whalebone @ $3.00 1,434.00 

July 13— Sales 8% lbs. whalebone cullings @ $1.62% 13.81 

Interest to date 85.28 



40 



1886 
June 



-Brought home : — 

31,458 galls, sperm oil @ 75c $23,593.50 

6,542 galls, sour sperm oil @ 72c 4,710.24 

2,820 galls, brown and dark oil @ 

65c 1,833.00 

121 galls, lean oil @ 50c 60.50 

5 galls, sales @ $1.00 5.00 



3,983 galls, humpback oil @ 26c $1,035.58 

3,798 galls. No. 2 humpback oil @ 25c 949.50 
6,569 galls, dark and sour oil @ 24c. . 1,576.56 



30,202.24 



3,561.64 



$39,640.44 
Less expenses on cargo 638.91 

Balance to share in $39,001.53 

The owners held the sperm and whale oil brought home in dune, 1886, 
until August, 1887, in the case of the whale, and until September, 1888, 
when the sperm was sold. 

The following sales were made on this account : 

Aug. 23, 1887—14,165 galls, whale oil @ 28e $ 3,966.20 

Sept. 15, 1888 — 40,400 galls, sperm oil (a) 60c 24,240.00 

120 galls, lean oil @ 40c 48.00 



$28,254.20 



They had settled on arrival of the ship with the crew on a basis of 
$33,758.88 for these two lots of oil, which gave the owners a loss of 
$5,504.68 on the transaction, to say nothing of the loss for interest. 

During the 44% years this vessel was managed by Mr. Bourne her 
catch and gross receipts from sales of same were as follows: 

245,844 galls, sperm oil sold for. . .$262,127.45— an avg. of $1,066 per gall, 



740,461 galls, whale oil sold for. . 

1,618 galls, black fish oil sold for 

253,337 lbs. whalebone sold for. . . 

612 lbs. walrus ivory sold for. 

133 lbs. whales teeth sold for. 

Slush sold for 



494,781.94— an avg. of 

1,979.65 — an avg. of 

198,889.56— an avg. of 

214.00— an avg. of 

53.20 — an avg. of 



.668 per gall. 
1.22 per gall. 
.785 per lb. 
.349 per lb. 
.40 per lb. 



2,830.61— an avg. of 15.00 per 1)1 



$960,876.41 



41 

The above catch of 1)87,923 galls, covering the sperm, whale and black 
fish oil, amounted to 31,362 barrels. 

01' the Lagoda's twelve voyages, from her purchase, Aug. 1841 to 
July 10th, 1886, when the vessel was sold, but two were unprofitable. 
Stalling with the cost of the vessel, her outfits, together with interest 
and insurance are charged, and are then, at the end of the voyage, de- 
ducted from the net profits of same and interest also allowed on this 
balance to sale of vessel in 1886. 

Here follows a list of the Lagoda's twelve voyages: — 

Made up to Master Profits Losses 

Nov. 25, 1843 Capt. Edmund Maxfield $6,546.14 

Oct. 10, 1847 Capt. Henry Colt 51,118.33 

July 1, 1850 Capt. dames Finch 22,358.56 

July 1, 1853 Capt, Asa S. Tobey 108,188.03 

Nov. 1, 1856 Capt. B. B. Lamphier 71,174.65 

Aug. 30, 1862 Capt. John 1). Willard 28,594.15 

Jan. 1, 1865 Capt. Zebedee A. Devoll 185,522.16 

Jan. 1, I860 Capt. Charles W. Fisher 154^912.62 

March 1, 1874 Capt. Stephen Swift 41,843.93 

March 1, 1878 Capt. Edward D. Lewis $14,460.47 

Jan. 1, 1882 Capt. Edward I). Lewis 6,414.44 

July 10,1886 Capt. Edward D. Lewis 10,253.55 

$676,673.01 $24,714.02 
Less loss 24,714.02 

Net profits the twelve voyages $651,958.99 

Taking the ten most successful whaling voyages made by Mr. 
Bourne's vessels, and the Bark Lagoda furnishes two of the same, 
ranking fifth and last in said list. 

The first of these two voyages w;is one of forty-six months to the 
Pacific Ocean in 1864-18(58 with ('apt, Charles W. Fisher in command. 

Value of this voyage was $200,755.68 

Average catch per month 4,364.25 

Average catch per day 145.47 

Average catch per hour 6.06 



42 



The second of such voyages, was one of forty-four months, also to the 
Paciiic Ocean in 1860-1801, under Capt. Zebedee A. Devoll, when the 

Value of the voyage was $138,156.19 

Average catch per month 3,139.91 

Average catch per day 104.66 

Average catch per hour 4.36 

The largest catch did not always mean the most profitable voyage 
for the owners as, for instance, the Bark Lagoda's leading voyage in 
amount of catch did not show the largest percent of profit as witness 
the following two of this vessel's whaling ventures: — ■ 

Value Lays Paid Owners % 

Master Voyage Capt. & Men Outfits Received Profits Profit 

Chas. W.Fisher $200,755.68 $38,694.20 $37,167.77 $118,631.94 $81,464.17 219.18 

Z. A. Devoll.. 138,156.19 2(i,717.Gl 20,959.31 97,159.10 7b\199.79 3G3.;n 

So while in total catch and amount of lays paid, Capt. Charles W. 
Fisher's voyage was the largest, that under Capt. Zebedee A. Devoll 
showed a much larger percent of profit for the owners. 

The Bark Lagoda, Capt. Stephen Swift, in company with the Parks 
Daniel Webster, Capt. George F. Marvin; .Midas, Capt, Charles Hamill; 
and Progress, Capt. James Dowden, of New Bedford, and the Europa, 
Capt. Thomas Mellen, of Edgartown, were the live vessels selected to 
bring down the 1200 seamen from the thirty-three vessels wrecked in 
the Arctic ice in the early days of September, 1871. 

The New Bedford Shipping List of Nov. 7th, 1871, under headlines of 
"Terrible Disaster to the Arctic Fleet," "Thirty-Three Vessels Lost," 
"Safety of the Crews," "Twelve Hundred .Men Brought to Honolulu 
in Six Whalers," "Loss at Least $1,000,000," "Four Only of New 
Bedford's Vessels Saved, the Daniel Webster, .Midas, Progress and 
Lagoda,— first three belonging to William (). Brownell and the latter 
to Jonathan Bourne ami the Europa of Kdgartown, belonging to Sam- 
uel S. Osborn," gave its readers brief notice of the Whaling Industry's 
heavy loss and in its issue of Nov. 14th, 1871, had more complete details, 
as follows: — 

"Since our last, Ave have been able to gather the following particu- 
lars : — The vessels commenced arriving at Cape Thaddeus on the first 
of May. The first of June, the ice opened and let the fleet up with- 
t in sight of Cape Navarino. The fleet working northward, found more 
whales crossing the sea of Anadir and in Behring Sea more and plenty, 
but experienced much trouble from ice; and when the fleet arrived at 



43 



Cape Behring and Plover Bay, the whales had passed into the Arctic 
Ocean whither the lieet followed, meeting- with fair success until about 
the first of September when the ice Hoes and bergs to a great extent 
commenced drifting down; and by the 10th, a number of vessels had 
sunk and the bulk of the remainder were ashore. On the second of 
September, the Brig Comet of Honolulu sunk : on the seventh, the Bark 
Roman of New Bedford was drifted bodily out to sea by two floes 
and crushed like an t'gg shell. The crew narrowly escaped. The 
Florida and Victoria of San Francisco were also crushed. On the 13th, 
the Captains of the fleet hemmed in between Point Belcher and Wain- 
wright Inlet, held a meeting' and resolved to abandon the vessels in 
order to save the lives of the crews, which was done and twelve hundred 
men took refuge on board the remainder of the fleet which had been 
fortunate enough to escape outside before the ice closed in the vessels. 
The ice drove down from the northwest forcing the fleet on the mud 
banks in the ice, grounding in four feet of water. The number of 
vessels crushed or abandoned were thirty-three, of this number twenty- 
two belonged in New Bedford, two in Edgartown, two in New London, 
three in San Francisco and four in Honolulu. The valuation of the 
New Bedford vessels with outfits as the> sailed, is as follows: — 



Awashonks 

Concordia 

Contest 

Elizabeth Swift 

Emily .Morgan 

Eugenia 

Fannie 

Gay Head 

George 

George I lowland 

Henry Taber 

John Wells 

Massachusetts 

.Minerva 

Navy 

Oliver Crocker 

Oriole 

Keindeer 

Roman 

Senaea 

Thomas Dickason 



J. & W. R. Wing $48,000.00 

George & Matthew I lowland 75,000.00 

Swift & Berry 40,000.00 

Swift & Allen 60,000.00 

J. & W. R. Wing 00,000.00 

Swift & Allen 56,000.00 

Swift & Allen 58,000.00 

James B. Wood & Co. 40,000.00 

Gideon Allen & Son 40,000.00 

George & Matthew I lowland 48,000.00 

Taber, Gordon & Co. 55,000.00 

William O. Browned 50,000.00 

Swift & Allen 46,000.00 

Thomas Knowles & Co. 50,000.00 

James B. AYood & Co. 48,000.00 

James B. Wood & Co. 48,000.00 

Edward C. Jones 48,000.00 

Edward W. 1 lowland 40,000.00 

William Watkins 60,000.00 

Loum Snow & Son 70,000.00 

George & Matthew Rowland 50,000.00 






' 


















45 

Hew of the fact that the northern barrier of ice has only a narrow 
belt of water from one-quarter to one-half mile in width, extending 
from Point Belcher to south of Icy Cape. In sounding out the channel 
ue find from Wainwriglit Inlet to about live miles east-northeast from 
Icy Cape the water in no place of sufficient depth to float our lightest- 
draught vessel with a clean hold, in many places not more than three 
feet. 

Before knowing your vessels w 7 ere in sight of Icy Cape we Lightered 
the brig Kohola to her least draught, also brig Victoria, hoping we 
should he able to get one of them into clear water to search for some 
other vessel to come to our aid in saving some of our crews. Both 
vessels now lie stranded off Wainwriglit Inlet. 

That was our last hope, until your vessels were discovered by one of 
our boat expeditions. Counting the crews of the four wrecked ships, 
we number some twelve hundred souls, with not more than three 
months' provisions and fuel; no clothing suitable for winter wear. An 
attempt to pass the winter here would be suicidal. Not more than two 
hundred out of the twelve hundred would survive to tell the sufferings 
of the others. 

Looking our deplorable situation squarely in the face, we feel con- 
vinced that to save the lives of our crews a speedy abandonment of our 
ships is necessary. A change of wind to the north for twenty-four 
hours would cause the young ice to make so stout as to effectually 
close up the narrow passage and cut off our retreat by boats. 

We realize your peculiar situation as to duty, and the bright pros- 
pects you have for a good catch in oil and bone before t he season 
expires, and now call on you, in the voice of humanity, to abandon your 
whaling, sacrifice your personal interests as well as that of your owners, 
and put yourselves in condition to receive on board ourselves and crews 
for transit to some civilized port, feeling assured that our Government, 
so jealous of its philanthropy, will make ample compensation for all 
your losses. We shall commence sending the sick and some provisions 
tomorrow. With a small boat, and near 70 miles for the men to pull, 
we shall not be able to send much provisions. 

Feeling confident that you will not abandon us, 

We are, respectfully, yours, 

Henry Pease, Jr. 
With thirty-one other masters." 



46 



The memorialists say that but one answer could be made to such fin 
appeal, and that after consultation the masters of the ships thus ad- 
dressed determined to abandon their voyages and receive the ship- 
wrecked crews, trusting in the justice and generosity of their govern- <j] 
ment to properly compensate them for their losses and expenses thus 
to be incurred for the purpose of rescuing shipwrecked American 
seamen. 

Preparations were immediately made for that purpose. The cuttinp- 
stages were taken in, the cutting-falls unreeved, casks shooked, ami 
the vessels taken to an anchorage south of Blossom Shoal. That on the 
11th day of September and days following the shipwrecked sailors 
were taken on board and the vessel proceeded with them to Honolulu." 

The owners of the five vessels bringing down these wrecked seamen. 
presented to Congress their claims for damages from the loss of the 
season's whaling, showing these amounts due the following vessels: — 

Bark Daniel Webster $50,762.50 

Bark La god a 

000 barrels whale-oil, at 75c per gal $21,262.50 

16.000 pounds whalebone, at $1.75 per lb 28,000.00 

Loss and damage to outfits and ships 120.75 

Loss of anchor, 2,500 pounds, at 6 cents 150.00 

51,033.25 

Bark Europa 71,100.00 

Bark Midas 51,052.00 

Bark Progress 51 ,094.30 

The bill as finally passed by the First Session of the Fifty-first Con- 
gress on Aug. 20th, 1800, and later by the Senate and approved by the 
President Feb. 21st, 1801, made the following awards on the basis of 
the men brought down on each vessel: — 

Bark Midas 14:] men @ $188.80.. . .$10,861.27 

Bark Daniel AVebster 155 men @ 138.80.... 21.527.05 

Bark Lagoda 170 men @ 138.80.... 23,611.30 

Bark Progress 188 men (7? 138.80.. . . 26,111.32 

Bark Europa 244 men (a) 138.80.... 33,880.16 $125,001.00 



900 



47 

These amounts were to be paid over to the owners for the benefit 
of themselves j and of such of the officers and crews of said vessels, 
respectively, as were engaged in that particular season of the cruise in 
the Arctic Ocean during which said rescue was made, and such moneys 
should be distributed by the owners between themselves and said of- 
fieers and crews in the proportion to their respective lays, and in the 
same manner as the ordinary earnings from the said cruise would 
have been distributed. 










OLD DARTMOUTH 



HISTORICAL SKETCHES 



No. 46. 



Proceedings of the Old Dartmouth Historical Society, 
Annual Meeting, March 29, 1917. 



AUTHORS OF NEW BEDFORD. 



GEORGE H. TRIPP. 



BANKS OF OLD DARTMOUTH 



HENRY H. CRAPO. 



PROCEEDINGS 



MEETING 



Old Dartmouth Historical Society 



March 29, 1917 



The Old Dartmouth Historical so- 
ciety voted by 14 to 3 to in- 
crease the .Nearly dues from $1 to 
$2. This change was not secured by 
its supporters without debate. Twenty 
members were present. Herbert E. 
Cushman presided. 

CURATOR'S ANNUAL REPORT. 

In the annual report of the secretary 
of the museum section of thus society 
for 1004-05, I find the following: "A 
home of our own and money to sup- 
port it is out; of our dreams for the 
future." In the gifts of Mr. Rogers 
and Miss Bourne the home has been 
realized. The money needs I am sure 
our president and treasurer will ex- 
plain to you. 

The past year has been one of great 
activity in our society. The installa- 
tion of all of our whaling material in 
the Bourne museum will add much to 
its interest. The whale boat is now 
in place and the course of a week our 
Captain Smith assures me that he will 
have it full equipped. Judging from 
the fine work that he has done on the 



Lagoda we need have no fear but that 
she will be absolutely complete in 
every detail. The heavier and larger 
objects have also been moved in.. The 
remaining whaling material will be 
placed as soon as caises can be obtained 
to contain it. These we are much in 
need of. In fact they are an absolute 
necessity. 

The increase of visitors to our 
rooms has been most encouraging. 
Since January first over 800 pay vis- 
itors have passed through our doors. 
This number I have reason to feel, will 
be materially increased during the 
spring and summer months. 

On Sundays the Whaling museum 
has been opened in the afternoon and 
the attendance has been very gratify- 
ing. In this connection I wish to ex- 
press my thanks to one of our mem- 
bens, William Huston, for his valuable 
assistance. 

In closing, I desire to- congratulate 
the society on the number of acces- 
sions we have received for our muse- 
um the past year, many of which are 
not only interesting, but valuable. A 
full list of these follows: 



Gifts to Society. 

The list of accessions to the society's 
collection is as follows: 

William A. Mackie — Saddle bag, 
period 1812. 

Miss Lizzie R. Hazzard — Photo of 
Capt. Ichabod T. Hazzard, Continental 
and Confederate money. 

Gideon Allen, Jr. — 1'assport, Con- 
federate bond, Canadian scrip and 
pair gold bowed spectacles worn by 
his father Gideon Allen senior. 

Mrs. Henry Edes — Ensigns commis- 
sion, signed by Gov. Caleb Strong, 
1816. 

S. R. Brownell — Old musket and 
two powder horns. 

Charles D. Beetle — Old sugar tester, 
cannon ball found on shore of East 
French avenue. 

Augustus G. Moulton — Ambergris. 

Miss Gertrude S. Taber — Photo : 
James Arnold. 

Howard M. Wood — A large photo of 
bark C. W. Morgan, framed. 

William H. Tripp — Curling irons. 

Mrs. Loura Snow, Jr. — Boxes for 
ship's papers, anr 1 documents. 

William E. Robinson — Oilmeter, 
pair tongs. 

Geo. H. H. Allen — Order from city 
council to investigate the introduction 
of water into the city March 8, I860. 

Charles M. Hussey — Ambregris and 
primed metal shell for Cunningham 
and Mason gun. 

Chas. H. Taber — Snatch block made 
of bone. 

Anna and Walton Ricketson — Gold 
pins containing hair of Rebecca, 
daughter of Joseph Russell and wife 
of Daniel Uiekotson, ami Joseph, hod 
of kHxcc;. and Daniel KlekolHon. 

Mrs. A. Kvnns — Shell jewelry made 
by John Sherman Coquen on board 
bark Merlin, 18 74. 

Herbert Hammond — Cane made 
from timber from bark Niger. 

Mrs. David J. Burdick — Miniature 
bedstead made at sea from bone. 

C. H. Brownell — Maps of New Bed- 
frod and Westport. 

Mrs. William T. Schultz — Nautical 
instruments and whales tooth scrim- 
shauned. 

T. J. Borden — Desk used by Perry 
Russell about 1814. 

Mrs. Charlotte W. Wilcox — Inlaid 
writing desk. 

Mary S. and Myra J. Kent — Old 
deed to house and lot 959 Purchase 
street, of their great grandfather, 
Thurston Chapman. 

Mrs. Laura Whelden Thorne — 
Bound typewritten letters of her 
mother, Clara Kingman Whelden on 
board ship John Howland, 1864 to 
1870. 



Mrs. Caroline Aldrich — A cake of 
caravan tea. 

Oliver O. Ricketson — Powder horn, 
(old and beautifully engraved.) 

Henry B. Worth — Cane made from 
whales' teeth and two log books. 

Mrs. John J. Hicks — Large oil 
painting by Charles Gilford. 

Mrs. Betsey Spooner — Drip stone. 

Mrs. Willis G. Coggeshall— Kirc 
bucket, Japanese box and daguerreo- 
type. 

Charles R. Crane — Turkish caique. 

Mrs. Charles M. Hussey — La re- 
frained portrait of her father, William 
R. Wing. 

Lafayette P. Gifford — Westport 
brass oil faucet and hose. 

Joseph Walsh — Government publi- 
cations. 

Everett R. Bartlett — Bead pin cush- 
ion, ivory busk, shot pouch, powder 
horn, oil lamp, small pitcher and 
knife. 

Charles H. Taylor, Jr. — Boston pa- 
pers appertaining to bark Eliza 
Adams. 

Mrs. James L. Humphrey, Jr. — Two 
old coverlets made in Dartmouth, 
1776, 1791. 

Mrs. James B. Watkins — Trundle 
bed, band box and two baskets. 

F. H. Purrington — Lock and key 
from the John Avery Parker house. 

H. M. Hammond — Chip from tree 
at St. Helena. 

William Lord Smith — Two spears 
and two arrows, from Dutch New 
Guinea. 

William Huston — Pair Mexican 
spurs and bit. 

Rebecca W. Hawes — Ceremonial 
adze from lie- South S<;i.s and yard- 
stick made el' whale bono. 

I lemy II. ( !l\ipO - I'Ml :.t records of 

the Bedford bank, 1803. 

Estate of Elizabeth Bailey — Inter- 
esting books and documents. 

Miss Mary Rodman — Relics of her 
Nantucket ancestors. 

William W. Crapo — Books, docu- 
ments, and newspapers of early date. 

William Arthur Wing — Books, etc. 

Miss Emily Hussey — Various docu- 
ments and newspapers of early date. 

Prank E. Brown — Documents of in- 
terest including several printed poems 
that were composed at sea by Henry 
Gooding. Some of the titles are as 
follows: "The Sailor Boy's Song," 
"The Sailor's Regret," "The Sailor's 
Thoughts of Home," and one in mem- 
ory of Eli Dodge who was killed by a 
whale. Sept. 4, 1858. One of the 
verses runs as follows: 
"How little we thought, but a moment 

before, 
When near us he bravely did contend. 
With the huge monster then weltering 

in its gore. 
That he would to hades Eli send." 



Miss Sarah Francis Irowland, por- 
trait of her father, James How- 
land, 2d. 

In addition to these, many interest- 
ing articles have been deposited as 
loans, and although they are not men- 
tioned in detail in this report, they 
have been gladly received and are 
rally appreciated. 

In connection with the gift from 
MihS Ilowland, Mr. Wood read the 
following letter from the donor: 

134 Bridge Street, Salem, 
August 18th. 
Mr. Wood, 

Dear Sir: — 

"Your note reached me on time. I 
must ask you to excuse my delay in 
answering, but the long intense heat 
made me ill. My father, James How- 
land 2nd, son of John and Pliance 
Shephard Ilowland, was born in 178 4 
on August 19th. He married Eliza- 
beth Delano, a daughter of Abisha 
Delano. On his 18th birthday, in 1802, 
his father gave him a ship, — a mer- 
chant ship, sailing from New York. 
His ports of destination were Russia, 
Bremen, France. It was during these 
earliest voyages, that he collected the 
many beautiful things that we own. 
On his return from his first voyages, 
he married and took his bride for 
her wedding trip, on his second trip. 
At the end of this they were neither 
of them 10 years old. About eight 
years later, his ship caught on lire 
in mid-ocean. He had 400 Dutch 
emigrants on board. They were 
crowded on the upper decks, the 
hatches baitened down, and full sail 
crowded on to reach New York which 
he did, landing every man safely. He 
gave up sea life then, turning his in- 
terest and attention to local affairs. 
I lis first house-keeping was on Johnny 
Cake Hill. Grandfather gave each 
of his children building lots on Sixth 
street and father built on his, corner 
of School street. He had a great deal 
to do in connection with laying out the 
sAreets in New Bedford. His ex- 
tremely big bump for straight lines, 
running them due north and south, 
east and west. The original plan 
being for a residence on each corner 
lot. 

"He became interested in politics, 
and affairs of the nation and was sent 
to Washington and Massachusetts leg- 
islature. His first wife died and two 
years later he married my mother, 
Lucreiia Bartlett Hussey of Hallowell, 
Maine, descendant of Christopher 
Hussey and Theodore Batchelor Hus- 
sey. In this family there were eight 
children, and of this large Howland 
family, I am the only one left. Please 
destroy whatever is of no use to you 



and if you wish any further statistics, 
please let me know. Father died in 
February, 1861, in his 78th year. 

"With kind regards, 

"Sarah Francis Howland." 



Gives Whaling Collection. 

Frank Wood presented to the 
society his whaling collection, whieh 
is one of the largest in the country, 
comprising 140 pieces. He offered the 
gift in the name of Mrs. Wood, as a 
memorial to her father and uncles of 
the Seabury family. 

It was voted to accept the gift, and 
Mr. Wood was extended a rising vote 
of thanks. 

- The reuort. of the treasurer. Fred- 
erick H Taber, was as follows: 

Balance Mar. 25, 1916 $ 15 81 

Dues 860.00 

Sustaining memberships .... 655.00 

Admission fees 208.50 

Dividends 3 171.00 

Sale of pamphlets 11.30 

Other income 245.50 

$2,257.11 

Disbursements. 

Salaries and wages $1,163.92 

Coal 227.80 

Insurance 211.47 

Deposit in Five Cent Savings 

bank 75.00 

Sundry bills 54 9.7 7 

Balance 2 9.15 



$2,257.11 

Mr. Taber stated that the society 
has 908 annual members and 38 life 
members; and that 141 new members 
have joined this year. 

Secretary Worth Reports. 

Henry B. Worth, secretary of the 
society, presented his annual report, 
as follows: 

The membership has been consider- 
ably increased since a year ago; 141 
additions have been enrolled, and the 
present number is 946. 

Members who have died: Sarah W. 
Seabury, Mary A. Milliken, Martha 
Ooggeshall, Bydio W. Grinnell, Mary 
J. Washburn, Eliza B. Smith, Emma 
T. Church, Susan E. Slade, Alice R. 
Howland, Mary R. Rotch, Thomas M. 
Stetson, Nathaniel C. Nash, John C. 
Rhodes, Eoum Snow, Myles Standish, 
Frederick Swift, E. B. McBeod, Worth 
G. Ross. 

Honorary membership was extended 
by the executive board to Miss Emily 
Bourne, the donor of the Whaling 
museum. 



The appropriate bronze sign repre- 
senting the sail of a ship, which 
projects over the Water street en- 
trance, was presented by Miss Flor- 
ence L. Waite. 

Abbott P. Smith donated the sum 
of $11)00 to the permanent fund of 
the society in memory of his mother. 
Ruth L. Smith. 

A quarterly meeting of the society 
was held June 17, 11)16, at the 
home of the president, from 3 to 5 
o'clock, at which time George II. 
Tripp, vice president, read a paper 
on "The Authors of New Bedford." 

Owing to the delay in completing 
the new museum, the September 
quarterly meeting was deferred. 

The date selected by Miss Bourne 
for the dedication was November 2 3, 

1916, when the members and the 
public were invited to attend the 
exercises in the new building. 

A special meeting of the society wa« 
held at the same place Saturday after- 
noon, November li 5 , 1916, when ad- 
dresses were delivered to a large 
gathering. 

A full account of both meetings is 
contained in the latest publication, 
No. 45. 

A special meeting was held at the 
building on Water street Tuesday, 
March 27, 1917, when Henry 11. Crapo 
presented a valuable paper on the 
"Banks of New Bedford." 

The social event of the year was 
the Mardi Gras party, February 2 0, 

1917, in Bull's hall which was a large 
gathering ami a gay and lively occa- 
sion. The newspaper account stated 
that it closed at midnight when the 
Lenten season began. 

School Children's Visits. 

Miss Carolyn S. Jones of the educa- 
tion section, reports activity in the 
number of classes in the public 
schools that have visited the museum. 
The teachers and number of pupils 
are as follows: 

Miss Carver, Fifth Street school, 
30; Miss Gilford, Middle Street school, 
35: Miss Gleason, Co'ngdon school, 
twice, 30; Miss Fish, Middle Street 
school, 35; Mrs. Smead, Middle Street 
school, 20; Miss Briggs, Ingraham 
school, 30; Mrs. Manning, Jireh Swift 
school, 28; Miss McAfee. Knowlton 
school, twice, 25; Grammar school, 
Mattapoisett, 20. 

The publication of pamphlets has 
continued in the printing of No. 44 
and 45, both of which have dealt 
chiefly with whaling subjects. The 
former contains a description of the 
voyages of the "Bartholomew Gos- 
nold," an old-time whaler; and articles 
on the merchants' counting rooms and 
the New Bedford outfitters. 



The second is devoted to the Bourne 
museum, with a lull account of tho 
exercises at the dedication and at the 
first meeting held in the building by 
the members. 

These two pamphlets add seventy- 
live pages with numerous illustrations 
to the whaling history of New Bed- 
ford and present information on topics 
that can be found nowhere else. 

These publications now comprise 
nearly 800 pages of history relating 
to New Bedford and vicinity with 
many valuable illustrations. 

The overshadowing event of tho 
past year has been the completion, 
dedication and presentation of the 
Bourne Memorial museum. 

The history of this unique donation 
is given in detail in the two pamphlets 
that have been printed the past year. 

One phase of this new department 
of the museum that should be pre- 
sented at this time, is the cost of 
maintainence of the institution as it 
now exists. 

The time has come to describe what 
has heretofore been the condition and 
how this has been greatly changed 
by the new museum. 

The two-story building with the 
entrance on Water street has required 
a janitor and curator to attend to the 
property and assist visitors. All per- 
sons entering the building passed the 
station of the curator and received 
careful attention. None could pass 
in unnoticed. Unless the number of 
visitors was specially large the curator 
would not require assistants. 

The new museum has introduced 
further demands. It is some distance 
from the Water street entrance and 
on a higher level. Its first tloor is on 
the same plane as the second story 
of the original building. If visitors 
were admitted through the Water 
street entrance the curator could not 
give 'attention to both buildings, and 
experience has shown that both parts 
of the property need be watched 
whenever visitors are present. This 
requires two persons, one in each de- 
partment of the museum, especially 
if the entrance from Water street 
and Bethel street are both used at 
the same time. 

The new museum has added nearly 
threefold as much room to heat and 
keep in order as previously. This 
means more coal and janitor service. 



Captain Smith, Master. 

Then the ship not only requires a 
guard, but it demands peculiar train- 
ing to keep in order. It is not a 
picture hanging on the wall that only 
demands freedom from dust. Besides 
the deck with its furniture and equip- 
ment, the sars and rigging, there are 



twenty sails spread or furled, and all 
lo be kept clean and in good order 
and repair. None but a practical 
•eumun would know how to attend 
to Kiich duties. Such a valuable piece 
of property should not be left to a 
landsman of even the most conscien- 
tious mind and purpose. If repairs 
were required the shipkeeper must 
understand the need. Such men are 
not as numerous as when whaleships 
were crowded at our wharves. 

With this situation in mind the 
executive board secured the services 
of Captain Charles W. Smith, for- 
merly of Provincetown, a retired 
Whaling master, and he has had 
charge of the museum and ship since 
the dedication. 

Other items of expense could be 
mentioned. 

The privilege of having this unique 
and magnificent work of art has 
brought with it the responsibility of 
maintaining it in a suitable and 
adequate manner. This task has so 
fur been undertaken by the president 
and a few enthusiastic friends. 

The time has arrived to submit to 
you a proposition that you increase 
your annual subscriptions. "Whether 
it is wise at this time and if so, to 
what extent, is for you to decide. 
The executive board has concluded to 
propose that you increase the annual 
dies from one dollar to two dollars 
and that the by-laws of the society 
be amended in this particular by sub- 
stituting the word "two" in plaee of 
"one" in the section relating to an- 
nual dues. 



officious i:li:(ti:i>. 

The following list of oiliccrs, as pre- 
sented by the nominating committee, 
was elected: 



resident — Herbert E. Cushman. 

vice presidents — George II. Tripp, 
Oliver Prescott, Jr. 

Treasurer — Frederic II. Taber. 

Secretary — Henry B. Worth. 

Directors for three years — Oliver F. 
Brown, Job C. Tripp, R. C. P. Cogges- 
hall. 

President Cushman remarked upon 
the fact that the society's income and 
expenses for last year were about the 
same in amount, and said that the 
secretary that put the necessities of 
the organization ably before the mem- 
bers. "During the year." he con- 
tinued, "we have asked friends to be- 
come sustaining members, and a num- 
ber have volunteered. They have 
paid $7 50, which, with $900 from the 
other members at $1 each, totals 
about $1600. In addition to that, it 
Is possible for us to obtain between 
$200 and $300 from our investment 



funds. In the past we have been 
fortunate in our entertainments. This 
year, we derived about $74 from that- 
source; so that about $2000 a year is 
all we can depend upon, under pres- 
ent conditions. 

"This year, in addition to the 
curator and janitor, we will have to 
have a man in charge of the ship. 
With these expenses, how are we go- 
ing to pay for coal and for sundry 
items? How are we going to arrange 
for a little fund that we ou.^ht to 
have, to buy things for the museum 
when the oportunity comes?" 

President Cushman said that the 
museum and ship presented by Miss 
Bourne made the society the possessor 
of something that could not be 
equalled in this country. "Let us 
show Miss Bourne, or anyone," he 
said, "that the society is going to do 
its Dart." 

The president stated that at a meet- 
ing of the directors a few days ago, 
it was voted to make Miss Bourne an 
honorary member of the society and 
upon motion of Abbott P. Smith, the 
meeting voted to endorse the action 
of the directors. 



DOUBLING T 



DUES. 



Mr. Smith expressed the opinion 
that the society should raise at least 
$500.0 lor annual expenditures; and 
that $2 was a small amount for dues, 
in comparison with the value re- 
ceived. 

Miss Elizabeth Watson declared thai 
it would be almost suicidal to raise 
the dues to $2, as there were a great 
many who gave $1 just to help the 
society, who would resign if $2 were 
charged. 

William I]. Hatch said he heard 
the same argument once before, when 
a club to which he belonged proposed 
a dollar raise in dues. "But," he 
said, "instead of the members leav- 
ing, more came in. In another club, 
where the dues were raised half a 
dollar, very few left. 

"In a city of this size, the historical 
society ought to have five times as 
much support as this society receives. 
We ought to increase the dues and 
also canvass for increased member- 
ship. If the matter were laid before 
100 citizens, I think there would be 
no trouble in getting members, at 
$2.50. AV r e ought to have from 200 3 
to 3000 members, with dues ranging 
from $1 to $5. There should be no 
trouble in supporting this magnificent 
institution." 

Miss "Watson said there were many 
women members who would pay $1, 
but had so many charities to contri- 
bute to, that they could not pay $2. 



Mrs. Clement N. Swift said she was 
opposed to raising the dues. "If there 
is war," she said, "taxes will he in- 
creased. There are two submarines 
lying off the coast; and who knows 
what is coming, and what the ex- 
penses are going to he?" 

Mrs. Wood suggested that the city 
might help support the society. 

"I do not like the idea of foisting 
everything upon the city " said Mr. 
Hatch. "The idea seems to he that 
the money comes out of the ocean. 
The people will have to pay for it." 

Mr. Worth stated that the rule in 
Massachusetts was that money ap- 
propriated from public taxes must be 
expended for public benefits. 

O. S. Cook asked if the delinquent 
members previously mentioned had 
been long in arrears, and whether 
they Avere always the same members. 

The treasurer replied that not over 
twenty of the members had been in 
arrears more than two years. 

Mrs. Swift made the suggestion that 
the French Chamber of Commerce he 
asked to interest the French people 
in the society; and Miss Watson sug- 
gested that systematic publicity work 
be undertaken. 

A. P. Smith said he would like to 
hear how it was proposed to raise 
the extra money needed. 

"You can't pay for a $10 horse 
with a $5 bill," said President Cush- 
man. "I am not willing to go on for 
another year worrying as I have wor- 
ried for the last three years, and tak- 
ing chances of being $1000 in the 
hole at the end of the year. I am 
willing to retire, but I am not willing 
to go on, unless interest is shown. I 
Ought not to go on, anyway, as I have 
all that one man oiitfhl to do. 1 am 
mil going on with $1 dues for a $:: 
outfit; and if the people of New Bed- 
fiord have not loyalty enough to stand 
by this institution, I am sorry for 
New Bedford and its people. Suppose 
we do drop a few members, although 
we should be sorry to lose them, we 
ought to get more who will pay. I 
do not think your officers should be 
asked to go on, and not expect the 
members to show whether they have 
interest enough to pay the additional 
amount. If they have not. the sooner 
we find it out, the better." 

Mr. Smith said that the society had 
28 or 30 sustaining members, paying 



$25 a year. He suggested increasing 
their dues to $75. 

President Cushman opposed tho 
idea. "i think they would feel that 
others should do their part," he re- 
marked. "I would be glad," he con- 
tinued, "to accept a motion to shut 
down until we have the money to 
run' the instituion. I would like to 
shut it down, and see how New Bed- 
ford feels about it." 

Mr. Taber moved that the dues be 
increased from $1 to $2, beginning 
April 1st. The motion was adopted 
by a vote of 14 to 3. 



Committees Named. 

President Cushman announced the 
appointment of the following com- 
mittees: 

House — R. C. P. Coggeshall, Mrs. 
Annie S. Wood, Miss Florence Waite. 

Finance— -Oliver S. Brown, Abbott 
P. Smith, the treasurer and president. 

Jfe added that he would like to 
appoint a special publicity committee 
of women, and pay them a commis- 
sion on new members secured. Ho 
believed thai by increasing the d'/es, 
not more than 20 per cent of the 
present membership would be lost. 

Upon motion of O. S. Cook, the 
meeting extended a vote of thanks to 
President Cushman, in recognition of 
faithful service in the past and of 
gratitude t him for sacrificing his 
time in acting as president for an- 
other year. 

A vole of thanks was also extended 



to the 
curator. 
Placid 
ness has 
lire pro; 
ing of t: 
society: 



secretary, 



treasurer 
of n 



and 
busi- 



on.siderat ion of rout i 
usually constituted the eu- 
amme of the annual meet- 
> Old Dartmouth Historical 
lit last night there was a 
rea.1 argument, and the members who 
championed the opposing sides spoke 
out freely. 

The difference of opinion arose over 
a proposition to increase the annual 
dues from $ 1 to $2, to meet increased 
expenses. The recommendation for 
an increase was finally carried, by a 
vote of 14 to o. 

Twenty members were present at 
the meeting, President Cushman pre- 
siding. 



Authors of New Bedford 

George H. Tripp 



In a city devoted to commercial pur- 
Biiits and business activities as is New 
Bedford, a literary census of this lo- 
cality might seem at first to be as 
short as the famous chapter on snakes 
In the History of Ireland. Neverthe- 
less, there is quite a respectable show- 
ing of authors who have been respon- 
sible for books or periodicals, as will 
• appear in the appendix to this paper, 
giving a list of all who have been 
found, not restricting the list to those 
born in the confines of Old Dartmouth, 
but including those associated with 
this section by residence for an appre- 
ciable time. 

Among New Bedford authors al- 
though they present no specimens that 
might be called Big Berthas, yet a sur- 
prising number of T. r »s have succeeded 
In the city of their birth or adoption, 
in defending its fair fame against the 
charge of literary sterility. 

In the 12th and 1.1th reports of the 
New Bedford Free Public library 
were printed lists 3f N^w Bedford im- 
prints, prepared ;oy Robert Ingraham 
with great care, and wnieh give a 
comprehensive list of the New Bed- 
ford publications up to 'hat time, say 
1865. This catalogue comprised not 
only the work of New Bedford men. 
but books which wer? printed in New 
Bedford offices, whoever the authors 
might be. It also neluded a full list 
of municipal documents, which of 
course is not within the range of our 
present paper. 

A bare list of authors with their 
publications is at best uninteresting 
reading. Even the genius of the l?ib- 
lical authors did not make the genea- 
logical tables in the Old and New 
Testaments of extreme interest, and 
Homer's list of ships is not the most 
exciting part of "The Iliad." 

I have thought it well in this paue-r 
to present classified lists of authors, 
arranged with some care, which will 
perhaps best bring together thos^ who 
have written on cognate subjects, so 
the grouping will be sonething alter 
tnis manner. 

First, those who have written on re- 
ligious and philosophical subjects; 
next, in the department of social re- 
lations; then, language, science, ap- 
plied science or the useful arts, the 
fine arts, literature, travel, biography, 
history and fiction; then, to complete 
the review, a list of those who have 
written about this region, and refer- 
ences to New Bedford from various 



books and periodicals. 

In New England towns in early 
times, the principal intellectual ac- 
tivities were confine I to the clergy, 
and Old Dartmouth was no exception. 
We here find a preponderance of re- 
ligious tracts and controversial 
pamphlets. The older race of < lergy- 
men was prone to rush into print and 
offensively or defensively show where 
they as individuals stood in matters 
pertaining to the faith. With Milton's 
angels they 

. . . . Reason' d high 
Of providence, foreknowledge, will, and 

fate, 
Klx'd fate, free-will, foreknowledge 

absolute; 
And found no end, in wand'ring mazes 

lost. 

Or, like the Puritan preachers satir- 
ized in "Iludibras," they "proved their 
doctrine othodox by apostolic blows 
and Knox." One of the earliest of the 
local preachers who won fame was 
Samuel West. A man who in his zeal 
for knowledge was ready to walk with 
his shoes in his hands from Barnstable 
to Cambridge — and on his examina- 
tion for Harvard college successfully 
defended a Greek text against an ex- 
amining tutor — was bound to show 
his argumentative ability in his later 
years. Among the many writings of 
Samuel West, one of the most noted 
was his "Essay on Liberty and Neces- 
sity," first printed in 179 3, and in 
which he argued with vigor against 
the famous Jonathan Edwards. Dr. 
West was not always writing on theo- 
logical themes, however. An ex- 
tremely interesting letter published in 
the "Memoirs of the American Acad- 
emy," propounds the theory that Gay 
Head was once a volcano. 

Dr. Orville Dewey, another famous 
.clergyman, who lived and preached in 
New Bedford, published many sermons 
on theological subjects, among them 
election sermons, ordination sermons, 
one on "The Moral Uses of the Pesti- 
lence, Denominated Asiatic Cholera," 
a book of travels in the Old World 
and the New, on American morals and 
manners, and discourses on various 
subjects. His works were published 
in three volumes containing essays 
and sermons. 

A bitter controversy arose in 1837 
over a pamphlet by Charles Morgridge, 
minister of the First Christian Church 
in New Bedford, entitled, "The True 
Believer's Defense Against Charges 



10 



Preferred by Trinitarians." This was 
answered by Phineas Crandall, pastor 
of the Second Methodist Episcopal 
church, who wrote "The True Faith 
Vindicated, or, Strictures on the True 
Reliever's Defense," etc., which was in 
turn answered by the Rev. Mr. Mor- 
gridge by, "An Appendix to the True 
Reliever's Defense, or, A Reply to the 
True Faith Vindicated," etc. 

Other sermonizers whose works 
were printed were Rev. Ephraim Pea- 
body; Enoch Mudge, born in New 
Bedford and minister of the Port So- 
ciety, one of his pamohlets was en- 
titled "Lectures to Young- People," 
18 36: Sylvester Holmes whose sermon 
on the death of Averick K. Parker, 
the wife of John Avery Parker, was 
published in 1847: Wheelock Craig, 
minister of the Trinitarian church, 
who wrote a sermon on the peculiar 
topie "Legislation as an Implement 
of Moral Reform." Among the earlier 
clergymen were J. N. Morrison and 
Rev. John Oirdwood. William G. 
Eliot, born in New Redford, after- 
wards attained a great measure of 
fame as a clergyman and educator in 
the Middle West. His little book on 
the Unitarian faith is nrobably one 
of the most convincing documents on 
the principles of conservative Unitar- 
ianism. John Weiss was not only an 
aide sermon writer, but wrote on a 
great variety of topics, and always 
with eloquence and wisdom. William 
J. Potter, for over thirty years pastor 
of the Unitarian church, was a man 
of vigorous mentality, and of remark- 
able literary abilitv. Among his pub- 
lications are the "Twenty-five Sermons 
of Twenty-five Years," and "Rectures 
and Sermons." He was the editor for 
many years of "The Index." 

Among the later generation of 
clergymen, Henrv M. Dexter who for 
many years lived in New Redford was 
a creat authority among American 
writers on the subject of the Pilgrims 
and Puritans, and on the historv of 
Congregationalism. The Rev. M. C. 
Jnlien published sermons, fairy tales, 
and poems. 

One of the writers of the middle of 
the century on ethical subjects was 
Clother Gifford, whose book has the 
following interesting title "Essays on 
Health. Natural and Moral Raws and 
Education hv Clother Gifford. teacher 
of phrenology, physiology, natural and 
moral science, advocate of religion, 
purity, peace, temperance, Christian 
union," etc. One stanza of his poem 
will be all that T think you will need 
to give you an idea of the character 
of his muse. 

"Bread should be baked before it turn- 

eth sour, 
And meal is better far than finest flour. 



For this will clog the tissues or creitto 
Dyspepsia, which consigns to cruel fate 
If nature gives up passions running 

high, 
Or blood which goes by steam, or 

nerves which cry, 
No stimulating meats should we par- 
take 
That will commotion in our systems 

make. 
Tea, coffee, ale, and all their host re- 
fuse, 
Rest Nature .suffer when we thus abuse. 
Hut if our blood in sluggish streams 

shall flow, 
Some healthy stimulant may raise a 

glow. 
But naught intoxicating should we 

take- 
Yea, all narcotics speedily forsake." 

Probably every clergyman who has 
ever preached in the New Bedford 
pulpits has published more or less, 
and in a list prepared with no matter 
how much care, there will inevitably 
be omissions. I hope before this 
paper is printed among the Transac- 
tions of the Society that such omis- 
sions may be noted and additions 
made, so that the catalogue of the 
literary productions of Old and New 
Dartmouth may be made as compre- 
hensive as possible. 

Rev. R. B. Rates who was a Metho- 
dist Episcopal clergyman of New Red 
ford for a, term of years compiled, a 
"Hymn Rook for Social Worship 
Everywhere." This was published in 
New Redford in 18 69. 

Among later writers on religious 
themes must be mentioned with ap- 
probation the book entitled "The R >- 
ligion of Christ in the Twentieth Cen- 
tury," by Miss Averic Francis. 

Dr. Alexander Reed published an 
address before the New Redford Auxil- 
iary Society for the Suppression of In- 
temperance. This was a New Redford 
publication in 1817. About the same 
time John Rrewer, principal of the 
Friends' Academy, issued an address- 
to the same society, published in 1815. 

An interesting pamphlet entitled 
"The Hole in the Wall," written by 

Durfee, purports to attempt to 

correct "the radical errors" of much 
of the discipline of Friends, and of the 
administration of it. This book prob- 
ably would have been consigned by 
John Fiske to the division of books 
which he called crank literature when 
he served as assistant librarian in the 
Harvard Library. It will well repay a 
glance, if only to show to what ex- 
tremes of aridity the controversial 
pamphlets of the early part of the 
last century were carried. 

A few years ago a brilliant native of 
Dartmouth, Benjamin R. Tucker, 
wrote profusely on the subjects of so- 
cialism and anarchism. He was, as he 
called himself, a philosophical anar- 



11 



Chifit, and his writings wore extremely 
radical, but always written with force- 
ful argument and a great deal of lit- 
erary ability. 

In another grouping of our subject 
we will put those who have written 
on legal, educational, and social sub- 
jects. 

The Hon. T. D. Eliot, while a mem- 
ber of Congress, delivered many 
.speeches and addresses before learned 
societies. 

II. O. O. Colby, Esq., for many years 
a lawyer in this city, wrote a book on 
"The Practice in Civil Actions and 
Proceedings at Law in Massachusetts," 
published in 1848. 

Hon. J. If. Gifford also is represent- 
ed by legal pamphlets and various 
addresses. 

Ceorge Fox Tucker, Esq., wrote a 
valuable disquisition on the Monroe 
Doctrine, various books on the prep- 
aration of wills, and a book on the 
recent income tax law. 

On educational themes we have 
Andrew Ingraham who published a 
book entitled "The Swain School Lec- 
tures," giving the lectures delivered by 
him while at the head of that institu- 
tion. 

Mrs. Louisa P. Hopkins, who after 
leaving: New Bedford served for many 
years on the Hoard of Supervisors in 
Boston, published three or four edu- 
cational books of great importance: 

"Educational Psychology," "How 
Shall My Child He Taught," "Spirit 
of the New Education." 

C. P. King, who was at one time 
Principal of the Fifth Street Grammar 
School, afterwards for many years p. 
Boston School Principal, wrote books 
especially on geographical subjects 
which were favorite textbooks in the 
nublic schools of the whole country 
for many years. One of the most im- 
portant of these books was entitled 
"Methods and Aids in Geography." 

Henry F. Harrington, superintend- 
end of schools for 23 years, a man 
whose educational reports were the 
Mdniir.it ion of educators everywhere 
for their lucid statement, their pro- 
gressive principles, and choice lan- 
guage, prepared a speller, and a geog- 
raphy which were very widely used, 
and added greatly to the simplification 
of teaching. 

Mrs. Rachel S. Howland issued a 
reader which was called "The Chris- 
tian Header." 

George H. Emerson delivered an ad- 
dress which was published in Boston. 
1842. This address was prepared for 
"The American Institute of Instruc- 
tion" at their meeting in New Bed- 
ford in that year. J. F. Emerson, 
principal of the New Bedford High 
School, wrote on "Co-operation of 
Parents with Teachers," 1851. 



Walter S. Allen was the author of 
numerous review articles, and pub- 
lished pamphlets on various subjects 
relating to social and economic rela- 
tions. 

A young man who worked in the 
cotton mills of this city, afterwards 
going through college and entering 
the ministry, gave a very graphic re- 
cital of life in a cotton mill, in a book 
entitled "Through the Mill" by "Al 
Priddy" (Frederick K. Brown.) Mr. 
Brown afterwards wrote on his ex- 
perience in school, with the title 
"Through the School," then a later 
publication called "Man or Machine — 
Which?" 

Benjamin K. Rodman in 1810 wrote 
a forceful plea against imprisonment 
for debt, called "A Voice from the 
Prison." 

. Mr. Hodman himself was impris- 
oned for some months. He made it a 
matter of principle. During the thrse 
preceding years he states that in New 
Bedford alone there were 438 com- 
mitments to prison for debt. The 
episodes of Little Dorrit were in some 
respects duplicated here. 

In science New Bedford authors 
have made a very good showing. Dr. 
John Spare in 1865 published "The 
Differential Calculus with Unusual and 
Practical Analysis of Its Elementary 
Principles and Copious Illustrations of 
its Practical Application." This book 
was thus reviewed by the American 
Literary Gazette and Publishers' Cir- 
cular. "It gives intellectuality and 
vitality to the calculus without emas- 
culating any of its difficulties. He is 
entitled to the credit of having made 
a very important contribution to 
mathematical stu.dv." Jaded novel 
readers in search of something 
new would certainly find it in the 
books and pamphlets written by Pro- 
fessor C. N. TTaskins, formerly of New 
Bedford, now a professor in Dart- 
mouth College. "Note on the Differ- 
ential Invariants of a Surface and of 
Space": "On the Invariants of Dif- 
ferential Forms of Degree Higher 
Than 2"; "On the Invariants of Quad- 
ratic Differential Forms"; "On the 
Zeros of the Function, P (x) Comple- 
mentary to the Incomplete Gamma 
Function"; "On the Measurable 
Bounds and the Distribution of Func- 
tional Values of Summable Functions." 
In Henry YVilley, for many years 
editor of The Standard, the world rec- 
ognized one of its most profound stud- 
ents in the abstruse subject on which 
he wrote in his "Introduction to tlv 
Study of Lichens," published in 1857. 
and "The Enumeration of the Lichens 
Found in New Bedford, Mass. and Its 
Vicinity," published in 18 9 2. These 
books gave Mr. AVilley deserved promi- 
nence in his chosen field of study. 



12 



B. W. Hervey published three or 
four notable books of more than local 
interest, namely, "Plants Found in 
New Bedford and Its "Vicinity," i860: 
"The Flora of New Bedford," 1891: 
and, "Observations on the Colors of 
Flowers and Leaves," in 1899. 

While I find no record of publica- 
tions directly attributed to R. C. In- 
graham, it is well known that the ser- 
vices he rendered to students and 
writers were invaluable. A thorough 
student in many lines, his interest and 
help in scientific subjects were espe- 
cially noteworthy. 

Professor C. F. Chandler, for many 
years an honored professor in Colum- 
bia University, wrote and published 
many books on chemistry and allied 
subjects. Professor Chandler later 
received many distinguished honors in 
connection with his long and honor- 
able service as a professor in Colum- 
bia University. 

Miss Ida M. Eliot in her book 
"Caterpillars and Their Moths" inter- 
ested a large circle of readers in a 
subject which had not been so fully 
treated in a popular way before. 

Among recent writers on scientific 
subjects three New Bedford men are 
attaining prominence; Professor Slo- 
cum. Professor of Astronomy at Wes- 
leyan, who has contributed many arti- 
cles to scientific journals; Ralph 
Beetle, assistant Professor of Mathe- 
matics in Dartmouth — he has pub- 
lished various contributions to mathe- 
matical science; Frank B. Wade, 
teacher of Chemistry in an Indianapo- 
lis High School, author of various 
works in his chosen subject. 

In the applied, or useful arts, a curi- 
ous little book published in 1859, writ- 
ten by Phebe II. Mendell was called 
"The New Bedford Practical Receipt 
Book." During the last few years 
books on our most important industry 
have been written by Christopher P. 
Brooks, the first principal of the New 
Bedford Textile School, and for many 
years at the head of the Textile De- 
partment of the International Corre- 
spondence School, Herbert E. Walms- 
ley, Henry W. Nichols, and Thomas 
Yates. Many of these books have 
been used for years successfully as 
textbooks in textile schools, and are 
constantly in use by students on sub- 
jects relating to that industry. Mr. 
William F. Durfee, of New Bedford, an 
inventor of fundamental processes in 
steel manufacture, contributed to 
many scientific journals. 

In the department of fine arts one 
New Bedford author has written many 
delightful books on famous painters 
and artists — Estelle May Hurll, one of 
the few natives of New Bedford hon- 
ored with an extensive notice in 
"Who's Who in America." 



The cacoethes scribendi attacked the 
early inhabitants of New Bedford with 
considerable vigor. The writers of 
poetry commenced late in the eigh- 
teenth century when New Bedford 
was a town of a very few thousand 
population and naturally the oppor- 
tunities for culture were few, yet even 
in 1789 Elisha Thornton, who had 
acquired some local fame by publish- 
ing almanacs and dabbling in astro- 
nomical lore, published a poem on the 
slave trade, later republished in 
Ricketson's History of New Bedford. 

The first principal of the Friends' 
Academy was John Maitland Brewer. 
A poem by him was published in "The 
New Bedford Courier," June 19, 1827. 
Half a dozen lines will give very well 
the' character of the versification, and 
it will be safe to say that nine-tenths 
of the so-called poetry published iu 
the early part of the century was 
modeled on the same plan. 

"Shall Ostentation hear its praises rung 

And unobstrusive merit not be sung? 

Shall dazzling vices he the poet's 
theme 

While modest virtue sink in Lethe's 
stream? 

Shall fields of blood in future days he 
shown 

And Bedford's classic hill remain un- 
known?" 

In the "Harp of Acushnet," poems 
by Mrs. Elizabeth Hawes, published in 
183 8, we have the effort of probably 
the first female writer of this section. 
Many of her poems have local allu- 
sions, but very little in the way of de- 
scription. The following poem on a 
clambake is not without interest: 

OUR VILLAGE FEAST OF SHELLS. 
The following lines were written, 
and suiik at a village "Feast of Shells," 
held at "Woods Grove," Fairhaven, 

Sept. 3, 1S3S: 

Let others sing the rosy god 

Beneath the purple vine, 
And how tli em to the tyrant's nod, 

And pour the sparkling wine; 
Another theme the Muse for me 

Has chosen from her wells — 
'Tis this — beneath the green- wood tree 

To sing the "Feast of Shells." 

When Ossian struck his lyre among 

The Caledonian hills, 
And charm'd the eehoes as they sung 

Beside the mountain rills, 
He tun'd his harp they say of old — 

His fame the story tells — 
And sung in strains both soft and hold 

The ancient "Feast of Shells." 

Here oft the dusky forest maid, 

And hunter of the wood, 
Beneatli the oaks have careless stray'd, 

Or musing here have stood. 
And many a distant warrior hand 

Has left its crags and fells, 
Upon Aeushnet's hanks to stand, 

And grace the "Feast of Shells." 



13 



But now no more their songs are heard 

To hreak the stilly night; 
No mo.ru the thicket leaves are stirred 

By scalping knife so bright; 
No more wild echoing through the air 

Are heard their savage yells, 
And cause the pallid maiden lair 

To leave the "Feast of Shells." 

How fearlessly we've gather'd here, 

Tho.se days of blood are o'er, 
Not even the nimble footed deer 

Is seen upon our shore. 
No gloomy sprite shall frighten us, 

Nor Folly with her bells 
Of Reason's crown shall lighten us— 

She rules our "Feast of Shells." — 

And as we sing the groves shall ring, 

So merrily this day, 
For none but happy hearts we bring 

Beneath the green-wood gay; 
The old and young together join, 

For here a spirit dwells 
That brightens with its smiles divine 

Our village "Feast of Shells." 

Charles G. Congdon, a resident of 
New Bedford for many years, after- 
wards connected with the New York 
Tribune as editorial writer, published 
poems of good repute, and also sev- 
eral volumes of essays, which have a 
good deal of merit. The titles of some 
of his works are "Flowers Plucked 
Along the Journey of Life," "Tribune 
Essays," "Carmen Saeeulare. ' Like 
his distinguished uncle, J. B. Congdon, 
he was interested in all branches of 
literary effort. James B. Congdon, 
although not profound as a scholar, 
yet probably did as much as any one 
man to elevate the literary atmosphere 
of New Bedford. Nothing of human 
affairs was alien to his interests. 
Whether it was on the subject of mu- 
nicipal affairs, on the conduct of the 
Free Public Library, on the reminis- 
cences of local characters, or the ded- 
ication of a cemetery, or the recogni- 
tion of the honors due to the heroes 
of the Civil War, James B. Congdon 
was always ready with his pen, and 
his voice, and his friendly assistance. 

Among the poets of the middle of 
the century, Rev. Walter Mitchell de- 
serves a high place; although his poet- 
ical writings are few, one of his poems 
"Tacking Ship Off Fire Island," is re- 
garded by lovers of the sea as one of 
the finest marine poems ever written. 

The weather-leech of the topsail 
shivers, 
The bowlines strain, and the lee- 
shrouds slacken, 
The braces are taut, the lithe boom 
quivers, 
And the waves with the coming 
squall-cloud blacken. 

Open one point on the weather-bow, 
Is the lighthouse tall on Fire Island 
Head. 
There's a shade of doubt on the cap- 
tain's brow, 
And the pilot watches the heaving 
lead. 



I stand at the wheel, and with eager 
eye ' . 

To sea and to sky and to shore I 
gaze, 
Till the muttered order of "Full and 
by!" 
Is suddenly changed for "Full for 
stays!" 

The ship bends lower before the breeze, 
As her broadside fair to the blast 
she lays; 

And she swifter springs to the rising 
seas, 
As the pilot calls, "Stand by for 
stays!" 

He was a classmate of Senator Hoar, 
who said of him, "I am inclined to 
think that the one member of our 
class whose fame will last to remote 
posterity, a fame which he will owe 
to a single poem, is the Rev. Walter 
Mitchell." 

Though born in Nantucket he spent 
his early manhood in New Bedford 
and began the practice of law in the 
office afterwards taken over by Mr. 
Crapo. He afterwards . became an 
Episcopal minister, and wrote several 
novels that may still be found upon 
the shelves of libraries. 

The first President of our Historical 
Society, the Hon. W. W. Crapo, was 
the poet of his class at Yale, and the 
result of his labors was regarded as so 
important that it was printed by the ■ 
request of his class. There may have 
been other poems written and pub- 
lished by Mr. Crapo, but this is the 
only one which the writer of this 
paper has seen. It would be an in- 
teresting subject of speculation to 
consider the results if he had pursued 
the poetic muse instead of following 
the lure of legal activities and possi- 
bilities. It is certain that the fault- 
less diction, of which he is a master, 
would not have hindered the happy 
expressions of poetic thoughts. 

In 189G EL H. Macy published a 
poem called "Between W r hiles." Rev. 
H. \\\ Parker, pastor of the North 
Congregational Church, wrote a poem 
entitled "The Despised Race," 1863. 

Coming down to the present, one of 
the most important literary products 
of New Bedford is William C. Law- 
ton, whom New Bedford should be 
delighted to honor. He has written 
with vigor, with clarity, with beauty 
of expression, poems as in "Folia Dis- 
persa," books in appreciation of the 
works of literary masters, as in his 
"Study of the New England Poets." 
"Art and Humanity in Homer," "In- 
troduction to Classical Greek Liter- 
ature," "Introduction to Classical Latin 
Literature," "Successors of Homer." 
These are a few of his works. 

Francis B. Gummere, the first prin- 
cipal of the Swain School, occupies a 
high position among American essay- 



14 



ists on literary subjects. Some of his 
works are "Democracy and Poetry," 
"The Beginnings of Poetry," etc. 

A Methodist minister, who was for 
a few years in Fairhaven, published 
a book which indicated a good deal of 
research, "The Student's Shakespeare," 
18S0. 

Julius Kirschbaum, for many years 
a resident of New Bedford and a close 
student of literature, issued a play in 
German, entitled "Der Mensch Denkt, 
Gott Lenkt." 

Dr. Henry Wood, professor in Johns 
Hopkins for many years, has rendered 
distinguished service by his many writ- 
ings oh German literature and allied 
subjects. 

Mrs. Lucy M. James contributed 
poems for a number of years to the 
Poet's Corner of "The New Bedford 
Standard." 

A few years ago a mill operative 
in our city, John Spollon by name, 
showed a great deal of poetic talent 
in two or three light books of poems 
which he wrote, one entitled "The 
Whaleman and Other Sea Songs." 
The initial poem expressed the desire 
that the New Bedford whaleman 
should at some time be recognized by 
a statue which would commemorate 
his valorous deeds. He wrote also 
"Mary Ann, or Advice to a Street- 
Walker, and Other Poems," and "The 
Adventures of a Tramp." 

Associated with New Bedford by 
marriage and as a temporary resident, 
we should mention N. P. Willis, 
whose poems were widely read, and 
whose influence was far-reaching on 
the manners and literary tastes of the 
generation fifty years ago. As is well- 
known, he married an adopted daugh- 
ter of Hon. Joseph Grinnell. 

P. S. Judd of Fairhaven, now an 
assistant in the New York Public Lib- 
rary, has written poems of some merit. 
"French Revolution" first given be- 
fore a literary society of Dartmouth 
College in 1780, and published in New 
Bedford in 1793, was by an unknown 
author; probably some modest student 
from this vicinity. 

In the Department of Travel we 
should expect New Bedford to be pre- 
eminent, since no city in the country 
has had so many world-wanderers, as 
has our own city from the time when 
Edmund Burke spoke of the whale 
men of New England. "No sea but 
what is vexed by their fisheries, no 
clime that is not witness of their toils." 
But though the wander-lust affected 
so many of the residents of this sec- 
tion, when it came to describing their 
journeys — that was another problem. 
They were not skilled with the elo- 
quence of Othello to tell "of moving 
accident by flood and field, of hair- 



breadth 'scapes," nor could they paint 
vivid sunsets which "the multitudin- 
ous seas incarnadine." They used no 
flowery language in describing their 
perils and ventures on many seas, but 
rather furnished the raw material for 
others to work up into stirring tales. 
The average record of the wanderers 
of Old Dartmouth reads something 
like this: 

"Remarks on Thursday, March 22, 
1832. These 24 hours begins with mod- 
crate winds and pleasant weather. Em- 
ployed cutting in the whales. At 4 p. 
in. finished. At 7 p. m. spoke Rosalie 
and got a large whale. At 8 p. m. 
headed to the north with the main top- 
sail aback for the night. At daylight 
made sail, and commenced boiling. At 
9 a. rri. saw sperm whales, lowered 
the boats, got three whales. Latitude. 
by observation, no 28" n. longitude 
123° w. So ends these 24 hours." 

Nothing in these meagre records to 
show in picturesque detail the tre- 
mendous activities, constant dangers, 
the picturesque incidents of voyages 
which took these intrepid sailora 
around the world, and almost from 
pole to pole. Nothing of mutinies. 
maroonings, lights with infuriated 
whales, water spouts, storms, ship 
wrecks, desertions, adventures with 
furious savages— all this is to be read 
between the lines and hinted at by 
incidental reference. But their ad- 
ventures have not lacked for chron- 
iclers. The actual participants in 
these adventures rarely wrote books, 
yet they have furnished material for 
historian and fiction writers. 

Among the few books of travel writ- 
ten by New Bedford men I will men- 
tion Reuben Delano's "Wanderings 
and Adventures, Being a Narrative of 
Twelve Years in a Whaleship," pub- 
lished in 1846; "The Arctic Rovings 
or Adventures of a New Bedford 
Boy on Sea and Land," by D. W. 
Hall, published in 1861; the well- 
known "Gam" by Captain Charles 
Henry Bobbins; "Life on the Ocean, 
or, Thirty- Five Years at Sea," being 
the personal adventures of the author, 
W. C. Paddock, 1893; "Brief Extracts 
from the Journal of a Voyage Per- 
formed by the Whale Ship Mercury," 
by Stephen Curtis, Jr., 1844; "The 
Captive in Patagonia," by Benjamin F. 
Bourne of New Bedford, published in 
1853; Story of the Catalpa, and the 
adventurous rescue of Irish prisoners. 
Written by Z. W. Pease, editor of "The 
Mercury." We must mention an ac- 
count of the first small boat voyage 
across the Atlantic, written by Mrs. 
Crapo, the title being "Strange but 
True, the Life and Adventures of Cap- 
tain T. Crapo and Wife," published 
1893. Joshua Slocum most not be 
forgotten, who wrote his wonderful 
story, "Around the World in the Sloop 



15 



Spray," published in 1903. This has 
become almost a classic, and has 
proved of extreme interest to youriR 
and old alike. Captain Slocum had 
previously written "The Voyage of the 
Libordade," in which vessel he had 
made a trip from South America. This 
was published in 18 94. It is a curious 
fact that Captain Slocum, who had 
wandered the world over in a small 
boat, unaccompanied, and through 
perils of every sea and every clime, 
should finally have lost his life off the 
New England coast, practically in his 
home waters. 

A book entitled "Life in Feejee, or, 
Five Years Among the Cannibals, by 
a Lady," is said to have been written 
many years ago by a Mary Wallis, the 
wife of a sea captain who sailed from 
New Bedford. Whether Mrs. Wallis 
was a New Bedford woman or not I 
have not been able to determine, but 
the book itself is regarded by those 
conversant with life in the south seas 
as being the best picture of the real 
Fiji, and that her memory is still cher- 
ished by the islanders is evidenced by 
the fact that her name is given to 
many a little black baby. 

One of the most noted of New Bed- 
ford's travelers, was a native of this 
city, Col. George Earl Church, who 
by his explorations and his scientific 
work in South America acquired 
world fame in that continent and in 
Europe, attaining the honor of a vice 
presidency in the Royal Geographical 
Society. Col. Church was chief en- 
gineer of the Argentine railroad, and 
a prolific writer on South American 
exploration and commercial develop- 
ment, as well as on Mexican Revolu- 
tionary history. 

The next division of our subject 
takes up biography. Two of the old- 
time clergymen of New Bedford Avrote 
biographies of some interest. Mark 
Trafton, who was at the County Street 
Methodist Church, wrote "Scenes in 
My Life," 1878. George L. Prentiss, 
about 1850 connected with the Trini- 
tarian Church, wrote a life of his 
wife, Elizabeth Payson Prentiss. Mrs. 
Prentiss became a prolific writer of re- 
ligious fiction, her "Stepping Heaven- 
ward" being especially noteworthy. 

Among the various biographies writ- 
ten by New Bedford people are Mr. 
Crapo's "Memoir of John S. Brayton." 
Benjamin Rodman's "Memoir of Jo- 
seph Grinnell," "The Autobiography 
of Joseph Bates," an Advent minister 
who had more adventures than one 
usually associates with clergymen of 
that denomination, Life of George 
Fox entitled "Valiant for the Truth." 
written by Ruth Murray, "Biographi- 
cal Sketches of the Graduates of Yale 
College," a remarkably complete and 
accurate compilation in six volumes. 



by Franklin B. Dexter, who was born 
in Fairhaven, Daniel Ricketson and 
his friends, written by Walton and 
Anna Ricketson, "Biography of 
Samuel Clemens," or Mark Twain, 
written by Albert Bigelow Paine, a 
native of New Bedford, "From Bond- 
age to Freedom," written by Freder- 
ick Douglas, who lived in New Bed- 
ford for a number of years immedi- 
ately following his escape from slav- 
ery. J. N. Morrison wrote "Memoirs 
of Robert Swain," and a concise his- 
tory of the French in America, en- 
titled "Histoire do la Pace Franchise," 
was written by l'Abbe Magnan, pub- 
lished 1912. A book just appearing 
from the press is "Memoranda writ- 
ten by William Rotch." Several New 
Bedford people have been the subject 
of biography by writers from outside. 
John S. C. Abbott, the historian of 
Napoleon, wrote a life of Elizabeth T. 
Read. Abraham Shearman, the first 
New Bedford printer, was the subject 
of a biographical sketch by one of his 
family and recently published. The 
life of Dr. William G. Eliot, Jr., was 
written by Mrs. Christopher Eliot, his 
daughter-in-law. A sketch of Elder 
Daniel Hix was written by S. M. An- 
drews. 

As this section of New England was 
the birthplace of the early residents, 
£ind the home of the ancestors of most 
of the English speaking colonists, it 
would be expected that New Bedford 
ishould have some valuable genealogi- 
cal material, and that it should be 
written up by New Bedford authors, 
and it is a fact that some valuable 
work has been done. 

The history of the Howland family 
by Franklin Howland, with the title. 
"Genealogical and Biographical His- 
tory of Arthur, Henry, and John How- 
land and Their Descendants of the 
United States and Canada," is con- 
stantly consulted. 

The publication by the Free Public 
Library of "The Field Notes of Ben- 
jamin Crane, Benjamin Hammond, 
and Samuel Smith" was a monumental 
work, most ably edited by Alexander 
McLellan Goodspeed, who prefaced 
the work with an interesting biog- 
raphy of Thomas Crane. 

"Certain Comeoverers," or the his- 
tory of the Crapo family, by Henry 
Howland Crapo attracted wide atten- 
tion by its valuable contributions to 
family history and its unique style, 
which has given to a genealogical 
work the value of being eminently 
readable. 

William M. Emery has written im- 
portant books on Maine genealogy 
and history. 

"The Narrative of Thomas Hath- 
away and His Family, Formerly of 
New Bedford, Mass., with Incidents in 



10 



the Life of Jemima Wilkinson, and the 
Times in Which They Lived," by Mrs. 
William Hathaway, Jr., is also an in- 
teresting piece of writing 1 , and is much 
sought after by genealogical and his- 
torical students. 

Ray Greene Huling, formerly prin- 
cipal of the New Bedford High School, 
wrote extensively on historical, geo- 
graphical, and pedagogical subjects. 

The history of this section has been 
well covered in the volumes by Daniel 
Kicketson, supplemented by the later 
writings of Anna and Walton Ricket- 
son, the monumental history of New 
Bedford by Leonard B. Ellis. the 
Board of Trade History by W. L. 
Sayer and others, the Centennial His- 
tory of Fairhaven by four joint au- 
thors. Of these histories that by Mr. 
Ricketson is of great interest and 
throws a flood of ligrht on the early 
history of this section. The work of 
Leonard B. Ellis is very comprehen- 
sive, and furnishes a detailed account 
of many of the incidents and indus- 
tries of New Bedford up to very re- 
cent times. This history is also very 
well indexed. 

"The Story of the Friends' Acad- 
emy" was prepared by Thomas R. 
Rodman. The writings of James B. 
Conadon abound in biographical and 
historical notes, mostly in manuscript, 
but some weie published. 

The Old Dartmouth Bi-Centennial 
in 1864 with the addresses, especially 
the historical address by William YV. 
Crapo, and the poem by James B. 
Conirdon. nublished in 1865, proved a 
fitting memorial of this notable anni- 
versarv 

The history of the New Bedford 
Fire Department was well covered by 
Leonard B. Ellis, while the story of 
the churches of New Bedford was 
written by Tames S. Kelley. 

other New Bedford residents who 
have contributed to historical research 
are notably Henry M. Dexter, Henry 
B. Worth, the accomplished secretary 
of our society, whose studies on colo- 
nial architecture and on Nantucket 
history have been of great value, 
Rev. A. H. Quint, the historian of a 
period of the Civil War, embraced in 
his book "Potomac and the Rapi- 
dan"; the accomplished historical 
student. Miss Annie Russell Wall, 
whose many historical lectures have 
been supplemented by books and 
pamphlets on history and literature; 
Dr. E. R. Tucker, who wrote on New 
Bedford before 18 00; Henry B. James, 
"Memories of the Civil War," edited 
by Lucy M. James, 18 98; Frederick E. 
Cushman, "History of the 58th Regi- 
ment, Massachusetts Volunteers," 
18 65; W. C. Macy of the old firm of 
Buckminster & Macy. who continued 



the story of Nantucket from the nar- 
rative of his relative, Obed Macy; 
Charles S. Kelley, who has written on 
the New Bedford Protecting Society: 
Edward Denham. whose historical 
studies have extended over many years 
and who made the index for the pub- 
lication of the Maine Historical So- 
ciety, considered one of the best in- 
dexes to historical work which waa 
ever prepared; J. Henry Lee, formerly 
of Fairhaven, pursued his genealogical 
studies in England and this country 
with great precision and accuracy. All 
these make a commendable list of New 
Bedford authors on genealogy and 
of historical studies. 

One other book we should not omit, 
an interesting document of the early 
Friends, "Memoirs of Life and Ex- 
periences" of Sarah Tucker of Dart- 
mouth. 

Among the latest writers is Fred- 
erick Wallingford Whitridge, the New 
York financier, a native of New Bed- 
ford, who has written a book en- 
titled "One American's Opinion of the 
European War; an Answer to Ger- 
many's Appeals." 

Finally the publications of the Old 
Dartmouth Historical Society now 
numbering 4 3 furnish a fund of in- 
formation, much of which is not else- 
where obtainable. 

And what of fiction produced by 
New Bedford authors? George Fox 
Tucker in several short stories notably 
"The Quaker Town" has vividly pic- 
tured life in New Bedford of forty 
years ago. Others of his stories have 
many references to this section. A 
book written about twenty years ago 
bv Wilder Dwight Quint, the son of 
Rev. A. H. Quint, and who spent his 
early life in New Bedford, caused a 
good deal of interest in this vicinity. 
The book was called "Miss Petticoats," 
and was written in collaboration with 
George Til ton Kiehardson. Rev. 

Walter Mitchell, whose poems we 
have spoken of before, wrote two or 
three novels after he entered the min- 
istry. A. C. Swasey (Miss A. C. 
Field), Mrs. A. C. Field, the daughter 
of Dr. Swasey, published stories in pe- 
riodicals. Miss Frances Delano of 
Fairhavert has written two or three 
juvenile stories of interest. Miss Ade- 
line Trafton. a prolific novel writer 
was the daughter of Mark Trafton, 
who for many years was a clergyman 
in this city, and Elizabeth Prentiss, 
the author of "Stepping Heavenward," 
and other religious novels was the 
wife of Rev. George L. Prentiss of the 
Trinitarian church. Mrs. Mary J. 
Taber has translated stories from the 
German, and has also contributed 
original matter to periodicals. Albert 
Bigelow Paine, referred to above as 



17 



Ihe biographer of Mark Twain, has 
written stories, many of them of great 
Interest. He has written some very 
attractive juvenile stories also, one of 
the most popular being "The Arkan- 
Baw Bear." The most prolific writer 
is Frederick W. Davis, who has writ- 
ton a multitude of novels under 
various psuodonyms such as Nicholas 
farter, Scott Campbell, etc. These 
novels are written with amazing 
rapidity and have a very large client- 
age of readers. Two of the titles may 
l>e mentioned. "Reaping the Whirl- 
wind," by Nicholas Carter, and "The 
Fate of Austin Craig," by Scott Camp- 
bell. 

The most promising of the present- 
day novelists born in New Bedford is 
William J. Hopkins, whose "The 
Clammer," first published in the "At- 
lantic Monthly," revealed a literary 
stylist whose work gave promise of 
exceedingly good results. His later 
publications have amply fulfilled this 
expectation. Likewise, his Sandman 
stories for very young children are 
most delightful and show the same 
keen analysis of child nature which 
his mother had demonstrated in her 
works on psychology. 

In the appendix 1 will give a list of 
magazine references to New Bedford, 
but at this time I will mention a few 
of the most notable references in 
books and periodicals. In "Moby 
Dick," by Herman Melville, is an in- 
teresting chapter on the sailors' quar- 
ters in old New Bedford. 'The Cruise 
of the Cachalot" by Frank T. Bullen, 
pictures this city. "Miss Petticoats," 
just referred to, is a story which has 
its scenes entirely in this immediate 
locality. Diehard Harding Davis has 
referred to New Bedford and Fair- 
haven in a number of his stories and 
books, one of the latest references 
being in "The Dog of the Jolly Polly". 
Kenneth Weeks, in a volume of 
sketches called "Driftwood" has a very 
appreciative reference to the history 
of New Bedford. Dady Hmmeline S. 
Wortley. in her travels in the United 
States published in 1851, refers to her 
experiences here. George Fox Tucker 
contributed to the New England Mag- 
azine an article on New Bedford. An 
amazing item in the last edition of 
the Encyclopedia Britannica makes 
interesting reading, although the ac- 
curacy of the statement might be 
soriouslv Questioned. The author of 
the article on the whale fishery says, 
"Whenever practicable, the whales 
caught by the vessels belonging to the 
great sperm whaling station at New 
Bedford, are towed into the harbor 
for flensing." The author must have 
had in mind the painting by William 
A. Wall, which hangs on the walls of 



the Public Libra ry, showing the sloops 
of the early days bringing in their 
cargoes of blubber to trade with the 
Indians. 

In bringing to an end this frag- 
mentary paper on the writers of New 
Bedford, we can only say that though 
our search has revealed no rich Argo- 
sies, freighted deep with learning, 
with eloquence, with stores of accu- 
mulated wisdom, and a very few of 
the sharp-prowed clipper ships of 
brilliant satire and romance, yet the 
blunt nosed craft like our staunch 
whalers have touched at various ports 
in their course, and always have 
brought home useful cargoes, with oc- 
casional rich bales, and lumps of 
ambergris. So it is very fair to say 
that even in its literary productions, 
the writers of New Bedford have 
lived up to the city motto, and can 
say they too dispensed light. 

List of Authors of New Bedford nud 
Vicinity. 

This list is probably incomplete, and 
suggestions of other names will be 
very welcome before it is printed in the 
proceedings of the society. Opposite 
each name is given one publication, 
not necessarily the most important, 
merely to identify one writing with 
the name of the author. 

The compiler wishes to acknowledge 
tlie very great assistance offered by Mr. 
Edward Denham in preparing this list. 

Allen, Walter S. — Frequent contributor 
to periodicals on technical subjects 
relating to railroads and telephones. 

Almy, Charles, Jr.— Daw of married 
women in Massachusetts. 1878. 

Ashley, C. W.— Contributor to mag- 
azines of travel and adventure. 

Baker, Luther — ■ Letter to Hon. J. Q. 
Adams on the Oregon Question. 
1846. 

Barton, Hull — An exposition of facts in 
a letter to Stephen Gould, an elder of 
the Society of Friends. 1823. 

Bates, Joseph — Autobiography. 18G8. 

Bates, L. B. — ■ Hymn book for social 
worship everywhere. 1869. 

Beetle, Ralph — A formula in the theory 
of surfaces. 1914. 

Bent, Nathaniel S. — The past; a frag- 
ment; written, etc. 1840. 

Bierstadt, Oscar— Translator of Blok's 
History of the Netherlands in live 
volumes, etc. 

Bourne, Jonathan, J r.— Speeches on 
parcel post; on government own- 
ership of railroads; on railway mail 
pay. 

Brewer, J. M. — Address on temperance. 
LSI 6. 

Brooks, Christopher P. — Various books 
on cotton manufacturing. 

Brown, F. K.— ( Al Priddy) — Through 
the mill. 

Bryant, H. P. — Edited Winslow 
genealogy. 

Bryant, Maria W. — Genealogy of Ed- 
ward Winslow of the Mayflower, and 
the descendants from 1620 to 1SS5. 
1915. 



18 



H.— City of New Bedford. 
-Sermons and ad- 



Burgess, J. 
1914. 

Bushnell, Samuel C- 

dresses. 
Caswell, .James — Sketch of the adven- 
tures of .James Caswell, etc. 18G0. 
Chandler, Charles 1<\ — Numerous chem- 
ical dissertations. 
Channing, Ellery — Poems of sixty-live 

years. 1902. 
Chase, John — Contributor to magazines. 
Choules, .J. O. — Cruise of the steam 

yacht "North Star". 1854. 
Church, Albert C. — Contributions to 

magazines on marine subjects. 
Church, George Earl — Engineer's re- 
port on projected railroad from New 
Bedford to Fall River. 1864; route 
to Bolivia via the River Amazon. 
1877. 
Clifford, Charles W. — Addresses before 

Massachusetts Bar Association, etc. 

Clifford, John H. — Political addresses. 

Coggeshall, Ft. C. P. — History of New 

England Water Works Association. 

1902. 

Colby, H. G. O. — ■ Practice in civil 

actions, etc. 1818. 
Congdon, Charles T. — Warning of war. 
Poem delivered at Dartmouth Col- 
lege, 1862, etc. 
Congdon, James B. — Various addresses, 
poems, literary, political, and social. 
Cornish, Louis C. — Settlement of Hing- 

liam, Mass. 1911. 
Craig, Wheelock — Sermons and re- 
ligious addresses'. 
Crandall, Philip — True faith vindicated. 

1837. 
Crapo, II. H. — First of New Bedford di- 
rectories, 1837. Address at dedica- 
tion of Library Building, Flint, 
Mich. 1868. 
Crapo, II. H. — Certain Comeoverers. 

1912. 
Crapo, William W. — Various addresses. 
Curtis, Stephen — Journal of Whaleship 

Mercury. 1844. 
Cushman, Frederick E. — History of 
58th Regiment. Massachusetts. 1885. 
Davis, Frederick W. — Novels under 

pseudonymns, "Nick Carter," etc. 

Davis, Henry, Jr. — Lecture on natural 

and spiritual science. To which is 

added the cause of the potato disease, 

and its best remedy. 1855. 

Dawes, T. — Address at consecration of 

Riverside cemetery, Fairhaven. 1850. 

Delano, Frances — Polly state, one of 

thirteen, etc. 1902. 
Delano, Frederick — The case 
creased railroad rates. 1913. 
Delano, Reuben — Wanderings 

ventures. 1846. 
Deslauriers, l'Abbe Hormidas, 

toine de New Bedford. 
Denharn, Edward — Contributions to va- 
rious periodicals. 
Dewey, Orville — The Claims of Puritan- 
ism. Election sermon. 1826. 
Dexter, Franklin B. — Biographical 
sketch of the graduates of Yale col- 
lege with annals of the college his- 
tory. 1885. 
Dexter, Henry M. — Congregationalism 
of the last three hundred years, as 
seen in its literature. 1SS0. 
Dexter, Morton — Story of the Pilgrims. 

1894. 
Douglass, Frederick — Narrative of the 
life of. By himself. 1845. 



in- 



fer 
ind ad 
S. An 



Durfee, 'William F. — Contributions to 

scientific: periodicals. 
Eldridge A. — Sermon in behalf of lh« 

American Education society. 1853 

tl Ma ( M ;~ CaU ' rpiIlars ^d their 

Eliot, T. D. — Various addresses in con- 
gress. 

Eliot William G., Jr.— Early religion* 
lire, etc. J 855. 

E1 ri S *if Le , onard , B.— History of New 
1890 vicinity, 1602—1892. 

Emerson, G. B.— Moral education. 1842 

wm ?' J -, F -— Cooperation of parents 
with teachers. 1851. 
Emery, w< M.— Chadbourne family. 

Emery, Edwin— History of Sanford, Mr. 

Fleming J. W C— The second down- 
1816 Napoleon Bonaparte; a poem. 

Fletcher, S. S. — Sermon on the fanati- 
cism of the present age. 1844 Ser- 
mon on the fatal delusion of killer- 
ism. 

Francis. A veric— Religion of Christ in 
tlie twentieth century 

French, Rodney— Facts and documents 
in the case of Rev. Charles Mor- 
gridge. 1848. 

Geoghegan, W. B.— Sermons and ad- 
dresses. 

Gi ftc rd ' C 1 lother — ^ays on health, 

Girdwood Rev;. J.— Address before New 
Bedford Port society. 1858 

Goodman Robert— Proposed city char- 
ter of New Bedford. 

Goodspeed, Alexander McLellan— Ben- 
jamin Crane and Old Dartmouth Sur- 

Gr * ene ' T-, A.— Address before New 
Hertford Lyceum. 1828. 

Green, Kate (Richmond)— Shakespear- 
ian themes. 

Grinnell, Joseph— On the tariff and the 
whale fishery. 184 4. 

Gum mere, Amelia Mott — The Quaker 
a study in costume. 1901 

"taHM*' 1907. anClS B - T ' ,e 1K """ ar 

Hall. |). W.— Arctic rovings. 1861 

Harrington, Henry F. — Reports of su- 
perintendent of schools of New Bed- 
ford. 

Haskins, Charles N— On the invariants 
of quadratic differential forms. IOC 

Hathaway, Mrs. William— Narrative of 
rhonias Hathaway and his family 
formerly of New Bedford. Mass., with' 
incidents in the life of Jemima Wil- 
kinson, and the times in which thev 
lived. 1869. 

Hawes, A. C. — Muse poetic. 1893 

Hawes, Elizabeth— Harp of Acushnet. 
1 8 3 8. 

Hervey, Eliphalet W.— Various botan- 
ical books, especially on the flora of 
New Bedford. 

Hervey, lletta M.— Glimpses of Nors- 
land. 1S89. 

Holmes, Sylvester — Sermons and ad- 
dresses. 

Hopkins, Louisa P. — Educational psy- 
chology. 1886. 

Hopkins, William J. — Old Harbor, 1909. 

Horton, Rev. S. — Sermon preached in 
Grace church by the rector. 1S62. 



19 



Hough, George A. — Board of Trade his- 
tOry of New Bedford. 

Howard, Rev. Martin S. — Sermons 
preached in South Dartmouth. 1862. 

Rowland, Frederick H. — Various ad- 
dresses and contributions to peri- 
odicals. 

[lowland, Rachel S. — Christian Reader. 
IS 5 6. 

Muling, Ray Greene — Various genea- 
logical and educational works. 

Hurll, Estelle A. — The Madonna in art. 
1897. 

In graham, Andrew — Swain school 
lectures. 1903. 

.lames, Henry B. — Memories of the 
Civil War. 1898. 

.lames, Lucy M. — Various poems. 

Jerome, Irene — Message of the blue- 
bird. 

Judd, Lewis S. — Fairhaven; a descrip- 
tive and historical sketch. 1896. 

.lulien, Matthew C. — Huguenots of Old 
Huston. 1895. 

Kelley, Charles S. — New Bedford Pro- 
tecting Society. 1908. 

Kelley, Mattil — Workingmen's escape. 
1877. 

Kelley, J. F. — History of the New Bed- 
ford churches. 1851. 

King, C. F. — Roundabout rambles in 
Northern Europe. 1898. 

Kirschbaum, Edward T. — September 
leaves. 1900. 

Kirschbaum Julius — Der Mensch denkt., 
Gott lenkt. 

Kirschbaum, W. G. — Best of the Union 
Bands. Israel Smith and his Bay 
State boys in the Civil War. 1904. 

Knowlton, Hosea M. — Heroism. Ad- 
dress to alumni of Tufts college. 
188G. 

Lawton, William C. — The New England 
poets. 189S. 

Leonard, Flisha — Reminiscences of the 
Ancient Iron Works, and Leonard 
mansion, Taunton. 1885. 

McAfee, Ida A. — City finances, etc. 

Macy, E. H. — Between whiles. 1896. 

Macy, W. C. — History of Nantucket. 

Magnan. l'Abbe 1). M. A. — La histoire 
de la race Francai.se. 1912. 

Marston, Mrs. Clara N. B. — Diary of 
"me." 1904. 

Mendall, Phebe H. — New Bedford prac- 
tical receipt book. 1859. 

Mitchell, Rev Walter — Bryan Maurice. 
1867. 

Morgridge, Rev. Charles — A discourse 
on the reciprocal duties of a minis- 
ter and his people. 

Morrison, Be v. J. H. — Memoirs of 
Robert Swain. 1846. 

Mudge, Lev. Enoch — A series of 
lectures particularly adapted to 
young people and now published for 
the special use of seamen. 1836. 

Murray, Ruth S. — Valiant for the truth, 
or, some memorials of George Fox 
and the early Friends. 1883. 

Nelson, Maud M. — New Bedford fifty 
years ago. 

Nichols, Henry W. — Method of determ- 
ining costs in a cotton mill. 1915. 

Noel, Bartelemi Directoire Frangaise 
de* New Bedford. 1896. 

Nye, Gideon, Jr. — Rationale of the 
China Question. 1873. 

Ogden, G. W.— Letters from the West. 
1823. 



Ofiley, Greensbury — God's immutable 
declaration of his own moral and 
assumed natural image and likeness 
in man. 1875. 

Paine, Albert Bigelow — Tent-dwellers. 
1908. 

Pairpoint, Alfred. Rambles in Amer- 
ica. 1891. 

Paisler, Charles T. — Wayside gather- 
ings; notes of a summer ramble in 
Europe. 1894. 

Parker, Rev. H. W. — Verse. 1862. 

Peabody, E. — Eulogy on William 
Henry Harrison. 1841. 

Pease, Z. W.— Catalpa expedition. 1897. 

Pike, Albert (Teacher in Friends' 
Academy) — Poems, law reports, etc. 

Plummer, H. W. — The boy, me, and the 
cat. 1913. 

Potter, Rev. William J. — Inner light 
and culture. 1861. 

Prentiss, Elizabeth P. — Stepping heav- 
enward. 1869. 

Prentiss, Rev. George L. — Bright side 
of life; glimpses of it through four 
score years. 1902. 

Proctor, Frank W. — Study of summer 
fogs in Buzzards bay. 1903. 

Quint, Alonzo D. — Record of the Sec- 
ond Massachusetts infantry. 1887. 

Quint, Wilder — ■ Story of Dartmouth 
(College). 1914. 

Read, Alexander — Address on temper- 
ance. 1817. 

Remington, W. H. B. — Contributions to 
periodicals. 

Ricketson, Anna — Daniel Ricketson 
and his friends. 1902. 

Ricketson, Daniel — History of New 
Bedford, Bristol county, Massachu- 
setts, including a history of the old 
township of Dartmouth and the pres- 
ent townships of Westport, Dart- 
mouth, and Fairhaven from their 
settlement to the present time. 
185 8. 

Ricketson, John If. — Board of Trade 
address at Pittsburg, 1878. 

Ricketson, Walton — Daniel Bieketson 
and his friends. 1902. 

Bobbins, C. H. — The Gam. 1899. 

Rodman, Benjamin — A voice from the 
prison. 1840. 

Rodman, Thomas P. — Poem recited be- 
fore the New Bedford Mechanics as- 
sociation. 1833. 

Rodman, T. R. — Historical sketch of 
Friends' Academy. 1876. 

Ross, Worth G. — Various contributions 
to periodicals. 

Rotch, William — Memoranda written 
by William Botch in the 80th year 
of his life. 1916. 

Russell, C. R.— You and I. 1913. 

Sayer, William L. — Robert C. Ingra- 
ham memorial. 1901. 

Seaver, Edwin P. — Mathematical text- 
books. 

Sherman, Abraham — Selections from 
the works of Isaac Pennington; to 
which are added selections from his 
letters. 1818. 

Slocum, Frederick — Contributions to 
periodicals. 

Slocum, Joshua — Sailing alone around 
the world in the sloop Spray. 1900. 

Spare, John — The differential calculas. 
1865. 

Spollon, J. — Adventures of a tramp. 
1S97. 



20 



Stetson, T. M. — Argument before the 
legislative committee upon water- 
supply. 1886. 

Stubbs, J. — The seaman's star and 
guide to happiness. 1843. 

Swasey, Anna C. — Contributions to 
magazines. 

Swasey, C. A. G. — Caricatures pertain- 
ing to the Civil War of the United 
States. 1892. 

Taber, Charles — Poem delivered before 
the Alumni of the N. E. Y. M. B. 
school. 1866. 

Taber, Charles A. M. — Rhymes from a 
sailor's journal. 1873. 

Taber, Charles S. — Narrative of ship- 
wreck in Fiji in 1S40. 1894. 

Taber, Mary Jane Just a few 

friends. 1907. 

Thornton, Elisha — Poem on slavery. 

Tillinghast, W. H. — Historical essays. 
Chapter in Winsor's Narrative and 
Critical history. 

Trafton, Adelaide — His inheritance, 

Trafton, Mark — Scenes in my life. 
1878. 

Tripp, George H. — Various addresses. 

Tucker, B. R. — Instead of a book. 1893. 

Tucker, E. T. — New Bedford before 
1800. 

Tucker, George Fox — in whaling days. 
1909. 

Tucker, Sarah — Memoirs of life and ex- 
perience. 184S. 

Wade. Frank B. — Foundation of chem- 
istry. 1914. 

Wall, Annie R. — Outlines of English 
history. 1880. 

Walmsley, Herbert — Cotton spinning 
and weaving. 1885. 

Watson, Elizabeth — Contributions to 
periodicals. 

Weiss. John — Loss of the Arctic. 1854. 

West, Samuel — Essay on liberty and 
necessity. 1793. 

Whitaker, J. — Oration on the birth of 
Washington. 1823. 

Whitney, S. W. — Address at anniver- 
sary of the New Bedford Ladies 
Travel and City Missionary society. 
lS. r )S. 

Whitridge, Frederick W. — One Amer- 
ican's opinion of the European war. 

YVilley, Henry — Enumerations of the 
lichens found in New Bedford, Mass- 
achusetts and vicinity. 1892. 

William, J. M.— Oration. July 4, 1S06. 

Williams, J. R. — Oration. Julv 4, 1835. 

Willis, N. P.— Hurry-graphs. 1851. 

Winsor, W. P., Jr. — Poems in period- 
icals. 

Wood, Allen F. — S. A. Rowland educa- 
tional fund. 1900. 

Wood, Edmund — Various addresses. 

Wood, Henry — Ein be it rag zum ver- 
standnis Goethes in seiner dichtung. 

Worth, Henry B. — Nantucket lands and 
landowners. 

Yates, Thomas — Practical treatise on 
yarn and cloth calculations for cot- 
ton fabrics. 1904. 

Books nnd Periodical References to 
New Bedford and Vicinity. 

New Bedford, Mass. D. H. Strother 
(Porte Crayon). Harper. 21:1. 

Past century charm of New Bedford. 
G. N. Itose. Arch R. 33:4 24. 

New Bedford textile strike. W. U. Fos- 
ter. Survey 28:658. 



Controlling the passions of men. Al. 
Priddy. Outlook 102:345. 

Street widening in New Bedford. YV. 
Randolph. Am. City 10:471. 

Cotton Manufacturing City. W. H. B. 
Remington. N. Eng. Mag. N. S. 41:50. 

Historic memories. K. M. Abbott in 
"Old Paths in New England." p. 420. 

Municipal accounting as the basis for 
publicity of municipal affairs. H. S. 
Chase. Nat. Conf. City Governments. 
1908, p. 337. 

Gift of the town waterworks to the 
Fairhaven Library. S. Baxter. It. 
or R. 23:441. 

Wortley, Lady Emmeline — Travels in 
U. S. 

Bullen, F. T. — Cruise of the Cachalot. 
Whaleman's wife. 

Melville, Herman — Moby Dick. 

A New England architect and his work 
(Fairhaven buildings). Oscar Fay 
Adams. New Eng. Mag. N. S. 36:4 32. 

New Bedford, Mass. George Fox 
Tucker. New Eng. Mag. N. S. 15:97. 

New Bedford, Mass. H. 1. Aldrich. New 
E. Mag. N. S. 4:423. 

Old Dartmouth Historical Sketches. 43 
parts. 

New Bedford Roll of Honor. J. B. 
Congdon. 

Letter from New Bedford in Hurry- 
graphs. N. P. Willis. 

Pulpit view of the business interests' of 
our city. W. J. Potter. 

City of New Bedford. 1914. Descrip- 
tive and pictorial, commemorative of 
the 250th anniversary of when Dart 
mouth became a town, 1664, New 
Bedford being a part thereof. Also 
a description of Fairhaven. 

New Bedford, Mass. J. B. Congdon. 
In, Nat. Mag. Sept. 1845. 

New Bedford illustrated. L. B. Ellis. 

Glimpses of New Bedford, Mass. IT. S. 
Hutchinson. 

Story of the celebration of the semi- 
centennial of the Incorporation of 
New Bedford as a city, etc. New 
Bedford Morning Mercury, 
llambles in America. A. J. Pairpoint. 
1891. 

New Bedford, Mass. Its history, indus- 
tries, institutions and attractions, 
published by order of the Board of 
Trade. 

Just a few "Friends." M. J. Taber. 

Collection of photographs of old whal- 
ers and wharf scenes in New Bedford. 
J. G. Tirrell. 
City finances, resources, and expendi- 
tures . . . explanation of budget, etc. 
T. D. McAfee. 
History of the Fire Department. L. B. 

Ellis. 
New Bedford, Mass. J. K. Lord. Leis- 
ure .hour. 14:776. 
Ministers of Fairhaven, Mass. Am. 

Quarterly Register. 12:14. 

Dartmouth, Mass., Records. N. E. 

Register. 20:336. 

21:265. 

22:66. 

30:56. 

34:198, 406. 
35:32. 
Religious problems in New Bedford 

M. C. Julien. 
History of the churches of New Bed- 
ford. J. F. Kelley. 



21 a^ 

Saint Antoine de N. B. L'Abbe Hor- New Bedford Protecting Society. C. S. 

midas Deslauriers. Kelley. 

100th Anniversary. New Bedford Mer- Historical sketch of New Bedford. C. 

cury. 1907. T. Congdon. 

Field notes of Benjamin Crane Ben- Driftwood. Kenneth Weeks. 

jam in Hammond, and Samuel Smith, ,,:,,„„ . -,,, „. . ,, . . , Tr .. 

reproduced in facsimile from the ViUajfe of Westport Point by Katherlne 



original notes of survey of lands of 



Stanley Hall. 



the proprietors of Dartmouth. Old seaport towns of New England. 

Historical address. July 4, 1876. W. Hildegarde Hawthorne. 1916. 

\V. Crapo. New Bedford in Kurd, D. If. Bristol 

History of New Bedford and vicinity. County. 

L. B. Ellis. Topographical description of New Bed- 
New Bedford Semi-Centennial Souvenir, lord . Mass. Hist. Soc Coll. 1795. 

containing a review of the history of v 4 p 232-7. 
„ the T1 cl ( Jy- H. Grieve, editor Notes' on New' Bedford. James Free- 
New Bedford fifty years ago. Maud M. m Mass. Hist. Soc. Coll. 2nd ser., 

Nelson. v 3 d' 18 

History of New Bedford. Daniel Hick- _ .' , . „ „ ;, „ ^ , , 

etson Brief history of the town of I< airhaven. 

New Bedford of the Past. Daniel l903 - 

llicketson New Bedford. A city in Current Affairs. 

New Bedford before 1800, etc. E. T. March 5. 1917. Boston Chamber of 

Tucker. Commerce. 



23 



Banks of Old Dartmouth 

By Henry H. Crapo 



Our indefatigable president has 
made a systematic collection of data 
relating to the Banks of Old Dart- 
mouth. He has obtained the names 
;ind dates of service of all the men 
who were connected with their ad- 
ministration up to the present time. 
This statistical information is of 
historical value and will be preserved 
hi the archives of the society. It is 
not in a form which would be ac- 
ceptable for presentation at one of 
our meetings. Wherefore our presi- 
dent, usurping prerogatives of com- 
pulsory conscription which are not 
contained in our by-laws, has drafted 
me to "write up in story form" the 
data collected. I should have re- 
sisted this draft, pleading extreme 
vouth and lack of knowledge of the 
subject had I not been able to effect 
an arrangement, such as was often 
made in our Civil war. with my 
father. William W. Crapo, who way 
manifestly Ihe person who should 
have been drafted, whereby I agreed 
to act jii the capacity of his sub- 
stitute and draw on him for materials 
and supplies to enable me to put on 
a bold front as an historian of banks. 
In this case, the voice is the voice 
of Isaac, the hands only are the hands 
of Esau. 

I shall make no attempt to give 
the "business" history of the banks of 
Did Dartmouth. I shall spare you the 
data of capitalization and circulation 
and deposits and earnings. I shall 
not attempt to describe, or even men- 
tion, the many men who have been 
connected with the history of the 
banks. I shall account for only a 
few of the older ones. A complete 
history of the banks and their 
servitors would fill an octavo volume. 
1 aspire only to a rambling sketch. 

The need of currency as a medium 
of exchange was a need which the 
people of the earth discovered at an 
early period of civilization. The ma- 
chinery by which that currency was 
managed and distributed in modern 
times is in a vague way suggested by 
the word "Hank." The issuance and 
management of some form of 
medium of exchange is the primary 
function of a primitive bank. The de- 
velopment of systems of credit, how- 
ever, has become the more important 
attribute of modern banks. In the 
days of the settlement of Old Dart- 
mouth, currency was not an important 
need. There probably were a few gold 



coins in the possession of the early 
colonists, with the head of Queen Eliza- 
beth or King Charles, which may have 
found their way across the Atlantic 
with the immigrants. They were use- 
less in dealing with the Indians, to 
whom a glass bead or a gill of rum 
measured as well as a standard of 
barter. For nearly two centuries the 
American colonists existed without 
feeling the need of extensive banking 
facilities. I have in my possession the 
papers of the estate of my own great 
grandfather, Williams Slocum, who 
was, it would seem, prematurely born 
in 1761. He died in 1834. He car- 
ried on a profitable, albeit decaying, 
business of farming at Barney's Joy. 
His assets at his death consisted largely 
of quasi promissory notes payable not 
in money, but in hogs, and cattle, and 
produce. 

The Jonny Cake Papers of Thomas 
R. Hazard, Shepard Tom, of Narra- 
gansett, should be in the library of 
this society. Shepard Tom gives an 
amusing account of Governor Jona- 
than Trumbull of Connecticut); fa- 
miliarly known as "Brother Jonathan," 
"a designation in which the whole 
Yankee nation became soubriqueted, 
characterized and identified." Shepard 
Tom describes the apparel of Brother 
Jonathan, as made by his journeyman 
tailor, who received in payment a bag 
of meal, a couple of pieces of salt 
pork, and diverse farm products 
stowed about his person when he left 
the Governor's home with his pack on 
his back containing - , of course, his 
goose-neck. The only important article 
of court dress worn by the Governor 
was an exceedingly short and scanty 
yellow nankeen "westcot." the stuff 
for which was obtained exclusively at 
"quality shops," in exchange for flax- 
seed or some other of the very limited 
products of a New England farm that 
were in those early days available 
for export to foreign markets. Every- 
thing in Brother Jonathan's days im- 
ported from Europe went by the name 
of "boughten goods," which signified 
that they were entirely beyond the 
reach of the laboring classes, "as they 
could only be obtained, as a general 
rule, in exchange for hard money, a 
thing not to be thought of bv the vast 
majority in the community where all 
hand and farm work was paid for in 
kind." 






24 



It is probable that in Old Dartmouth 
there were a few thrifty people who 
hud the possession of cash and loaned 
it at interest. They were bankers in 
a sense. Who they were, we cannot 
now determine. Such currency as was 
absolutely needed, came from without. 
First the currency of the Kingdom of 
England and later the "continental 
money," and still later the paper 
currency issued by Boston and other 
New England private banks, author- 
ized, but not guaranteed, by legisla- 
tive sanction. Indeed, it was not the 
need of banks of issue that caused 
the banks of Old Dartmouth to be 
established. It was for banks of dis- 
count rather than of issue that the 
demand arose. The business develop- 
ment of Old Dartmouth was purely 
maritime. The industry of the com- 
munity and the savings of that indus- 
try were devoted to the building and 
operating of ships. It soon became 
evident that prudence required that 
the people engaged in this somewhat 
hazardous industry should protect 
themselves against crushing loss by a 
system of mutual insurance. Marine 
insurance companies were organized. 
As the maritime business increased, 
the need of financing these marine 
insurance companies was felt. All 
four of the original banks of Old 
Dartmouth were, to some extent, the 
outgrowth of the needs of marine in- 
surance companies— not for currency 
but for investment and credit. Groups 
of men especially interested as the 
managers of the several marine in- 
surance companies, organized the 
banks to aid the insurance companies 
in handling their risks. 



BEDFORD RANK. 

It was in this way the first bank of 
Old Dartmouth came into existence 
in 1803, the Bedford bank, affiliated 
with the Bedford Marine Insurance 
company, legally organized a year or 
two later. Sixty thousand dollars 
seemed an ambitious capital, yet it 
was subscribed and the bank with an 
enlarged capital performed its func- 
tions until 1812, when the war with 
England so paralyzed all business that 
the charter, although renewed,, was 
not accepted and the bank was 
liquidated. In 1816, the Bedford bank 
was resurrected under the name of 
the Bedford Commercial bank and as 
such existed as a Massachusetts state 
bank until 1864 when it was forced, 
as were all the state banks, to re- 
organize under the national bank 
system, taking as its name, the Na- 
tional Bank of Commerce, and as 
such continued until 1898 when it 
was liquidated after an honorable 
existence of ninety-five years, dis- 



charging all its obligations and re- 
turning to the stockholders substan- 
tially the capital invested. 

The site and the buildings of the 
Bedford bank and its successors are of 
especial interest to the society. On 
the very spot on which we are assem- 
bled tonight stood the first Bedford 
bank. The lot was a part of the gar- 
den of the homestead of William 
Kotch. Jr. It had a frontage of 37 
feet and a depth of 66 feet. It was 
deeded by Mr. Rotch to the Bedford 
bank, April 4, 1803. It was subject 
to a pass-way 7 feet wide at its north 
end, subsequently released by Mr. 
Rotch in 18 35. Daniel Ricketson in 
his invaluable history of New Bedford 
has told the story of the Bedford bank. 
It is not seemly for the author of this 
paper to repeat what he has told with 
such skill. His story of the Bedford 
bank must stand as the authoritative 
story. 

Mr. Ricketson, unfortunately, was 
unable to find the records of the Bed- 
ford bank. It seemed therefore some- 
what absurd for me to seek them. I 
did ask James H. Tallman into 
whose possession these records might 
naturally have come. He told me that 
they were not in existence. And, yet, 
by a singular chance of good fortune I, 
myself, found these old records. I 
felt as I suppose a young newspaper 
reporter feels when he "gets a scoop." 
The tattered, mouldy, stained, and de- 
crepit book of the old Bedford bank, I 
propose to give to the Old Dartmouth 
Historical society. It is manifest that 
it is not my property to give, yet with 
the consent of Mr. Tallman and of the 
directors of the Mechanics bank in 
whose unconscious possession for some 
unknown reason it was found, I give it. 

The Charter of the Bank, extended 
in the Record, was adopted by the 
Legislature of Massachusetts and ap- 
proved by the Governor, Caleb Strong, 
on March 7th, 1803. It is a most 
elaborate act of incorporation, con- 
taining provisions afterwards embodied 
in different forms in the general bank- 
ing laws. William Rotch, Jr., Samuel 
Rodman and Edward Pope are named 
as incorporators. The charter was to 
determine on the first Monday of Oc- 
tober, 1812. The capital, to be paid 
in gold or silver, was $60,0 00. The 
circulation was limited to twice 
the capital. The loaning capacity 
was likewise limited to twice the 
capital. The Directors were fixed at 
seven. The bank was subject to ex- 
amination by a committee of the Legis- 
lature appointed for the purpose. 
Every six months the bank was re- 
quired to report its condition to the 
Governor and Council. The Common- 
wealth could, if it was so voted by the 
Legislature, take an additional $30,000 
( 



25 



In the stock of the enterprise. No stock- 
holder could have more than ten votes, 
HO matter how much stock he owned. 
The 12th section seems very modern in 
spirit. It reads: "And he it further 
enacted that one-eighth part of the 
whole stock or fund of said Bank shall 
always he appropriated to loans to he 
made to Citizens of this Common- 
wealth, and wherein the Directors shall 
exclusively regard the Agricultural in- 
terest,' which loans shall be made in 
sums not less than 100 dollars nor 
more than 500 dollars, and upon the 
personal bond of the borrower, with 
collateral security by sufficient mort- 
gage of real estate for a term not less 
than one year." In 1804 the Bank 
was authorized by the Legislature to 
increase its capital to $150,000. 

The directors elected were Thomas 
Hazard, Jr., John Howland, Isaac 
Sherman, Cornelius Grinnell, Seth 
Russell, Jr., Isaac Howland, Jr., and 
Samuel Rodman. At their first meet- 
ing, April 30, 1803, they elected John 
Pickens cashier at a salary of four 
hundred and fifty dollars a year, which 
in view of the fact that the bank was 
to be open for business every week 
day both morning and afternoon, does 
not stem a princely salary even in 
those days. At the second meeting, 
May 21, 1803, Thomas Hazard, Jr., was 
elected president without salary. How- 
ever, in 1805 the stockholders "voted 
to the president for his services in 
signing bills, etc., one hundred dollars 
to be given in plate," and Seth Rus- 
sell was appointed by the directors 
to procure the "plate." This appears 
to be the only compensation which Mr. 
Hazard received for his devoted ser- 
vice to the bank, which during the 
last year of its existence and its liqui- 
dation, must have been taxing. In 
addition to signing the bills, which 
were constantly being renewed, Mr. 
Hazard kept the records. That he 
performed that duty excellently, you 
have the evidence in your possession. 

The third and sixth days in each 
week were "discount days," and the 
directors met at 8 a. m. It was pro- 
vided that "all notes presented for 
discount shall have one or more good 
endorsers, one of which endorsers 
must live within four miles of the 
bank." "Two directors objecting to 
the discount of a note or bill, it shall 
not pass and no question shall 
be asked on the subject by any of the 
other directors." The discount sheets 
were not large. Sometimes they 
amounted to $30,000 or even $40,000, 
sometimes only to $50, sometimes no 
paper was presented. It would be in- 
teresting to know what was the gossip 
discussed at these meetings. Towards 



the last of the bank's history, the war 
was coming on and inasmuch as there 
was always one director from across 
the river, representing the Corsicans, 
there may have been some heated 
arguments. Noah Stoddard was elect- 
ed as the Fairhaven director in 18 4. 
One is led to wonder whether his 
failure to be re-elected was in any 
way due to this entry "1805, 8 mo. 2. 
It is likewise at this time agreed 
that the director of this bank from 
the other side of the river for the time 
past and in future have his toll at the 
bridge paid by the bank." Possibly 
John Delano who succeeded him at 
the next election was willing to pay 
his own toll. 

William C. Stoddard by no means, 
as yet, one- of the "oldest in- 
habitants" of Fairhaven, remembers 
seeing his grandfather Noah sitting in 
his arm chair in the old house where' 
now is located the Fairhaven bank, 
and being impressed with the fact that 
he was in the presence of a soldier 
who fought at Bunker Hill. 

It was not always the vexing ques- 
tion of credits which engaged the seri- 
ous consideration of the directors. For 
instance in 1804 they dealt with the 
question of what was to be done with 
the stone which belonged to the bank, 
excavated from the hillside in order 
to make the cellar of the bank build- 
ing. It was concluded to let Simpson 
Hart sell it at public auction. Occa- 
sionally the cashier's "wood account" 
was examined and allowed. The wood 
was for burning in the open fireplaces 
of the banking room. In July, 1804, 
the working force of the bank was 
augmented. "It was this day agreed 
that Samuel Hazard be employed to 
carry the notices to the signers and 
endorsers of notes, the time of which 
may have expired and to file the bills 
that may be signed during the time 
he is employed, and to do occasional 
business of the bank that he may be 
capable of to the assistance of the 
cashier for which one hundred dollars 
per annum is allowed." Sam was the 
president's son. He afterwards mar- 
ried Rebecca Pease of Philadelphia 
and lived on Franklin street in New 
York. 

The dividends declared varied from 
2 per cent to 1 1 V-i per cent per annum, 
and in later days nothing. Occasion- 
ally the directors ordered all debtors 
of the bank without exception to pay 
up by the first of the next month, 10 
per cent of their loans. One wonders 
whether they all did pay up. When 
the bank was short of hard money 
they informed the makers of "wpecie 
notes" to pay up, "as the renewal will 
be inconvenient." On February 15th, 
1805, Seth Russell was sent "at the 



2H 



expense of this institution," presum- 
ably by sloop, to the nearest metropo- 
lis — Nantucket — "to get specie for the 
money we hold of their banks and to 
hire live or six thousand dollars of 
specie on our account." In 1806 "it is 
agreed and made a rule of this bank 
that all specie deposited and entered 
on the books of the bank becomes the 
property of the bank and the depositor 
ceases to have any leene or claim upon 
it." 

The business troubles of Henry Hut- 
tlestone and others occupy much space 
in the records. It is rather interesting 
to note that John Avery Parker, subse- 
quently the multi-millionaire of the 
town, was obliged in 1808 not only to 
transfer "his shares in the Marine In- 
surance Company," but "likewise a 
conveyance of his house and lot." Not 
infrequently William Rotch, Jr., was 
directed to send some of the bills re- 
ceivable of the bank to New York, "to 
the credit of J. Pickens, Cash." Nan- 
tucket and New York' and Philadel- 
phia seem to have been financial cen- 
tres of more importance to the Bedford 
Pank than Boston. In 1809, however, 
the Directors ordered "that the Cashier 
do not receive as a deposit, nor in any 
way negotiate, the bills of any bank 
without this state, except the Bank of 
the United States, from and after the 
last day of this month, of which the 
Cashier is directed to take particular 
notice and govern himself accord- 
ingly." In 1S10 the Directors felt 
moved to adopt this good resolution: 
"It is now agreed by the Directors ir- 
revocably that no note signed by any 
person who has not paid up all interest 
or discounts on their business or ac- 
commodation notes previously passed 
at this bank, shall be passed or dis- 
counted until all previous discounts are 
paid and their old notes taken up." 

In the usual form the transactions of 
the Board at its meeting 1810, 11 mo. 
'.' , were entered by Thomas Hazard, 
Jr.. as follows: "Discounted notes 
and drafts to the amount of Seventeen 
Thousand Nine Hundred and Thirty 
Dollars and a mortgage for Five Hun- 
dred Dollars. Present, John Howland, 
Win. Rotch, Jr., Samuel Rodman, 
Isaac Howland, Jr., Seth Russell, Jr. 
(Signed) Thomas Hazard, Jr., 

Below this entry in a different hand- 
writing is the following: "I was not 
present when the business of the above 
mortgage was concluded on and the 
money was paid. John Howland." 
Evidently John Howland did not ap- 
prove of that credit. 

The records make constant reference 
to the printing, signing and burning of 
the bills of the bank. John Maybin of 
Philadelphia on July 11th, 1803," "shipt 



per sloop Eliza C. Norton, Mast'r. for 
New Bedford per order Mr. Samuel 
Rodman, and for the Bedford Rank 1 
box containing 5 7 sheets of paper. 
• • • ] box containing a bank 
mold. . . . 58 water mark letters. 
$152.13." This paper was kept 
b.v the bank and sent from time to 
time to Sam'l Hill, engraver, of Bos- 
ton, who presumably held the "mold." 
For instance, "18(13. 8 m. 30. This 
day delivered Andrew Swain Two Hun- 
dred sheets of our NEW paper to he 
struck off in Boston by S. Hill 
engraver." "9 mo. G. Received 
the above mentioned two hun- 
dred sheets from Boston, one 
hundred and ninety- nine and a half of 
which were impressed with twenty- 
seven thousand seven hundred and 
thirty-five dolla'rs, the remaining half 
sheet was returned torn from Boston 
and burned by the Directors. The 
above paper were struck with the fol- 
lowing bills, viz: 



$995 
1990 
39S0 
5970 
14 01) 
1600 
1800 
lOOOl) 



199 


bills 


of 


$5 


1 9 9 


do 


do 


$10 


19 9 


do 


do 


$20 


199 


do 


do 


,$3 


2 00 


do 


do 


$7 


2 


do 


do 


$8 


2 00 


do 


do 


$9 


1' ( i i ) 


l\o 


do 


$50 



$27,735 



The Cashier is directed to make the 



above 



ble t< 



Li. Pope." 



Abraham Sherman seems to have been 
the favorite messenger to take the 
"sheets" to Boston for Sam Hill to en- 
grave. Sometimes the errand was per- 
formed by Stephen Hathaway, Cor- 
nelius Grinnell, or Seth Russell, Jr. 

In 1812 the Bedford bank ceased 
issuing bills, and made no further new 
loans. For several years the bank 
was obliged to "renew" old loans. The 
last entry on the last page in the old 
book, which I was so fortunate to dis- 
cover, is as follows: "1813, 3 mo. 9th 
Renewed notes amounting to thirteen 
thousand nine hundred and five dol- 
lars. Present, John Howland, Isaac 
Howland, Jv . Thomas Hazard, Jr., 
Wm. Rotch, Jr. Destroyed by burning 
twelve thousand dollars of bank bills." 

Mr. Ricketson's minute description 
of the original bank building is vivid 
and picturesque, controlled by a sense 
of literary art which is worthy of his 
associations with Brook Farm and the 
men and women who, more than all 
others, were the nucleus of what we 
may call "American literature." It 
is with difficulty that I refrain from 
quoting from Mr. Ricketson's delight- 
ful account of the Bedford Bank 
building, the quaintness of the struc- 



ture, the ingenuity of the secret de- 
vice for protecting the currency in 
the closed vault of the cellar, ana 
the word picture, of the quaint 
methods and personalities which dis- 
tinguished it. I will allow myself only 
one quotation — "Behind the front 
counter, and opposite the entrance 
door, was the fireplace of wood, which 
in earlier days and up to 1826 was 
the only method of warming the 
room, and on cold days of winter, a 
cheerful fire was to he seen within it, 
sputtering and singing away to the 
chime of the jingling gold and silver. ' 
In 1833 the old building so minutely 
and graphically described by Mr. 
Ricketson, was demolished and a new 
building of much more commonplace 
construction was erected. I, perhaps, 
may he permitted to describe, albeit 
necessarily with less artistic skill, the 
second bank edifice on this site, since 
I myself can clearly recall its appear- 
ance. It was a three-story brick 
building, the upper story rather low 
in the stud, not dissimilar to the 
building at present adjacent to the 
south. On the north side of the mid- 
dle entrance way was the Bedford 
Commercial bank, by no means so 
spaciously housed as in its earlier 
days. On the south side of the en- 
trance was the office of the Bed- 
ford Commercial Insurance company, 
which in 1821 succeeded the Bedford 
Marine Insurance company and which 
continued to do business here until 
about 1852. In the later days of its 
existence, Henry H. Crapo was the 
secretary of the Bedford Commercial 
Insurance company. His successor 
was William \V. Crapo, who was about 
twenty-two years old and was studying 
law in i he office of Mr. Clifford in 
the second story. He was employed 
to liquidate the company, which was 
finally accomplished about 1S59. The 
successor of the Bedford Commercial 
Insurance company was the Com- 
mercial Mutual Insurance company, 
of which AV'illiam T\ Russell was 
secretary. The south rooms on the 
first floor were occupied by the insur- 
ance company until the building was 
demolished in 1883. 

At the evident risk of being prolix 
I am tempted to retail the story of Mr. 
Crape's acquaintance with Pete Almy. 
He was a tall, gaunt old Negro who 
acted as janitor of the Bedford Com- 
mercial Insurance company quite in- 
efficiently. In his youth, in the war 
of 1812 he was powder monkey on 
the Essex, a famous frigate of 32 
guns, under command of Captain 
'David Porter, the father of the ad- 
miral. It was his duty to wait on a 
young midshipman in his early teens 
by the name of Farragut. Captain 
Gideon Randall of New Bedford, in 



command of the good ship Barclay 
had the misfortune to be captured 
in the Pacific ocean by British sloops 
of war. Soon after the redoubtable 
Essex attacked and captured the 
Britishers, releasing the Barclay. Cap- 
tain Randall was put in command as 
sailing master of one of the prizes 
and with him midshipman Farragut, 
representing the majesty of the United 
States navy, and, apparently, Pete the 
powder monkey. The orders were to 
take the prize into Valparaiso, which 
Captain Randall proceeded to do. The 
captain soon became much annoyed 
at the whipper-snapper of a middy 
who was always volunteering his ad- 
vice and assuming manners of com- 
mand which were not at all to his 
liking. They were in a constant state 
of friction until, finally, Randall 
turned on the young Farrauut and 
threatened to put him in irons for in- 
subordination. Pete was naturally 
prone to spin yarns about his ac- 
quaintance with the youngster who 
afterwards became the most brilliant 
naval officer of the country. Pete 
took his duties as a voter very seri- 
ously. Being unable to read, he de- 
pended on Captain Rowland Crocker, 
of the Bedford Commercial Insur- 
ance company to guide him and see 
that he received the right ballot. On 
Captain Crocker's death. Mr. Crapo 
succeeded to the duty of seeing that 
Pete properly exercised his franchise. 
In those days, George Randall, a son 
of Captain Gideon, who lived at Mount 
Pleasant on a farm he called Loochow, 
on election days used to get out an 
old Irish jaunting car to convey the 
faithful to the polls. Doubtless Pete 
had a ride occasionally. 

The rooms over the bank were the 
law offices of Coffin & Colby, later 
Clifford & Brigham. The front room 
on the south side of the second story 
was the "Merchants' Reading Room." 
In the middle of the room was a 
high stand-up desk where lists of the 
reports and arrivals of ships, the 
amount of oil, and other news con- 
nected with the whale fishery were 
daily consulted by the merchants. At 
the sides of the room were slanting 
racks which contained the local news- 
papers of Nantucket, Newport, New 
London and one or two from far away 
Boston and New York and London. 
When the wooden building opposite 
the custom house, now occupied by 
The Mercury, was built, the mer- 
chants' reading room moved thither 
to quarters on the ground floor. 
Walter Mitchell then occupied the 
room for a year or so, and becoming- 
discouraged in the practice of law. in 
185 5 he disposed of the room and its 
small law library to William W. 
Crapo, then twenty-five years old. 



2S 






The back room on the south side 
of the second story was the editorial 
oflicc of The Mercury, presided over 
by Benjamin Lindsey, whose brother, 
Henry Lindsey, printed the newspaper 
in the third floor of the building. 
When The Mercury office was removed 
to the corner of Union and Second 
streets, about 18 59, Mr. Crapo took 
the rear room which he personally 
occupied. Joshua C. Stone, George 
Marston, Wendell H. Cobb, Charles W. 
Clifford, Walter Clifford, and Frederick 
S. Bartlett who were associated with 
Mr. Crapo in the practice of law, in 
time occupied all of the second floor 
and flowed over into the next build- 
ing south. 

In 18S3 the National Bank of Com- 
merce decided to build a new bank- 
ing edifice on the old site. 

In 1X71 it had purchased a lot 
from the Botch heirs extending west- 
ward from the old lot to Bethel street, 
a frontage of 3 7 feet, 10 inches. In 
1872 it had purchased of the Botch 
heirs a lot to the north on Water 
street with a frontage of 2 5 feet. On 
this lot stood the quaint porticoed 
building occupied after 1863 by the 
Ocean Mutual Insurance Company of 
which the presiding genius was Wil- 
liam H. Taylor. Samuel H. Cook was 
his clerk. In 1885 the bank pur- 
chased of Temple S. Corson, a strip 
eight feet wide to the west of the last 
named lot. These purchases repre- 
sent the real estate holdings of this 
society prior to the addition of the 
Bourne Memorial. 

During the construction of its new 
building the National Bank of Com- 
merce transacted its business in quar- 
ters furnished by Sanford and Kelley, 
brokers, who occupied a part of the 
property now used by Wood, Bright- 
man and Company. 

The Marine Insurance company 
practically evaporated. The lawyers 
who occupied the second story were 
driven out and, curiously enough, took 
up quarters over the First National 
bank. If they could not be depositors 
ot importance they were at least de- 
termined to be suppositors of some 
bank. 

When the new bank building was fin- 
ished in 1884, it presented the same 
appearance as it does today. Practi- 
cally the only change is the removal 
of the counter and screens from the 
room where we are now assembled. 
The edifice was by far the most elab- 
orate and splendid home to which 
any New Bedford bank had ever as- 
pired. Its carved mahogany and its 
marble floors were deemed the limit 
of extravagant investment of stock- 
holders' money for luxurious business. 
To us now who have lately been initi- 



ated into the palatial splendors of 
the new Merchants Banking House, 
the old Commercial Bank on Water 
Street, seems fitted no doubt, for a 
repository of curious antiques, admir- 
ably adapted for the home of a 
society whose interests are merely 
ancient, but hardly recognizable as u 
banking house. 

On the north side of the entrance 
hall in the new bank building where 
the whaling trophies have since been 
kept, the traditional business of in- 
surance was carried on, no longer 
marine, for the most part, but fire. 
Here, Samuel H. Cook, on the very 
spot where he had worked for the 
Ocean Mutual, had his insurance 
office so long as the bank continued 
to use the building. 

To the second story the same law- 
yers returned, Mr. Crapo again taking 
up his seat near the window looking 
down Centre street where for nearly 
half a century he had looked at Crow 
Island with the ambitious dream, 
never realized, of owning it as the one 
familiar thing which had never 
changed in his ever changing environ- 
ment. The law firm of Crapo, Clifford 
and Clifford occupied the south rooms, 
and the firm of Marston and Cobb, the 
north rooms. 

For nearly a century until about 
1890, Water street between Union 
Street and William street, was the Wall 
street of New Bedford. Practically 
all the banks, insurance offices, brok- 
ers' offices, lawyers' offices and tele- 
graph offices were concentrated within 
these limits. It was the Merchants 
bank, with its usual keen anticipation 
of events, which definitely determined 
that westward the course of empire 
must take ius way. The exodus was 
startlingly complete. It was like the 
traditional abandonment of a sinking 
ship by rats. Judge Preseott was the 
only lawyer who played the part of 
Casabianca. This sudden turn of af- 
fairs was peculiarly unfortunate for 
the Commercial bank. It was forced 
to leave these apparently all-sufficient 
quarters, in which we are assembled, 
and in November, 1895, take up a much 
less commodious shop on Cheapside. 
The lawyers who had always been 
superimposed on the bank, by force 
of habit took up their accustomed 
position directly above the bank in its 
new location. Ic 18 9 8 the bank was 
liquidated and its quarters, after some 
yeans as a brokerage office, are now a 
part of Steiger and Dudgeon's dry 
goods emporium. 

After the Bank of Commerce 
abandoned its home the building was 
vacant for a while. In 1899 it was 
purchased and occupied as an office 
by the New England Cotton Yarn 



29 



Company. In 1906, through the gen- 
erosity of Henry H. Rogers the prop- 
erty was conveyed to the old Dart- 
mouth Historical Society which now 
presides over the old Wall Street of 
New Bedford, having, as seems fitting, 
for its neighbors several junk shops, 
and somewhere in the second story 
of an abandoned bank building there 
is an Art Club. 

Thomas Hazard, the president of 
the Bedford bank, was one of the in- 
numerable Tom Hazards of Narragan- 
sett. There were also College Tom, 
and Nailor Tom, and Fiddle-head Tom 
and many others, so it is not strange 
that the president of the first bank in 
Bedford was called "Bedford Tom." 
He was born in Kingston in 175 8 and 
iived his early life in Cranston. When 
he was thirty-one years old, in 17 8-9, 
he came to New Bedford. He had 
married Anna Hodman of Newport, a 
cousin of our Samuel Rodman, Senior, 
or "Old Sammy" as he was usually 
known on Water street. Anna Rod- 
man was reputed to be a very beauti- 
ful "Young Friend," much admired by 
the English officers in Newport, to her 
mother's great distress. The ardor of 
Thomas Hazard as evidenced by a 
specimen preserved of his flamboyant 
and passionate love letters surely en- 
titled him to a victory over the Eng- 
lish. He built a fine mansion for 
Anna at the southwest corner of what 
is now Elm street and Water street, 
next to her cousin Samuel's. This 
house is probably embodied in a much 
altered form in the structure now at 
this corner. In front of the house was 
Mr. Hazard's wharf, where now the 
big new warehouse stands. Thomas 
Hazard was very successful in his 
whaling ventures, acting in concert 
with Samuel Rodman and William 
Rotch. He was active in civic 
affaire, being the postmaster of 
New Bedford at one time, and 
a member of the state senate. 
When the war of 1812 practically an- 
nihilated the whaling industry of New 
Bedford, and the old Bedford bank, 
of which he was the president, was 
obliged to close up its affairs, he re- 
moved to New York and was there 
actively and successfully engaged as a 
merchant for the rest of his life. He 
died in his handsome house on Beek- 
man street near St. George's church, 
in 182S. • His widow Anna, survived 
him until 1845. His daughter Eliza- 
beth married Jacob Barker of Bhila- 
delphia, one of the great financiers of 
this country. Another daughter, Sarah 
was an exceptionally interesting wom- 
an. As a child she lived with her 
grandmother Rodman in Newport. She 
married John H. Howland of Dart- 
mouth, who removed to New York in 
1810 and formed a partnership with 



his nephew, Joseph Grinnell. He was 
a very successful merchant and a pub- 
lic spirited man. In fact, the descend- 
ants of "Bedford Tom" were in no way 
inferior to the legion of Hazard de- 
scendants who played so large a part 
in the industrial and civic history of 
Rhode Island. 

One of the original Directors of the 
Bedford Bank was John Howland, 
born in 1742. He was the master of 
one of the first whalers which sailed 
from Old Dartmouth in 17 GO. He 
was afterwards the owner of the ship 
"Fame." His shrewd business habits 
caused him to be made the agent of 
many vessels. He was considered one 
of the richest men of his day. Wil- 
liam Rotch, to be sure, was looked 
upon as a millionaire, but "John 
Howland had the most ready money." 
He lived on Water Street, just south 
of School Street. The building still 
stands. He was interested in all 

town affairs and helpful in the tran- 
saction of the public business. He 
died in 1828. His two sons, John and 
James Howland were prominent mer- 
chants of the next generation. 

Among the original directors of the 
Bedford bank, and of the Bedford 
Commercial bank, was Captain Cor- 
lelius Grinnell. He served for twenty- 
six years until 1831. He died in 1850, 
aged 9 8 years. Captain Cornelius was 
not a whaling captain. He was in the 
merchant packet service. An adver- 
tisement in the Medley in 17 02 states 
that he is about to sail for Havre de 
Grace. Mr. Ricketson gives a delight- 
ful picture of Captain Cornelius Grin- 
nell both as a young man and as one 
of the worthies of New Bedford. "A 
gentleman of the old school, hospitable, 
urbane, a man of sound judgment and 
unswerving integrity of character." 
Mr. Crapo's only recollection of Cap- 
tain Cornelius Grinnell is seeing him 
going into the fashionable barber shop 
on the north side of Union street be- 
tween Johnny Cake Hill and Water 
street. Mr. Crapo remembers his brass 
buttoned long coat over tight fitting 
short breeches with silver knee 
buckles and shining top boots, his hair 
long and tied behind with ribbon. This 
was a much more modern and sober 
costume than he wore when his por- 
trait was painted in Havre de Grace 
in 1702. "Sky blue colored coat, buff 
waistcoat, white cravat, ruffled shirt 
and wristbands and hair powdered." 
It is curious that Mr. Crapo's only 
recollection of Captain Grinnell was 
as he entered a barber shop. Mr. 
Ricketson facetiously describes an- 
other barber shop experience of the 
captain in France fifty years earlier. 
There can be no question that Captain 
Cornelius Grinnell was one of the most 



30 



progressive and broad-minded mer- 
chants of Old Dartmouth, a man 
held in the very highest respect as a 
citizen. There can, also, be no doubt 
that he was always well groomed. 

George Howland was the first 
president of the Bedford Commercial 
bank, being thirty-five years old when 
elected and served in that office 
thirty-six years until his death. When 
sixteen years old, George Howland left 
his father's farm and entered the 
counting room of William Rotch. He 
became one of the most successful and 
wealthy merchants of his day. His 
own counting room was at the foot of 
North street. Mrs. Mary Jane Taber 
has contributed to this society many 
interesting anecdotes of Mr. Howland 
and his family. 

Another Howland family was well 
represented in the Bedford Commer- 
cial bank directorate. Isaac and Gid- 
eon Howland and later Edward Mott 
Robinson, the second president of the 
bank. The other directors of the 
Bedford Commercial bank included 
most of the pre-eminently important 
merchants of the earlier days. The 
Rotch, Rodman, Grinnell, Nye, How- 
land and Hathaway families were well 
represented and many of the descend- 
ants of the earlier directors, no long- 
er for the most part the pre-eminently 
leading merchants of the community, 
were connected with the bank until 
its liquidation in 1898. 

John Pickens was the cashier of the 
Bedford bank. He was born in 1743 
and served as an officer in the Revo- 
lutionary army. Daniel Ricketson 
describes John Pickens as follows: — 
"Behind the desk, upon the left hand 
of the banking room, might usually 
be seen busily employed in writing, a 
tall and elderly gentleman, his cropped 
gray hair brushed back from his fore- 
head, with a white neck cloth closely 
drawn about his throat, a pepper and 
salt colored suit, the coat long-skirted, 
with large pockets on the side, one row 
of buttons, and of Quaker curve, but 
with a collar and small clothes with 
knee buckles, which, with the style of 
shoes worn by the older men of that 
day, complete the personal appear- 
ance of the venerable and worthy 
cashier of the old Bedford bank, John 
Pickens, esquire." He died July 31st, 
1825, aged S2 years, and lies buried 
in the old graveyard at Acushnet vil- 
lage. A pen and ink portrait of Mr. 
Pic-kens by Daniel Ricketson is in the 
possession of this society. Joseph 
Ricketson was the first cashier of the 
Bedford Commercial bank, serving 
from 1816 to 1834. Daniel Ricket- 
son also describes Joseph Ricketson, 
who was his father, with filial pride. 
James H. Crocker of whom I know 



naught, succeeded Mr. Ricketson, serv- 
ing four years. 

Thomas B. White acted as the next 
cashier, serving for thirty-five years. 
Mr. White came from Newburyport, lie 
was a large, heavy man, slow of mo- 
tion, and ponderously methodical. He 
was a lover and a teacher of music 
and organized a chorus which gave 
public concerts. He had as his clerk 
and understudy Benjamin F. Coombs, 
who succeeded him as cashier in 1873. 
Mr. Coombs was the antithesis of Mr. 
White. He was a slight, nervous man 
who chewed tobacco continuously. He 
used to practice pistol shooting in the 
cellar of the bank after hours. He was 
able to add up two columns of figures 
of a long depositor's ledger with 
amazing celerity and absolute accu- 
racy. 

\n the earlier days of banking in 
New Bedford, until the latter part of 
the last century, the cashiers of th? 
banks were called on for little more 
than clerical duties. No personal or 
commercial paper was ever discounted 
until solemnly scrutinized and passed 
upon by tile deliberate vote of the 
board of directors. All questions of 
credit and all questions of financial 
policy were determined solely by tha 
president and board of directors. Savu 
for the safe-guarding of the money 
and securities of the bank, and the 
keeping of accurate accounts of its 
transactions, the responsibility and 
the initiative of a cashier was usually 
slight. 

In 187 6 James H. Tallman became 
cashier under the more modern meth- 
ods by which the cashier was in effect 
the executive head of the bank. Mr. 
Tallman in 18 64 was in Mr. Crapo's 
law office. In 18 65 and 18 66 he was 
clerk in the Mechanics Bank. In 1867 
lie entered the employ of the Bank of 
Commerce and continued in its ser- 
vice for thirty-one years, during 
twenty-two of which he was the 
Cashier, 



MERCHANTS BANK. 

The biography of the Merchants 
Bank has been written once and for 
all by Mr. Mosher in the admirable 
bruchure which distinguished the 
opening of the palatial quarters of 
the bank in 1916. It would be an act 
of supererogation to attempt any sup- 
plement to so excellently arranged 
and written a history of this bank. 
I submit the pamphlet written by 
Mr. Mosher as a part of this historical 
disquisition, Appendix A. 

The Merchants bank, affiliated with 
and inspired by the Merchants Insur- 
ance company, came into existence in 



31 



1825. It renewed its state charter in 
1831, and with the ever-changing eon - 
ditions of bank existence, the varying 
laws of regulation, the staLa and na- 
tional requirements, the complete 
change in the nature of the business 
of the community, it atained and has 
maintained its position as the most 
Influential bank in the community. 

The early directors of the Merchants 
bank were all leading- and active mer- 
chants of New Bedford, more exclu- 
sively so than was the c:ise of the 
other banks. The Bedford Commer- 
cial and the Fairhaven bank and the 
Marine bank had among their direc- 
tors retired merchants, men of landed 
estates, and men of comparative leis- 
ure. The Mechanics bank had repre- 
sentatives of the mechanics and humb- 
ler shop keepers. 

The first president and guiding 
spirit of the Merchants bank was 
John Avery Parker, who had been 
on the directorate of the Bedford 
Commercial bank since its origin in 
18 16. He became president of the 
Merchants bank in 1825 continuing as 
such for twi nty-eight years until his 
death in 1853. Mr. Parker was born 
in 17G9 in Plympton, Mass., and dur- 
ing his early life kept a store in West- 
port and there engaged in building 
ships. In 1803 he moved to New Bed- 
ford. He first lived at the corner of 
Bridge street and Water street. Later 
he built the large wooden porticoed 
dwelling on Purchase street between 
101m and Middle which for eighty 
years and more has been the hotel 
ef the town. John Avery Parker 
found it too old fashioned and incon- 
venient in 1834 and built the splendid 
granite mansion on County street near 
the common which was one of the 
principal show places of the city, now 
unfortunately demolished. Mr. Bar- 
ker's counting room and warehouse 
built in 18:53 was at the corner of 
Bridge and Front streets and his 
wharf was directly in front, where 
now the street railway power statior. 
smokes. John Avery Parker was an 
"all around'* merchant, not confining 
his activities to the whaling industry, 
but interested also in cotton mills 
and ir<»n foundries and various enter- 
prises. His intelligent energy as a 
business man made him by far the 
wealthiest merchant of his day. He 
was also an active citizen. He was 
captain of a volunteer militia com- 
pany in 1814 when the Nimrod was 
menacing our shores. He was a lire 
warden. As chairman of a self-ap- 
pointed school committee he was in- 
strumental in establishing the first 
free school in New Bedford which was 
not a pauper school. In all the larger 
enterprises of the community such as 



the construction of a railroad to 
Taunton, and the inauguration of 
manufacturing industries, Mr. Parker 
was a leader. His financial support 
was important, yet his personality was 
even more important. 

Associated with Mr. Parker in the 
bank was James B. Congdon who act- 
ed as cashier from the start until 
185 7, a term of thirty-two. years. 
James B. Congdon is, perhaps the 
most interesting personality connected 
with the history of the banks of New 
Bedford. He was dynamic. His rest- 
less, active mind seemed to know no 
limitations. He not only was more 
keenly alive to the phases of bank- 
ing as a science than the cashiers of 
other banks, his contemporaries, but 
he practically governed the whole 
community as chairman of the board 
of selectmen from IS 34 until the town 
became a city in 1847. He drafted 
the city charter and wrote most of 
the ordinances which were adopted 
during his connection with the muni- 
cipal government. From 1858 to 
1879 he was the city treasurer and 
collector of taxes. He was the main 
inspiration of the public library and 
served as secretary of the board of 
trustees of the library for more than 
thirty years. Indeed there was no 
interest of the community to which 
he did not give unselfish devotion. He 
was a profuse writer. He wrote al- 
ways with an enthusiastic and glow- 
ing style monographs on banking, 
essays on literary subjects, dedicatory 
addresses, historical papers, poetry; 
everything was food for his pen. He 
not only wrote with facility but he 
read with ardor. His love of books 
was a passion. 

At a dinner held a year or so ago 
at which the bankers of New Bedford 
of today were present, Mr. Crapo told 
a story which illustrates the difference 
in temperament between Mr. Barker 
and Mr. Congdon, a difference which, 
perhaps, made them so admirable a 
team in their work for the Merchants 
bank. For some reason the bank was 
pinched; possibly it was short of funds 
to redeem iis bills in Boston. What- 
ever the reason it was necessary for 
Mr. Parker and Mr. Congdon to make 
a journey to Boston to borrow money 
of the Suffolk bank to make good. 
They went by horse and chaise and 
reached Bridgewater at dusk where 
they spent the night. They slept in 
the same room. Mr. Congdon after- 
ward told of his extreme irritation at 
the insensate conduct of Mr. Barker 
who promptly went to sleep and 
snored, while Mr. Congdon was so 
worried about the situation, wonder- 
ing whether the loan could be effected, 
that he tossed sleeplessly all night. It 



32 



in needless to say that Mr. Parker 
had vastly more at stake. Mr. Cong- 
don, indeed, was ever too busy a man 
working for others to acquire finan- 
cial means of his own. The next day 
the loan was easily arranged, Mr. Par- 
ker very likely giving his personal 
obligation, and the two men returned 
by horse and chaise to New Bedford; 
Mr. Congdon relieved at the happy es- 
cape from difficulty for the bank but 
still provoked with Mr. Parker for his 
apparent unconcern. 

Mr. Crapo as a boy was closely as- 
sociated with Mr. Congdon in the 
town ollice at the top of the old town 
hall, now the public library. Their 
friendship was unabated so long as 
Mr. Congdon lived. As a boy Mr. 
Crapo remembers often seeing Mr. 
Congdon coming up the hill of William 
street swinging the enormous metal 
key of the bank vault. His portrait in 
the public library portrays him well. I 
remember that when a boy I was sent 
on an errand to Mr. ConLrdon's house 
at the corner of County and Walnut 
streets not many months before his 
death. He was in his library, the south 
front room, the walls banked with 
books from floor to ceiling, a wood 
fire on the hearth, and the frail old 
gentleman clad in a brilliant Persian 
dressing gown, with carpet slippers, 
talked to me with the enthusiasm of 
youth about the poetry which he had 
been reading when I entered the room. 

Charles ft. Tucker, one of the en- 
terprising and successful whaling mer- 
chants, of his day, and a prominent 
member of the Society of Friends, 
succeeded Mr. Parker as the president 
of the Merchants bank and served as 
such for twenty-two years, being suc- 
ceeded by Jonathan Bourne, another 
most successful whaling merchant. 
Peleg C. Howland succeeded Mr. Cong- 
don as cashier in 1858 and served un- 
til his death in 1885, a service of 
twenty-seven years, being succeeded 
by Henry C. W. Mosher. During the 
first seventy-four years of the bank's 
history there were but three cashiers. 



THE FAIUHAVEN BANK. 

In March, 1831, the Fairhaven In- 
surance company and the Fairhaven 
bank were chartered by the state 
naming as corporators the same group 
of Fairhaven whaling merchants. 
Both the bank and the insurance 
company had capitals of $100,000; 
the bank capital was increased in 183G 
to $200,000. At the present time the 
capital is $120,000. When this bank 
and Marine Insurance company were 
organized, Fairhaven was almost as 
largely interested in whaling ventures 
at the village across the river and the 



same motives and considerations of 
business needs caused the merchants 
to establish these mutually serviceable 
agencies. 

The original meeting of the sub- 
scribers of the capital stock of the 
Bank was held at Wing's Hotel on 
April 19th, 1S31, the call being signed 
by Warren Delano. Ezekiel Sawin 
was Chairman of the meeting and 
Benjamin Rodman, who had interests 
in Fairhaven, was chosen Secretary. 
In May 1831 Noah Stoddard conveyed 
to the President, Directors and Com- 
pany of the Fairhaven Bank a lot of 
land on .the south side of Centre 
Street, west of his dwelling house, 
with a frontage of 30 feet and a depth 
of 54 feet. The dwelling house of 
John Delano was to the west. Here 
the charming building now occupied 
by the Savings Bank was built and 
the Fairhaven Bank did its business 
here on the first floor for forty-live 
years, the Marine Insurance Company, 
having its ollice in the second story. 
In 187G the National Bank of Fair- 
haven, the successor of the Fairhaven 
Bank in 18 04, purchased of the es- 
tate of Horatio W. Richmond, the 
land and buildings next east of the 
old bank house at the corner of Cen- 
tre and Main Streets, adding a strip 
on Main Street purchased from 
Abner C. Fish. Horatio W. Rich- 
mond a few years before had erected 
the building for use as his apothecary 
shop with his dwelling in the stories 
above. The bank fitted up the 
apothecary shop for a banking room 
and has occupied it as such for forty- 
one years to the present time. 

At the time when the whaling in- 
dustry ceased to be profitable many 
of the whaling merchants in Fair- 
haven were sorely smitten and the 
bank, of course, sustained severe 
losses yet it was able to adjust itself 
to the new conditions and has since 
gradually attained a position of pros- 
perous stability. It now has resources 
of about $500,000. 

Ezekiel Sawin was the first presi- 
dent of the Fairhaven bank serving 
thirty-one years. He was a whaling 
merchant and carried on a ship 
chandlery business on Water street. 
The building with its delightfully con- 
structed observation cupola now 
stands deserted. Back of the shop 
near the river was a saw-mill where 
ship timbers were sawn. The loca- 
tion was north of Union wharf. At 
Sawin's shop practically all the Fair- 
haven whale ships were supplied with 
fittings. Mr. Sawin was not a man 
of much wealth but he was distinctly 
a leader in the community, always 
ready to tackle any problem of pub- 
lic interest. He seemed to be the nat- 



-.; 



33 



ural head of anything that was doing 
in Fail-haven in his day. When the 
crash in the whaling business ca.me 
and Faii-haven was laid low Mr. Sawin 
Was seriously affected, but it did not 
kill his courage. His dwelling was the 
tine house which Weston Howland 
lived in for many years, still occupied 
by his family. 

Asa Swift, Jr., an original Director, 
was a whaling captain and afterwards 
a merchant. He was one of the lead- 
ing men of the town. He lived on 
Water Street. Lemuel Tripp, another 
original Director, was known as 
"Deacon Tripp." He was a man of 
high character and devoted to the 
Congregational Church. He had the 
respect of the whole community. He 
lived on William Street in the house 
where his grandson Lemuel T. Wrlcox 
lately died. 

Nathan Church, another original 
director, was the rich man of Fair- 
haven. His wealth measured by mod- 
ern standards would seem trivial, yet 
in the Fairhaven of his day he was 
considered a plutocrat. Mr. Church's 
counting house was on the east side 
of Water street, opposite Ezekiel 
Siwin's. Job C. Tripp, one of the 
board of directors of the Old Dart- 
mouth Histoiieal society, and the old- 
est man now living in Fairhaven, to 
whom I naturally went for gossip 
about the people connected with the 
Faii-haven banks, told me that as a 
young man he admired Nathan 
Church because notwithstanding his 
exalted position as a man of great 
wealth, standing on a sort of pin- 
nacle, he nevertheless was most ur- 
bane and stopped and greeted all his 
neighbors and fellow-citizens in the 
most friendly sort of way. "common 
sort of people just the same as the 
merchants." Mr. Tripp also said that 
he admired Mr. Church's rigid rule 
of paying all his bills weekly every 
Saturday afternoon, not only his bills 
at the retail shops, but all accounts 
connected with his extensive whaling 
enterprises which could possibly be 
adjusted weekly. Mr. Church built 
the attractive house which Walter P. 
Winsor of the First National bank, 
long lived in. F. R. Whitwell was 
also a whaling merchant. His count- 
ing, room was on Water street, south 
of Ezekiel Sawin's. He was some- 
what more successful in escaping 
calamity than some of his fellow 
merchants. He was deemed to be 
the second wealthiest man in Fair- 
haven after Nathan Church. He 
lived on the west side of North Main 
street. His son, who was also later 
a director of the Fairhaven bank, was 
also a leading merchant. Abner 
Pease, another original director, was 
a quiet, soft-mannered Quaker who 



lived in the north part of the town 
which has been since distinguished 
as the "Pease district." His attempt 
to dedicate his property to educa- 
tional purposes was somewhat divert- 
ed to the support of lawyers, owing 
to the complicated litigation which 
ensued. 

William P. Jenney, another origi- 
nal director of the Fairhaven bank, 
was a partner in the firm of Gibbs 
and Jenney. This is a concern with 
whose name 1 myself am familiar 
because all the voluminous papers 
connected with their business form a 
part of Mr. Crapo's documentary im- 
pedimenta of three-quarters of a cen- 
tury, viibbs and Jenney failed just 
before the war of 1860. The assignees 
appointed by the court were George 
E. Tripp, afterwards the president of 
the Fairhaven bank, Joshua Tobey of 
Wareham, and William W. Crapo. 
Mr. Tripp was an excellent man, 
somewhat pretentious but not am- 
bitious to undertake cares which could 
be avoided. Mi-. Tobey lived in Ware- 
ham where he had plenty of business 
to attend to. The result was that 
Mr. Crapo had his only experience as 
a whaling merchant in fitting ships, 
arranging voyages, selling oil, making 
settlements, etc. He had often acted 
as attorney for ship owners, but he 
had never before been confronted 
with the task of actually running i 
whaling business. It was only the 
remnants of a once prosperous busi- 
ness which Mr. Crapo could rescue. 
He employed Edmund Allen who had 
clerked it for Gibbs and Jenney as 
his assistant in the business. Mr. 
Allen attempted the whaling business 
on his cwn account and failed and 
Mr. Crapo was in turn his assignee. 
As an illustration of how hard hit 
Fairhaven was. in those days, the best 
bid which could be obtained for the 
elaborate gothic house and large, well 
conceived garden belonging to Mr. 
Jenney was $4000. This attractive 
estate was on the site of the present 
Unitarian church. Mr. Allen's hand- 
some house was sold for $f>000 and 
afterwards became the residence of 
Henry H. Rogers where Jater he built 
his big house which has since been 
dismembered. 

There were other early Directors of 
the Fairhaven Bank whose enterprise 
and faith in the risks of the whaling 
business were equal to those of the 
merchants on the west bank of the 
Acushnet River. One difference be- 
tween the two groups of men was 
religious. The west side merchants 
were Quakers and Pacifists. The 

east side merchants were Congrega- 
tionalists and fighters. Tt is perplex- 
ing to consider that peace without 
victory has been the lot of Fairhaven 



34 



in «a business way. Possibly victory 
without peace is the less desirable re- 
sult on the west bank of the river. 

The Fairhaven Dank is the only 
Bank of Old Dartmouth which has 
has had the thrilling experience of 
real bank burglars. Mr. William C. 
Stoddard tells the story. One Satur- 
day evening in April 18G8 he took the 
nine o'clock bus from New Dedford 
over the bridge intending to go to a 
club meeting. The club consisted 
only of Walter P. Winsor, Thomas B. 
Fuller and himself. Die was a clerk in 
the Fairhaven Dank, then located in 
the old building where now is the 
Savings Bank. lie had left his pipe 
in the bank and went there to get it 
before going to the club for the cus- 
tomary smoke talk. As he was about 
to unlock the front door, he heard 
noises in the dark Dank. He called 
James F. Tripp who was standing on 
the opposite side of Centre Street and 
together they investigated. They heard 
several persons leaving the bank by 
the back windows. It was too dark 
to see them. On entering the bank, 
they found the Directors' table cov- 
ered with burglars' tools, with a rig- 
ging to force the vault door. The 
burglars, however, had found an 
easier way of approach to the treasure 
and had made a hole in the plastering 
at the side of the vault, which would 
have enabled them easily and within 
a short time to penetrate the thin 
boiler plate of the vault where they 
would have found a plenteous supply 
of specie and money and negotiable 
bonds amounting to several hundreds 
of thousands of dollars in value, in- 
cluding the securities of the Savings 
Dank which were kept in the 
same vault. The forgotten pipe saved 
the bank. The precipitous departure 
of the burglars possibly saved Mr. 
Stoddard as by means of keys of the 
bank on his person they would have 
had a convenient access to the vault. 
Two of the men, who had been mak- 
ing a study of the situation for sev- 
eral weeks before pulling off the job 
were taken by the New Dedford po- 
lice. One of them was Jimmy Hope 
a notorious bank robber who was 
finally Caught and held in San Fran- 
cisco. They were quickly bailed out 
from detention in New Bedford, the 
bail being $15,000 in one case and 
$5,000 in the other. Thereupon they 
vanished. 



MECHANICS BANK. 

' The Mechanics bank and the Me- 
chanics Insurance comnanv were in- 
corporated under separate legislative 
acts in June, 1831. A majority of the 



incorporators of both companies were 
the same individuals and William R. 
Hodman was the president of each 
company. 

Isaac Howland signed the notice to 
the subscribers for the meeting of 
organization of the bank, held July 
10, 1831 at the Counting Room of 
"William R. Rodman. At this meeting 
Thomas A. Greene was chairman and 
James Thornton, secretary. At the 
first meeting of the Directors, July 
23, 1831, William R. Rodman was 
elected President. James D. Congdon 
the Cashier of the Merchants Dank 
soon afterwards made application for 
the position of Cashier and was 
elected. Subsequently he withdrew 
and his brother Joseph Congdon was 
elected in his stead. Mr. Congdon's 
salary was fixed at One Thousand 
Dollars and was not increased as to 
gross amount during his twenty-six 
years of service. In the beginning 
he was authorized to employ an 
assistant at his own expense. This 
assistant was Peleg Hall who served 
until 1835 when Isaac C. Taber was 
appointed his successor at a salary of 
Four Hundred Dollars a year. Mr. 
Taber was soon succeeded by William 
G. Collin who after nearly ten years of 
service in 1845 was given a maximum 
salary of Pour Hundred and Fifty 
Dollars a year. Joseph R. Shiverick 
acted as the Secretary of the Board 
of Directors without pay for twenty- 
eight years from the organization of 
the bank in 1831 until 1859. 

The bank was originally capitalized 
at $200,000. In 1S54 this was in- 
creased to $4(10,000 and in 1857 to 
$000,000 which is its present capital. 
In 1851 it renewed its State Charter 
but in 1804 the stockholders voted to 
surrender the State Charter and or- 
ganize a National Banking Associa- 
tion. The bank continued for about 
a year to conduct business under both 
charters as two separate institutions. 
The bank paid in dividends six per 
cent a year, for the most part during 
the first half century of its existence. 
The failure of Charles Russell and 
Sons in the early history of the bank 
was evidently a trying experience for 
all the banks in New Bedford and 
there is much about it in the early 
Directors' 1 teeords. 

"Memo. May 12, 1837. This bank, 
together with all the other banks in 
town and vicinity, suspended specie 
payments, or in other words, ceased to 
redeem their bills on demand." This 
entry is not to be construed literally. 
The bills were redeemed in perfectly 
good money, but not in coin. Occa- 
sionally the difficulty in obtaining 
specie was so great that almost all the 



banks of the country were forced now 
and then to suspend specie payments. 
At the time of the Civil war the sus- 
pension was practically universal. The 
lesumpiion of specie payments after 
the war wan looked forward to with 
much apprehension which was not 
justified by the event. The difficulty 
in obtaining specie in 1837 and 1838 
is evidenced by the entries in the rec- 
ords urging the cashier to purchase it 
on the "best terms available." On 
Nov. U r> , 1837, at a special meeting of 
the directors, Mr. C'oilgdon was au- 
thorized to represent the bank at "the 
convention of banks in New York," 
held, doubtlCHis, to consider the general 
situation. 

The formality of destroying worn 
bills as entered repeatedly on the rec^ 
oids, is somewhat interesting. The 
cashier delivered the bills to the presi- 
dent. A committee was appointed to 
receive the bills from the president 
and examine them and burn those 
which had become unserviceable. A 
careful report by the committee wae 
given to the president who in turn 
leported to the board of directors. On 
one occasion the strong draft in the 
stove carried the bills without igniting 
them, up the chimney and scattered 
them on the street, where some honest 
passer-by picked them up and return- 
ed them to the bank. More caution 
was thereafter used. 

A story which Mr. Crapo remem- 
bered hearing in his youth, and which 
he narrated to me, I found fully con- 
firmed by an entry by Mr. Shiverick in 
the Directors' Records. It seems a 
package containing money, doubtless 
the bills of outside banks in small de- 
nomination, was entrusted to a mes- 
senger, to take to Boston to deposit 
against the bills of the Mechanics 
Bank offered for redemption. It was 
in the winter and the roads were 
frozen hard and very rough. The 
messenger rode on the top of the 
four-horse coach and in the jolting 
and swaying of the vehicle, the pack- 
age dropped out of his pocket and 
when he reached Boston he was 
minus the money. When he returned 
to New Bedford and told his story 
there was consternation, and some 
suspicious persons were inclined to 
doubt the sincerity of the story. Not 
long after there came the January 
thaw. A teamster who was drawing- 
freight by wagon from New Bedford 
to Boston and walking by the side of 
his team somewhere up in Canton, let 
■ us say, noticed that something white 
was turned up by one of the wheels 
from the dee]) rut of mud and picking 
it up found it was a small fortune. 
The record reads as follows: 



January 183G. "On the 13th inst., 
the Cashier committed to the care of 
John Sargent (of this town) $2, QUO in. 
Bank Bills to be delivered to the Suf- 
folk Bank in Boston. They were not 
delivered in Boston as requested but 
lost on the road. On the l'Jth inst., 
said bundle containing Two Thousand 
Dollars was found and returned to 

this bank in safety by 

Godfrey, wagon driver on the line 
between N. Bedford and Boston. 
Whereupon, Voted: That the Cashier 
be authorized to pay to said 
Godfrey the sum of Fifty Dollars it 
being as a reward for finding ami re- 
turning to this bank said package 
containing $2,000. Voted: That the 
Cashier is authorized to pay to sd 
John Sargent the sum of ten dollars 
91 cents, it being the amount expended 
by him in searching for sd money." 

Before the Civil War all four of 
the old state banks of New Bedford 
made free use of an unrestricted light 
to issue circulation. At times the is- 
suing of currency in exchange for bills 
receivable was more profitable than 
loaning money or credit at interest 
The danger of over-circulation and the 
diiliculty in a time of stress of re- 
demption made this form of banking 
somewhat hazardous. The bank bills 
of the Massachusetts country banks 
and other New England banks were 
redeemable at the Suffolk bank in 
Boston. This was not a matter of 
legal requirement, simply an estab- 
lished custom. To the credit of the 
integrity, wisdom and conservatism of 
our community, it can be said that no • 
New Bedford bank bill was ever dis- 
honored. 

As an illustration of the ante-bel- 
lum method of issuing currency, I am 
tempted to give Mr. Crapo's recollec- 
tions of a visit which he made about 
1870 in Ilarrisburg Pennsylvania, for 
the purpose of seeing two old college 
friends Marry McCormick and Wayne 
McVeogh. His host was Mr. Don 
Cameron, a well known Senator, one 
of the type of political bosses for 
which Pennsylvania has always been 
distinguished. Don Cameron took Mr. 
Crapo on a "buggy ride" along the 
Susquehanna River, to the little near- 
by village of Middleton. Between the 
road and the river there stood, some- 
what isolated, an old deserted wooden 
building with the sign of "Middleton 
Bank." As they approached the build- 
ing, Don Cameron told Mr. Crapo 
that his father, Simon Cameron, Sec- 
retary of war under Lincoln, and he, 
had owned the bank. It had had a 
theoretical capital of $100,000. Sub- 
stantially the only business the Cam- 
erons did was to furnish their own 
bills as currency to the lumber oper- 



3G 



ators to pay off their help, to the 
Indian agents to distribute in the 
north-west, to the prospectors who 
were mining copper in Michigan and 
to the various active enterprises 
which were in need of some form of 
money to carry on their operations. 
Tiie person to whom the bank bills 
were given, gave in exchange his note 
to the Camerons at seven or eight per 
cent interest. The notes when paid, 
were paid in some form of credit. 
These Cameron bank bills were re- 
deemable at a well-known banking 
house in Philadelphia, and since they 
had been, and, in fact, always con- 
tinued to be redeemed on presenta- 
tion, the Cameron money always stood 
at par. In this way these gentlemen 
had for many years from one to two 
million dollars of their own fiat bills 
in circulation, on which, of course, 
they received an income of seven per- 
cent or so, a most profitable but a 
somewhat irresponsible method of 
banking. 

Here in New Bedford Edward L. 
Baker became interested in copper 
mines and railways in the Lake Su- 
perior region. It was necessary for 
him to transmit to that region bank 
bills which would pass at par. So 
he- established a credit at the Me- 
chanics bank by giving his note say for 
$10,000, at six pel- cent. Whenever he 
wanted a bundle of bills he would call 
for them and send them west to 
Michigan. Each bill delivered to him 
was marked with the letter "A" in 
red ink. When these bills after many 
months found their way back to the 
bank they were credited to his ac- 
count. 

Before the Civil War, the need of a 
more stable and reliable currency had 
been demonstrated. The New Bed- 
ford banks, carefully and conserva- 
tively managed, had been able to sup- 
ply a dependable currency and the 
profit was satisfactory. This was by 
no means the universal rule. As one 
of the results of the War, the National 
Banking System was inaugurated and 
one of its provisions was a special tax 
of 10 per cent on all currency of 
State Banks. This was a completely 
effective method, as it was designed 
to be, to force every State Bank of 
issue to submit to the National system. 
The four banks of New Bedford were 
wise enough to see the writing on the 
wall and abandon their state charters 
and seek federal charters. 

The Mechanics Bank received its 
Federal charter in June, 18 64, re- 
taining its State charter, however, un- 
til March, 1805. At that time it had 
outstanding a considerable amount of 
circulation which, under the terms 
of the National Banking Act, was re- 



deemable within two years. After 
two years the old bills were out- 
lawed. So far as I know, no New 
Bedford bank ever took advantage of 
this statute of limitation. Even with- 
in this century the bank with which 
I am connected has redeemed bills is- 
sued by it prior to 18G4. 

The business of issuing circulation 
had been profitable to the Mechanics 
bank and it wished to make the ex- 
periment of continuing that branch of 
its business under the new law. One 
necessary requirement for the right 
to issue circulation under the new 
regime was to acquire and deposit 
in the United States treasury, bonds 
of the United States to secure the 
same. The best bonds to buy were 
the "520's." The sooner they were 
picked up the better, since it was evi- 
dent that it was a rising market. 
These United Stales bonds bearing in- 
terest at six per cent were called th*» 
"f>20's" because although they were 
payable in twenty years the national 
government reserved the right to re- 
tire them at the end of five years. 
They took the place of the 7-30's, so- 
called because they bore interest of 
two cents per day for three hundred 
and sixty-five days in the year. So 
the Mechanics National bank picked 
up here and there as it could, in the 
Boston and New York market, $ t> U , - 
()('() of these "520" United States 
bonds, an amount which represented 
its entire capital stock; by the de- 
posit of which in the treasury it could 
obtain the right to issue $540,000 of 
national bank bills. The troublesome 
question was how to get these bonds 
from the old vault on Water street, 
to the Treasury building in Washing- 
ton. There were two or three so- 
called '"express" companies in New 
Bedford, brought into existence about 
18 5 by the building of a railroad be- 
tween i\ew Bedford and Taunton. 
Hatch, Gray <Nj Co., are, perhaps, the 
best remembered. The directors of 
the Mechanics bank, however, did not 
consider it safe to entrust so much 
value to agents who would be quite 
unable to make good any miscarriage. 
It was therefore decided that two of- 
ficers of the bank should take the 
bonds to Washington. The cashier, 
Eliphalct W. Hervey, being a salaried 
officer, was naturally selected as one. 
The other it was determined, should 
be a member of the board of directors. 
Thomas Mandell, the president, said 
he was much too old for the job. 
John K. Thornton simply said he 
wouldn't. Thomas Wilcox was too 
modest, wherefore by a natural 
process of elimination, the job was 
wished on William W. Crapo, the 
youngest member of the board, then 
about thirty-five years of age. No 



37 



extra, compensation was suggested. 
The bank did, however, pay the bare 
traveling expenses of its messengers. 
Mr. Hervey and Mr